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Kanhoji Angre's son Meharban Shrimant Raja Sawai-Sarkhel Manaji Raje Angre, Koli king of the Colaba State & The admiral of the Maratha Navy

The Koli are an ethnic Indian group in Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir states.[1][2][3]

Koli
कोली
Jawhar flag.svg
Chamber of Princes 17-03-1941.png
Maharaja Yashwantrao Martandrao Mukne (fourth in second row (left)) in the meeting of the Chamber of Princes 1941
Languages
Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Koli language and Kannada
Religion
Hindu and Christian
Related ethnic groups
Koli Christians, Maratha Koli, Mangela Kolis, Patel


HistoryEdit

 
Janjira fort built by Koli king Ram Patil

[4][5]

 
Sinhagad fort built by koli king Nag Naik who was defeated by Muhammad bin Tughluq[6][7]

AncientEdit

The Koliyas/Koli were Kshatriya of the Adicca (Iksvaku) clan of the Solar Dynasty from the Indian subcontinent, during the time of Gautama Buddha.[8][9]

The family members of the two royal families, that is the Koliyas and Sakyas married only among themselves. Both clans were very proud of the purity of their royal blood and had practised this tradition of inter-marriage since ancient times. For example, Suddhodana's paternal aunt was married to the Koliyan ruler Añjana. Their daughters, Mahamaya and Mahapajapati Gotami, were married to Śuddhodana, the chief of the Sakyans. Similarly, Yashodhara, daughter of Suppabuddha, who was Añjana’s son, was married to the Sakyan prince, Gautama Buddha. Thus, the two royal families were related by marriage bonds between maternal and paternal cousins since ancient times. In spite of such close blood-ties, there would be occasional rifts between the two royal families, which sometimes turned into open hostility.

EarlyEdit

Records of Koli people exist from at least the 15th century, when rulers in the present-day Gujarat region noted their chieftains as being marauding robbers and dacoits. Over a period of several centuries, some of them were able to establish petty chiefdoms throughout the region, mostly comprising just a single village. Although not Rajputs, this relatively small subset of the Kolis claimed the status of the higher-ranked Rajput community, adopting their customs and intermixing with less significant Rajput families through the practice of hypergamous marriage,[10][11] which was commonly used to enhance or secure social status.[12] There were significant differences in status throughout the Koli community, however, and little cohesion either geographically or in terms of communal norms, such as the establishment of endogamous marriage groups.[13]

Through the colonial British Raj period and into the 20th century, some Kolis remained significant landholders and tenants,[11] although most had never been more than minor landowners and labourers.[13] By this time, however, most Kolis had lost their once-equal standing with the Patidar[a] community due to the land reforms of the Raj period.[14]

Twentieth centuryEdit

During the later period of the Raj, the Gujarati Kolis became involved in the process of what has subsequently been termed sanskritisation. At that time, in the 1930s, they represented around 20 percent of the region's population and members of the local Rajput community were seeking to extend their own influence by co-opting other significant groups as claimants to the ritual title of Kshatriya. The Rajputs were politically, economically and socially marginalised because their own numbers — around 4 - 5 per cent of the population — were inferior to the dominant Patidars, with whom the Kolis were also disenchanted. The Kolis were among those whom the Rajputs targeted because, although classified as a criminal tribe by the British administration, they were among the many communities of that period who had made genealogical claims of descent from the Kshatriya. The Rajput leaders preferred to view the Kolis as being Kshatriya by dint of military ethos rather than origin but, in whatever terminology, it was a marriage of political expedience.[11]

In 1947, around the time that India gained independence, the Kutch, Kathiawar, Gujarat Kshatriya Sabha (KKGKS) caste association emerged as an umbrella organisation to continue the work begun during the Raj. Christophe Jaffrelot, a French political scientist, says that this body, which claimed to represent the Rajputs and Kolis, "... is a good example of the way castes, with very different ritual status, join hands to defend their common interests. ... The use of the word Kshatriya was largely tactical and the original caste identity was seriously diluted."[11]

The relevance of the Kshatriya label in terms of ritual was diminished by the practical actions of the KKGKS which, among other things, saw demands for the constituent communities to be classified as Backward Classes in the Indian scheme for positive discrimination. Kshatriyas would not usually wish to be associated with such a category and indeed it runs counter to the theory of Sanskritisation, but in this instance, it suited the socio-economic and political desires. By the 1950s, the KKGKS had established schools, loan systems and other mechanisms of communal self-help and it was demanding reforms to laws relating to land. It was also seeking alliances with political parties at the state level; initially, with the Indian National Congress and then, by the early 1960s, with the Swatantra Party. By 1967, the KKGKS was once again working with Congress because, despite being a haven for Patidars, the party leadership needed the votes of the KKGKS membership. The Kolis gained more from the actions of the KKGKS in these two decades than did the Rajputs, and Jaffrelot believes that it was around this time that a Koli intelligentsia emerged.[11] Ghanshyam Shah, a professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, describes the organisation today as covering a broad group of communities, from disadvantaged Rajputs of high prestige to the semi-tribal Bhils, with the Kolis in the middle. He notes that its composition reflects "a common economic interest and a growing secular identity born partly out of folklore but more out of common resentment against the well-to-do castes".[15]

The Kolis of Gujarat remained educationally and occupationally disadvantaged compared to communities such as the Brahmins and Patidars.[16] Their many Jātis include the Bareeya, Khant and Thakor, and they also use Koli as a suffix, giving rise to groups such as the Gulam Koli and Matia Koli. Some do not refer to themselves as Koli at all.[17]

Sub-CastesEdit

  1. Thakor is subcaste of Koli community living in Surashtra, Gujarat, India.[18][19][20] As with the other Koli communities of Gujarat, they are mostly cultivators and considered to be among the lower of the Other Backwards Classes.[20]
  2. Khant are a Subcaste of Koli community found in the state of Gujarat in India.[21][22][23] The Khant subcaste of kolis was founded by koli chief Sonang Mer who came from Sindh to Gujarat. He have twelve sons and one of the them was dhan mer who founded the Dhandhuka and Dhandhalpur. Other sons named patal khant conquered Petlad and mer rana conquered mahiyar in junagadh. The most famous koli chief was jesa khant who defeated the Rao Khengarji I of Junagadh in the help to Muhammad bin Tughluq. Khant kolis is a branch of Mer Kolis.[24][25][26] The rebellion was raised by Mansa Khant against first Nawab of Junagadh State because nawab was Viceroy of Gujarat Sultanate under Mughals. Khant kolis captured the Uparkot Fort and plundered the surrounding villages. Nawab was unable to prevent kolis so he sought for help from a arab jamadar sheikh abdullah zubaidi and Thakur of Gondal State. The combined forces attacked at fort. Troops captured the fort and put down the rebellion.[27][28] The Princely state of Ambliara was ruled by Hindus khant kolis of Chauhan dynasty. It was a petty and fourth class state. The rulers was famous for resistance against troops of Gaekwad Baroda State.[29][30] The Khant Kolis saved the Sant State from Rajputs of Banswara State. In 1753, Ratanasingh of sant state was died and Sisodia rajput ruler of Banswara attacked at sant. He killed three princes but fourth prince named Badansingh was escaped by Khant Kolis. The Banswara troops were established in Sant and annexed in Banswara. The prince Badansingh fed by Khant Kolis and when he came to be mature, Kolis attacked at Banswara troops and drove them out of Sant. After that Kolis established Badansingh as Rana at throne of sant.[31][32] The Khants have clans called 56 ataks, like the Dabhi, Baria, Parmar, Kandoliya, Zala, Gohil, Bheda, Sarvaiya, Deavla, Patriya, Bataviya, etc. There claim to Kshatriya status is generally acknowledged, and they are referred to as pallavi darbars. The khant are agriculturalist, but being small and marginal farmers, many are involved with agriculture wage labour.[33]
  3. Baria or Baraiya is a subcaste of Kshatriya Koli community of Gujarat in India. They are also known as Koli Patel. They were Daring pirates of Talaja.[34][35][36] Baria kolis claim to be koli Thakor.[18] They get their name from the town of Devgadh Baria, which was a stronghold of koli tribe.[37] The Kolis of Gujarat have two sub-divisions, the Patanwadias and Talpadas. Among the Talpadas, there are several sub-divisions, the main ones being the Baria, Khant, Pateliya, Kotwal and Pagi. As Barias have the high status, the entire Talpada Koli community have adopted the name Baria. They speak Gujarati.[38] The Baria kolis consist of a number of clans, the main ones being the Baria koli proper, the Patel, Pagi, Damor, Khant, Parmar, Pandor, Sangada, Chauhan, Jhala, Makwana and Maliwad. All these clans intermarry, although the community as a whole is endogamous.[39] The Baria kolis are Hindus, and their tribal deities are Sikodar Mata, and Khodiyar.[citation needed] Their customs are similar to other Gujarati communities of similar status such as the Khant kolis.[citation needed] The traditional occupation of the Baria kolis is agriculture, and they include both landowners and sharecroppers.[citation needed]
  4. Talpada or Talapada is a sub-caste of the Koli community of Gujarat state of India. They are grouped within the "Other Backward Class" (OBC) category by the Gujarat Government.[40] They are agriculturists.[41] Talpadas Kolis also known as Baria Kolis.[42] They also lives in the New Zealand and Fiji.[43]
  5. Patanwadia or Patanwaria are a subgroup of the Kshatriya Koli community found in the state of Gujarat in India. They are also known as Thakore, Dharala and Baria.[44][45] They get their name from the city of Patan, in Mehsana District. Patan was the historic capital of Gujarat. The Patanwadia are found mainly in Kheda, Vadodara, Mehsana, Bharuch and Surat districts of Gujarat. They speak Gujarati and have backward caste status.[46] The Patanwadia have a number of clans which are not strictly exogamous in nature. Their main clans are the Solanki, Jhala, Chavda, Gohil, Chauhan, Vaghela and Rathod, all of whom are also pre-existing Rajput clans. Recently (British Raj) due to the process of sanskritzation, they consider themselves to be of Kshatriya status. The Patanwadia are traditionally agriculturist and also act as village guards. They are mainly small and medium-sized farmers, with many also keep buffaloes. As a result of urbanization, many are involved in the cutting and polishing of diamonds, especially those who have settled in the city of Surat. They are Hindu by religion.[47]
  6. Mahawar / Mahour, Mahaur are sub-caste of the Koli community in Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. They have inter-marry with Shakya kolis and assume to be Kshatriya.[48] In much of North India (including Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh), it is regarded as a family name. However, the name does not necessarily denote a unique paternal lineage.[49]
  7. Ghadasi (also spelled Ghadsi, Gadashi and Gadhshi) is a subgroup of the Koli tribe of Maharashtra, India lives in hilly areas. They traditionally belong to the Hunting and Agriculture. Bapujiboa is Their main tribal deity. They always involve in conflict with Marathas.[50][51][52] They mostly found in the Maharshtra and some in Gujarat and Karnataka.[53]
     
    Chunvalia Koli Thakor board in Bapu Velnath Thakor's temple
  8. Chuvalia (also spelled Chunvalia, Chunwalia, Chunbalia, Chuwalia, Chubalia, Chunvaria, Chunwaria) is a subcaste of the Hindu Koli Caste of Gujarat, India. Their name is drived from Chunval, consisting chunvalis (forty four) villages in north-east of the Gujarat. They claim to be descendants of the Jhala tribe. They drived their name from the Chunval of the Gujarat. They are distributed mainly in the Chotila, Sayla and Halvad Taluqas of Surendranagar district, Junagadh district and all over the Saurashtra (region) of the Gujarat. They have passed three stages, firstly they were pagi (detective), second they were considered criminal community because they were turned into dacoity and thievery. They speak Gujarati language.[54][55] During the Gujarat Sultanate's time, they were wilder and ravaged the villages of Dholka, Viramgam and Kadi but they were defeated by twenty sixth Mughal Empire Viceroy Saisat Khan.[56]
  9. Mahadeo Koli or Mahadev Koli also known as Dongar Koli and Raj Koli is a Sub-caste of the Kolis of the Maharashtra, India. They are categoriesed as Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra whose higher reputation accepted by other Tribes.[57] They drived their name from the god Mahadev.[58] Their main occupation is agriculture, cattle herding and trading in milk and milk products.[59][60] According to Michael Kennedy, the Mahaedo Kolis were the only criminal caste in Sahyadri rang. The rulers of the Jawhar State belong to this tribe of kolis.[61] According to G. S. Ghurye, The Mahadeo Kolis served in the British Indian Army during the coflicts between British and the Maratha Empire in Konkan. In 1830, They revolted against British Raj in the India and also fought against Peshwa rulers. They were notified as Criminal Tribe by Criminal Tribes Act 1940.[62] In 1761, The Mahadeo Kolis of Bhangre, Khade and Pattikar Clans captured the Trimbak Fort from the Nizam of Hyderabad and gave it to peshwa Madhavrao and were awarded with the lots of money and grant of villages.[63] The Mahadeo Kolis served in the British Army. The British Colonel Nuttal raised a Koli Corps to subdue the rebellions of Bhils. The Javji Bamble and the brother of Raghoji Bhangre were appointed as heads of Koli Corps containing six hundred koli soldiers. They proved themselves and crushed the rebellions. The Koli Corps was disbanded in 1861.[63] The Mahadeo Kolis revolted against Mughals under their leader 'Khemi Sarnaik' in 1657. Kolis were in alliance with Chhatrapati Shivaji of Maratha Empire and tried to shake the Muslim rule. The Mughal Army were sent and overpowered the Mahadeo Kolis. The Khemi Sarnaik, his relatives and whole linage was killed by mughal ruler Aurangzeb. Kolis were taken to Junnar and their head cutoff and piled in a pyramid called Kala Chabutra.In 1741-42, There was a similar occurrence at the fort of Coorg. Coorg fort was under control of the Mahadeo Kolis but it was captured by Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao in 1742. Kolis fought against peshwa bravely and a large number of Mahadeo Kolis were killed by the Maratha Army. The second occurrence was in Vadali Village. In 1750-51, The Peshwa captured the fourteen forts from Mahadeo Kolis in Surgana prant of the Nashik district. Kolis rebelled frequently and thousand of kolis were exhausted by peshwa. Mr. G S Ghurey States that, from 1760 to 1799 most of the forts were captured by peshwa continuesly and there were criminal activities and rebellions by Mahadeo Kolis.[63] According to British Captain Mackintosh, here are some of clans;[63] Gaekwad, Mukne, Bhonsle, Patil, Chavan, Dalvi, Gavli, Jagtap, Kadam, Waghmare, Namdev, Pawar, Sagar, Suryavanshi, Shinde, Hazare, Jadhav, Chaudhary, Joshi, Mali, Pattikar, Vanakpal, Bhangre, Bokad, Sable, Kengle, Sonwane, Bomble, More, Kokate, Valkoli, Bide, Wagh, Thokal, Tambekar, Shelke, Mavale, Kambale, Karavande, Kawale, Kedari, Bhandkule, Babale, Mondhe, Korade, Kachare, Malekar, Pedekar, Muthe, Moje, Dharade, Bharmal, Bhande, Kunde, Lohokare, Talpade, Borhade, Rongate, Dhadawad, Gondke, Khade, Pichad, Aghashi, Bhagivant (Fortunate), Budivant (Intelligent), Dagai, Kedar, Kharad, Khirsagar, Polewas, Shaikhacha, Shesh, Shiva, Sirkhi, Uterecha.
  10. The Dhor Koli, also known as Tokre Koli and Kolgha is a subcaste of Koli community of Maharashtra and Karanataka in India. The Maharashtriya Jnanakosha described them as Dacoit. They are listed as Schedule Tribe. The dhor kolis are divided into a number of clans such as Ambekar, Arde, Bamhqne, Bhoya, Chaudhary, Gaekwad, Gavit, Pawar, Jadav, Polkar, Talwar.[64][65][66][67][68]

KingdomsEdit

 
Statue of Maharaja Yashwantrao Martandrao Mukne of Jawhar State

Koli kingdoms included

Precisely in parts of present Gujarat, several Koli non-salute princely states (generally Hindu) were maintained, enjoying indirect rule under the British raj, notably under these colonial Agencies of British India :

Uprisings and RevoltsEdit

 
Virangna Jhalkari Bai Koli's Statue, Agra, Uttar Pradesh

The Kolis of the Maharashtra and the Gujarat uprised severally during British rule in the India and kingdoms.[96] here are some of rebellions including;

  • Against Aurangzeb, according to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, in 1650, the kolis of Poona rose in a rebellion against Mughal Sultan Aurangzeb under their chief Kheni Naik or Sarnaik. But the crush of rebellion was very dreedful. Sultan killed the sarnaik with his family, siblings and far relatives. Hundreds of koli rebels were taken to Junnar and killed at a place called 'Koli Chabutra'.[97] After this rebellion, kolis were treated with kindness by Sultan.[98]
  • Against Maratha Empire, according to John Carnac Morris, in 1776, the Kolis of the Silkunda clan and Kokate clan rose against Maratha Deshmukh. They plundered the villages and towns. They were declared as Criminal Tribe and not to be pardoned by the minister of Maratha Empire Nana Fadnavis.[99][100] according to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, they were Mahadeo Koli.[101][102]
  • Against Jahangir, in 1613, the Kolis of the Gujarat raised against Mughal ruler Jahangir. Sultan sent his commander Nurulla Khan who killed the one hundred sixty nine koli chiefs in the battle.[103][104]
  • Against British Rule 1826-1830, the Koli Bhagat Govindas Ramdas led the kolis for four years and captured the Thasra and Kheda districts of the British Territory.[105][106]
  • In Junagadh State, Koli revolt in junagadh raised by Mansa Khant during time of Nawab Sher Khan the first ruler of junagadh. He was against Mughal Rule, Made Uparkot Fort his centre. He made a series of raids in surrounding villages and cities. Nawab was unsuccessful to control the rebellion. Mansa khant occupied the uparkot for thirteen months and make numerous raids mostly in countryside. Nawab started compaign against khant. Nawab was assisted by king of Gondal State thakur haloji Jadeja and arab jamadar sheikh abdullah zubeidi. The combined forces defeated the khant and captured uparkot and burnt down the rebellion.[107][108]

ClansEdit

Here are some of the clans adopted by kolis. according to Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency Captain Macintosh Mentioned the Mahadev Kolis of maharashtra belong to twenty four clan some of them are

 
36 royal clans by James Tod
  • Angre also spelled as Angrey, Angray, and Angria is a clan of the Koli community of Maharashtra. Angre kolis ruled over Colaba State and served in Maratha Empire.[109]
  • Vanakpal or Wanakpal, Banakpal is a Clan of the Koli Caste of Maharashtra. Vanakpal clan mostly found in Mahadev Kolis.[118][119] Vanakpal clan have seventeen sub-clans. Kolis of Vanakpal clan held good possitions in Bahmani Sultanate and Ahmednagar Sultanate among the nobles as Sardars and Mansabdars of kingdom. For example Sabaji Koli was commander of Ahmednagar Sultanate's army. The social and religious head of Vanakpal kolis was known as Sarnaik who was president of caste council which settled civil and religious disputes.[120]
  • Babaria (alternate spellings of which include Babria, Babariya, Bawaria) are a clan of Kolis found mainly in the Gujarat. The Babariawad of the Gujarat named after the Babaria Kolis. They were living by robberies was latter involved in agriculture. The name of Dhang was given to the Babaria koli robbers and murderers of Kathiawar.[121][122][123][124]
  • Makwana is a clan of the Kshatriya Koli community.[125] According to their traditions, their ancestor Bapuji, the son of Harpal Makwana, converted to Islam but later some converted to Hindu again. The Makwana Kolis ruled several Princely states such as[126] Ramas, Prempur, Kadoli, Khervada, Derol, Tajpuri, Vakhtapur, Hapa, Dedhrota, Likhi, Gabat, Maguna, Tejpura, Memadpur, Deloli, Kasalpura, Virsoda, Palej, Rampura, Ijpura, Ranipura. The Makwana Kolis are now mainly small peasant proprietors found in north Gujarat.[127][128][129][130][131][132]

DancesEdit

The Koli community of the Maharashtra and the Gujarat have their traditional dances. Here are some of dances including;

 
The US President, Mr. Barack Obama enjoying with the school children, at a folk dance on Koli geet, at the celebration of Diwali Festival in Mumbai on November 07, 2010
 
Pandit Jawhar Lal Nehru Doing Koli Dance with Koli Women 1961
 
'Koli dance' performance at 'Golden jubilee celebrations' of 'Sacred Heart Parish' in worli.(Sunday 16-1-2011)
  • Koli Dance, The Koli Dance of Maharashtra is one of the traditional folk dances of the India. The dance is performed by both men and women in two groups.[140] The dancers move in unison, portraying the movement of rowing a boat.[141] in November 2010, United States's president Barack Obama enjoyed the Koli Dance in Mumbai.[142][143] at 20 January 1961, The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed and celebrated the koli dance in Republic Day parade with kolis of Bandra.[144]
  • Tippani Dance, The Tippani dance is a traditionally folk dance of the Gujarat founded by koli women of Chorwad in Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Gujaratis perform this dance form as their wedding dance.[145][146][147]
  • Bohada Dance, the Bohada dance is a tribal dance of the Maharashtra. It is perforned by the Malhar Kolis and Mahadeo Kolis. In this dance, kolis use the Wooden Masks so it called as 'Dance of Masks'.[148][149]

ClassificationEdit

As of 2012, various communities bearing the Koli name appear in the central lists of Other Backward Classes maintained by the National Commission for Backward Classes, although at least one is also in part recognised as a Scheduled Tribe. These classifications have been in force since at least 1993.[150]

The Government of India classified the Koli community as Scheduled Caste in the 2001 census for the states of Delhi,[151] Madhya Pradesh[152] and Rajasthan.[153]

Koli ChristianEdit

While the Koli are mostly Hindu, in Mumbai, Converted Native Christians include autochthonous Koli East Indian Catholics, who were converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century.[citation needed]

Notable peopleEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ The Patidars were formerly known as Kanbi, but by 1931 had gained official recognition as Patidar.[14]

References

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  3. ^ Nan, Huaijin (1 January 1997). Basic Buddhism: Exploring Buddhism and Zen. Weiser Books. ISBN 9781578630202.
  4. ^ Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 9788125004851.
  5. ^ Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 9783865372062.
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  10. ^ Shah 2012, p. 169
  11. ^ a b c d e Jaffrelot 2003, pp. 180-182
  12. ^ Fuller 1975, pp. 293-295
  13. ^ a b Shah 2012, p. 170
  14. ^ a b Basu 2009, pp. 51-55
  15. ^ Shah 2004, p. 178
  16. ^ Shah 2004, p. 302
  17. ^ Shah 2004, p. 221
  18. ^ a b Lobo, Lancy (1995). The Thakors of north Gujarat: a caste in the village and the region. Hindustan Pub. Corp. ISBN 9788170750352.
  19. ^ Goody, Jack (8 February 1990). The Oriental, the Ancient and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521367615.
  20. ^ a b Shah, Ghanshyam (2014). "Grassroots Mobilization in Indian Politics". In Kohli, Atul (ed.). India's Democracy: An Analysis of Changing State-Society Relations. Princeton University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-1-40085-951-1.
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  22. ^ Various Census of India. 1867.
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  34. ^ State), Bombay (India : (1884). Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency ... Government Central Press.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
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Bibliography

Further readingEdit

  • Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521798426.
  • James, V. (1977). "Marriage Customs of Christian Son Kolis". Asian Folklore Studies. 36 (2): 131–148. doi:10.2307/1177821. JSTOR 1177821.

External linksEdit