Jared Schutz Polis (/ˈplɪs/; born May 12, 1975) is an American politician, entrepreneur, and businessman, serving as the 43rd governor of Colorado since January 2019. He served one term on the Colorado State Board of Education from 2001 to 2007, and five terms as the United States Representative from Colorado's 2nd congressional district from 2009 to 2019. He was the only Democratic member of the libertarian conservative Liberty Caucus, and was the third-wealthiest member of the United States Congress, with an estimated net worth of $122.6 million.[2][3] He was elected governor of Colorado in 2018, defeating Republican nominee Walker Stapleton.

Jared Polis
Jared Polis official photo.jpg
43rd Governor of Colorado
Assumed office
January 8, 2019
LieutenantDianne Primavera
Preceded byJohn Hickenlooper
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Colorado's 2nd district
In office
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2019
Preceded byMark Udall
Succeeded byJoe Neguse
Member of the
Colorado State Board of Education
from the at-large district
In office
January 3, 2001 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byBen Alexander
Succeeded bySeat abolished
Personal details
Jared Schutz

(1975-05-12) May 12, 1975 (age 46)[1]
Boulder, Colorado, U.S.[1]
Political partyDemocratic
(m. 2021)
EducationPrinceton University (AB)
WebsiteGovernment website

As an openly gay man, Polis has made history several times through his electoral success. In 2008, he became the first same-sex parent elected to the United States Congress. In 2018, he became the first openly gay person and second openly LGBT person (after Kate Brown of Oregon) elected governor of a U.S. state.[4][5] He is also the first Jewish governor of Colorado.[6] In 2020, he became the first U.S. governor to be engaged to a same-sex partner; they wed in 2021.[7][8]

Early life and educationEdit

Polis is the son of Stephen Schutz and Susan Polis Schutz, founders of greeting card and book publisher Blue Mountain Arts.[9] He was born at Boulder Community Hospital in Boulder, Colorado in 1975. He lived in San Diego, California as a high school student, graduating from La Jolla Country Day School in three years with multiple honors. He graduated from Princeton University with a B.A. in politics in 1996, writing a 157-page senior thesis, "Paradigm Shift: Politics in the Information Age", under the supervision of Carol M. Swain.[10] While at Princeton, Polis served as communications director of the undergraduate student government and was involved in other campus organizations, such as Model Congress and the Princeton Juggling Club.[11] In 2000, he legally changed his surname to his mother's to raise awareness for a fundraiser and because he simply "liked it better".[12]

Business careerEdit

Polis co-founded American Information Systems (AIS), Inc. while still in college. AIS was an internet access provider and was sold in 1998. In 1996, he co-founded[12] a free electronic greeting card website, bluemountain.com, which was sold to Excite@Home in 1999 for $430 million in stock and $350 million in cash.[13][14]

In February 1998, Polis founded ProFlowers, an online florist, in La Jolla, California. In December of that year, economist Arthur Laffer began advising Polis and joined ProFlowers as a Director.[15] ProFlowers, later renamed Provide Commerce, Inc., went public on NASDAQ as PRVD on December 17, 2003. In 2005, Provide Commerce was acquired by media conglomerate Liberty Media Corporation for $477 million.[16]

Polis and other investors founded TechStars in Boulder, Colorado in 2006.[17][better source needed]

During his tenure in Congress, Polis was among its wealthiest members; his net worth was estimated at over $300 million.[18]

Philanthropic careerEdit

Polis is the founder of the Jared Polis Foundation. The foundation issues annual Teacher Recognition Awards and donates computers to schools and nonprofit organizations. Polis has also founded one charter school (the New America School) and co-founded another (the Academy of Urban Learning).[1]

Polis has received the Boulder Daily Camera's 2007 Pacesetter Award in Education[19] and the Kauffman Foundation Community Award.[20]

Early political careerEdit

Polis has been called one of the "Gang of Four"—four wealthy Coloradans who donate to liberal causes. The other members are Pat Stryker, Rutt Bridges, and Tim Gill.[21]

State Board of EducationEdit

Polis in 2002

In 2000, Polis was elected at-large as a member of the Colorado State Board of Education and served a single six-year term until January 2007, when the district was eliminated.[22] His election was one of the closest in Colorado history, as he defeated incumbent Ben Alexander by 90 votes out of 1.6 million cast.[23] During his term Polis served as both chairman and vice chairman of the board.[24][25][26]

Ballot measuresEdit

In 2006, Polis served as co-chair of Coloradans for Clean Government, a committee that supported Amendment 41, a citizen-initiated ballot measure to ban gifts by registered lobbyists to government officials, establish a $50 annual restriction on gift-giving from non-lobbyists, establish a two-year cooling-off period before former state legislators and statewide elected officials can begin lobbying, and create an independent ethics commission. In November 2006, 62.3% of Colorado voters approved the "Ethics in Government" constitutional amendment.[27]

In 2007, Polis co-chaired the "Building for Our Future" campaign that supported ballot question 3A in the Boulder Valley School District to issue $296.8 million in bonds for the improvement and modernization of aging school facilities—the largest capital construction bond issue in the district's history and the largest school bond proposal in Colorado that year. In November 2006, 58% of Boulder Valley School District voters approved the measure.[28]

In 2014, Polis planned to champion two ballot measures to limit fracking in Colorado by banning drilling near schools and homes and empowering communities to pass their own rules. The measures were dropped after he reached a deal with Governor John Hickenlooper to create a task force. The absence of the initiatives was seen as a relief to vulnerable Democrats who would have had to take controversial stances on the issue.[29]

Political careerEdit


Polis campaigning in 2008

In 2008, Polis won a heavily contested Democratic primary election for Colorado's 2nd congressional district, and went on to win the general election on November 4 with 62% of the vote. He succeeded Mark Udall, who was elected to the United States Senate that year.[30] Polis was reelected to the House in 2010 with 57% of the vote,[31][32] in 2012 with 55% of the vote,[33] in 2014 with 57% of the vote,[34] and in 2016 with 56.9% of the vote.[35]

In 2018, Polis announced his candidacy for governor of Colorado.[36] He was elected governor with 53.4% of the vote, defeating Republican nominee Walker Stapleton by approximately 11% and becoming the first openly gay person elected governor of any state;[37][38] the first openly gay person to serve as a state governor was Jim McGreevey, the 52nd governor of New Jersey, who disclosed his sexual orientation during his gubernatorial tenure.[39]

House of RepresentativesEdit


Polis during the 112th Congress

Polis was the Red to Blue program chair for the DCCC during the 2012 elections, helping recruit and raise money for Democratic candidates in competitive congressional districts.[40] Following the elections, he considered running for Vice-Chair of the House Democratic Caucus after then-chairman Xavier Becerra was term-limited.[41] The position ended up going to New York Congressman Joe Crowley.[42]

Committee assignmentsEdit

In the 114th Congress Polis served on the following committees:[43]

Caucus membershipsEdit

Legislation sponsoredEdit

The following is an incomplete list of legislation Polis introduced:

Governor of ColoradoEdit

Polis with President Donald Trump and Doug Burgum in May 2020


Polis was elected governor on November 6, 2018. Boldly Forward, a 501(c)4 nonprofit, was formed as the transition team, working with Keystone Center as facilitator. Polis was sworn in on January 8, 2019.[55] An effort to recall Polis and other Democratic elected officials failed to submit any signatures; Polis said of the effort, “Recalls should not be used for partisan gamesmanship”.[56]

Political positionsEdit


In 2011 Polis, along with Senator Joe Lieberman (I-CT), introduced the 2011 Race to the Top Act (H.R. 1532). The legislation authorized old provisions and some new ones including: new standards to encourage and reward states based on their implementation of comprehensive educational reforms that innovate through 4-year competitive grants that allow more funding to expand charter schools and compensate teachers in part based on their students' performance.[57][58][59]

Polis has sponsored other education bills and legislation regarding students, including;

  • The SLICE (School Lunch Improvements for Children's Education) Act, in response to Congress redefining pizza as a vegetable.[60] The SLICE Act would require healthier meals for students, which would, for example, allow the USDA to accurately count 1/8 of a cup of tomato paste as 1/8 of a cup, instead of half of a cup, which is what qualifies pizza as a vegetable; allow the USDA to implement science-based sodium reduction targets; and, allow the USDA to set a whole grain requirement.[61] The SLICE Act is opposed by The American Frozen Food Institute, which claims that it "all but removes foods made with tomato paste from school cafeterias, in spite of the significant nutritional value offered by tomato paste."[62] Polis has said, "Pizza has a place in school meals, but equating it with broccoli, carrots and celery seriously undermines this nation's efforts to support children's health." He added that agribusiness should never dictate the quality of school meals.[63]
  • The Defending Special Education Students and Families Act, which fully funds the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention for special education.[64] In the original bill, IDEA promised to pay 40% of the excess cost of educating students with disabilities, but that funding provision hasn't been fulfilled and only covers 16% of special-education funding and has never funded more than 30%.[65] Polis's bill suggests cutting excess and wasteful Pentagon spending, by cutting $18.8 billion in weapons systems over five years.[66]

Polis has also introduced the Computer Science Education Act, which helps provide job training for computing jobs, and the ACE Act, which would provide funding to improve outcomes for students in persistently low-performing schools, and to authorize school "turnaround grants."[67][68]

In 2015, during a back-and-forth exchange before the House Education and Workforce Committee's Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training, Polis argued for schools to be able to use lower standards of evidence when deciding to expel students accused of sexual assault by stating, "If there are 10 people who have been accused, and under a reasonable likelihood standard maybe one or two did it, it seems better to get rid of all 10 people."[69] Shortly after the comments, Polis said that he misspoke during the subcommittee hearing and that he committed a major gaffe during the discussion.[70]

Foreign policyEdit


Polis opposed the Iraq War saying that, "The invasion of Iraq was a colossal mistake and I opposed the war from the very beginning. Bush's blunders, and the Democrats who gave him cover along the way, have left us without easy solutions for improving the situation."[71] During a congressional trip to Iraq, Polis praised the "Sons of Iraq" policy, which funds former military and police officials under Saddam Hussein to lay down their arms against coalition forces, patrol neighborhoods, and fight against other Sunni insurgents. In an op-ed, he wrote, "If we had started this policy sooner after the invasion, we no doubt could have prevented loss of life. As can be expected, some of them turn out to be corrupt and attack us anyway, but most seem to be helping to keep the order. The challenge is to bring them into the fold of the new Iraqi government and a proper chain of command structure."[72]

In the op-ed, Polis also said, "The hippie in me bemoans the fact that we defeated the Iraqi military only to help them build an even stronger one that might one day be used against children and innocents, as often is the case. When will all the killing end? Where have all the flowers gone? And they shall beat their swords into plowshares and they shall study war no more."[73]


Polis supports removing all troops from Afghanistan.[74] In 2010, Polis supported a failed resolution to withdraw all troops from Afghanistan within 30 days, saying that "I don't believe that this ongoing occupation is in our national interest," and that, "I supported the initial action to oust the Taliban in Afghanistan, and that succeeded. The challenge we face now is a stateless menace."[75]

Polis also took a Congressional Delegation trip to Afghanistan, meeting with the former Afghan Interior Minister Mohammad Hanif Atmar, US military officials and diplomats. During his meeting with Atmar, Polis focused on the education gap between Afghanistan and Western nations, the low literacy rate for Afghan police and military officials, and combating political corruption.[76] Polis has criticized expanding US troops in Afghanistan, and supports putting resources in intelligence and special operations. In a report after visiting Afghanistan, he said, "We need all the high-level diplomatic support we can to master the diplomatic complexities of fighting against an enemy holed up in two countries, as well as navigating the complex regional politics", adding that, "Our best estimates show there to be no more than 5,000 al-Qaeda fighters in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They operate out of areas in southern and eastern Afghanistan and on the Pakistan/Afghanistan border. Do we really need to occupy an entire country of around 30 million people to root out 5,000 enemies? I harbor a deep degree of ambivalence about the military surge. The diplomatic surge is good, increasing our covert ops and intelligence abilities focused on al-Qaeda is good, but adding tens of thousands of American troops for years doesn't necessarily get us closer to defeating al-Qaeda."[77]


Polis voted for the 2010 Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act expanding economic sanctions against Iran under the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act, and co-sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act of 2009, authorizing state and local governments to direct divestiture from, and prevent investment in, companies with investments of $20,000,000 or more in Iran's energy sector.[78][79]

Human rightsEdit

As a member of Congress, Polis, along with then-Representatives Barney Frank and Tammy Baldwin, called on the United States embassy in Iraq and then-United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to prioritize investigating the allegations of rape, torture and executions of LGBT Iraqis, saying, "Such disturbing violations of human rights should not be ignored and the United States should not stand idly by while billions of taxpayer dollars are used to support their government."

Polis and 35 other House members also called on the State Department to address violence against the LGBT community in Honduras.[80]

Civil libertiesEdit

Polis (right) with then-Representative Xavier Becerra of California in Westminster, Colorado

In the House, Polis was an advocate for civil liberties, saying while campaigning in 2008 that "balance must be restored between the executive and the judicial branch (through restoring habeas corpus, and clarifying that the president does not have the Constitutional authority to alter legislation through signing statements) and between the executive and the legislative branch (clarifying that the Fourth Amendment requires probable cause and a warrant for the government to monitor Americans)".[81]

Patriot ActEdit

Polis has been a vocal opponent of the PATRIOT ACT. In a letter to House Speaker John Boehner, he wrote that the Act "is a bill that has been plagued with abuse since it was first passed, and today's rule is yet another example of short-circuiting the system that our Founding Fathers set up. If there were ever the need for the close supervision and congressional oversight of a law, it is a law that discusses how and under what conditions a government can spy on its own citizens."[82] In February 2011 Polis voted against H.R. 514, extending expiring provisions of the Patriot Act, authorizing court-approved roving wiretaps that permit surveillance on multiple phones, allowing court-approved seizure of records and property in anti-terrorism operations, and permitting surveillance against a so-called lone wolf, a non-US citizen engaged in terrorism who may not be part of a recognized terrorist group.[83][84]

Internet piracyEdit

Polis supports an open and free internet, and has been critical of SOPA, PIPA and CISPA, saying in an interview with Forbes, "I oppose piracy and want to see intellectual property protected because that is what fosters and rewards innovation. But SOPA won't accomplish a meaningful reduction in piracy and causes massive collateral damage to the Internet ecosystem."[85] While debating SOPA on the House floor Polis said that SOPA and PIPA "directly threaten the very internet that has brought humanity great prosperity and greater peace" and "Allowing the military and NSA to spy on Americans on American soil goes against every principle this country was founded on."[86][87] Polis and 167 other House members voted against CISPA.[88]

Polis and Representatives Zoe Lofgren and Darrell Issa sponsored Aaron's Law[89] in the wake of the suicide of computer programmer and internet activist Aaron Swartz, the co-founder of Reddit, who was facing computer and wire fraud charges, more than 30 years in prison and fines of over $1 million for violating the terms of service for illegally downloading academic journal articles from the digital library JSTOR.[90] The proposed bill would exclude terms of service violations from the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and from the wire fraud statute.[91][92] Polis said that the charges brought by US Attorney Carmen Ortiz were "ridiculous and trumped-up" and that "It's absurd that he was made a scapegoat. I would hope that this doesn't happen to anyone else."[93]


Polis voted against the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act, and opposes Section 1021, which has drawn controversy about implications to detention policy.[94] After the law was signed, Polis and other House members introduced legislation to repeal the indefinite detention provision. Though legislation has failed to pass the House, Section 1021 is now pending in the courts.[95]


Polis supports the legalization of cannabis, saying in 2011, "Just as the policy of prohibition failed nationally with alcohol—it's now up to states and counties—I think we should do the same with marijuana."[96] Legislation he has introduced includes the Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act in 2013,[97] the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act in 2015,[98] and the McClintock–Polis amendment in 2015 (to prevent federal interference in states that have legalized medical or recreational use; it failed 206–222).[99] He was also an original cosponsor of the Marijuana Justice Act that was first introduced in the House in 2018.[100] In February 2017, Polis launched the Congressional Cannabis Caucus along with Representatives Don Young, Earl Blumenauer, and Dana Rohrabacher.[101]

LGBT rightsEdit

At the time of his departure from Congress, Polis was one of seven openly gay members of the 113th Congress, and caucused in the LGBT Equality Caucus. Polis pushed for the repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act, and praised the Obama Administration's decision for the Justice Department to no longer defend DOMA, saying that "Section 3 of the law is unconstitutional."[102] In a statement Polis said, "I applaud the Administration for finally recognizing what my colleagues and I have long criticized, to deny people the ability to officially acknowledge their relationship and feel welcomed as partners only for being LGBT is absurd and today's decision confirms this".[103] Polis has also credited President Obama for openly endorsing gay marriage calling it "welcome news to American families."[104]

Polis was an original cosponsor of H.R. 116, or the Respect for Marriage Act. H.R. 116 repeals DOMA allowing marriage recognition for gay and lesbian couples in the US, the District of Columbia, and US territories.[105]

Polis was also the leading sponsor of the Student Non-Discrimination Act with Senator Al Franken (D-MN), who introduced the act in the Senate. SNDA would establish a comprehensive federal non-discrimination prohibition in all public and elementary and secondary schools based on sexual orientation and gender identity, expanding Title IX of the Education Amendments Act to LGBT students.[106] In a statement, Polis said "education is the right of every student" regardless of their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. "The alarming increase in teen suicides has shown us just how far we are from making our children's schools safe spaces."[107] The SNDA has 167 co-sponsors in the House, with only two Republicans signing on.[108] SNDA is also supported by the ACLU and Change.org.[109]

Polis voted for the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, which prohibited openly gay and lesbian members of the Military from serving.[110] Along with 67 members of the House, in a letter to President Obama, Polis urged for the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell. In the letter it cited a California district judge's ruling of the unconstitutionality of DADT, and the 14,000 service members that have been discharged from the military since the passage of DADT.[111]

In a press release on the repeal of DADT Polis said: "The repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell is a victory for the cause of equality and our national defense. For too long, this wrongheaded policy prevented brave Americans from serving in our military and defending our country just because of who they love. It undermined our national security by forcing gays and lesbians out of the military service at a time when America needs the most talented and the bravest protecting us, regardless of their orientation."[112]

Polis was also a supporter and cosponsor of the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, giving adequate funding and ability to federal authorities to investigate hate crimes, and has advocated for protections against LGBT victims of domestic violence to be included in the Violence Against Women Act.[113][114]

In September 2014, Polis filed a discharge petition to bring the LGBT Employment Non-Discrimination Act to the floor of the House of Representatives for a proper vote. Representatives Garamenedi, Holt, and Connolly joined Polis in support in filing the petition. The revised legislation includes narrow religious exemptions.[115]

Polis urged President Obama to reconsider the inclusion of Malaysia and Brunei in a Trans-Pacific Partnership because of their negative record on LGBT rights.[116]


On May 29, 2019, Polis signed House Bill 1124 immediately prohibiting law enforcement officials in Colorado from holding undocumented immigrants solely on the basis of a request from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.[117]


In May 2014, Polis became the first U.S. representative to accept campaign donations via Bitcoin.[118]


In 2014, Polis sponsored two ballot measures targeting hydraulic fracturing, Initiatives 88 and 89. Polis sought to move fracking from 500 feet (150 m) from people's homes to 2,000 feet (610 m) to improve the quality of life for homeowners in affected areas.[119] On August 4, 2014, Polis announced that he would withdraw his support for the two ballot measures.[120]

Campus rapeEdit

In September 2015, Polis voiced support for altering university disciplinary processes surrounding campus rape to allow for cases to be judged against a reasonable likelihood standard, saying that: "If there are 10 people who have been accused, and under a reasonable likelihood standard maybe one or two did it, it seems better to get rid of all 10 people ... we're not talking about depriving them of life or liberty, we're talking about them being transferred to another university, for crying out loud."[121] After being criticized[122] for these remarks, Polis apologized, saying that: "I went too far by implying that I support expelling innocent students from college campuses, which is something neither I nor other advocates of justice for survivors of sexual assault support".[123]


Polis has shown interest in the regulatory environment relating to kombucha.[124][125][126] He co-sponsored a bill that would have legalized the interstate shipment of raw milk.[127]

Personal lifeEdit

Polis (center) with his husband,[128] Marlon Reis (left), and First Lady Michelle Obama at the White House

Polis is one of the few people to be openly gay when first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives,[129] and the first openly gay parent in Congress.[130][131][132] Polis and his husband, Marlon Reis, have a son and a daughter, born in 2011 and 2014, respectively.[133][134][135] Polis is Jewish.[136][137]

In June 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, an event widely considered a watershed moment in the modern LGBTQ rights movement, Queerty named him one of the Pride50 "trailblazing individuals who actively ensure society remains moving towards equality, acceptance and dignity for all queer people".[138]

Polis enjoys video games such as League of Legends, and his favorite champions include Maokai and Anivia.[139] Polis is also an avid Colorado Rockies and Denver Broncos fan.[140][141]

In July 2020, Polis donated $1000 to Representative Ilhan Omar's primary opponent in her 2020 reelection campaign.[142] In November 2020 Polis and his partner both tested positive for COVID-19.[143]

In September 2021, Polis married his longtime partner, Marlon Reis, in a small Jewish ceremony with family and a few close friends.[144]

Electoral historyEdit

Colorado gubernatorial election, 2018[145]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Jared Polis 1,348,888 53.42% +4.12%
Republican Walker Stapleton 1,080,801 42.80% −3.15%
Libertarian Scott Helker 69,519 2.75% +0.81%
Unity Bill Hammons 25,854 1.02% N/A
Total votes 2,525,062 100.0% N/A
Democratic hold
U.S. House, 2nd District of Colorado (General Election)[146][147]
Year Winning candidate Party Pct Opponent Party Pct Opponent Party Pct Opponent Party Pct
2008 Jared Polis Democratic 62% Scott Starin Republican 33% J. A. Calhoun Green 2%
2010 Jared Polis Democratic 57% Stephen Bailey Republican 37% Jenna Goss Constitution 2%
2012 Jared Polis Democratic 55% Kevin Lundberg Republican 38% Randy Luallin Libertarian 3% Susan P. Hall Green 2%
2014 Jared Polis Democratic 56% George Leing Republican 44%
2016 Jared Polis Democratic 57.9% Nic Morse Republican 37.2% Richard Longstreth Libertarian 5.9%

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c "Jared Polis (1975-)". Jewish Virtual Library - A Project of Alice. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  2. ^ "Republicans are reopening. Why is Democratic Gov. Polis doing the same in Colorado?". nbcnews.com. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  3. ^ "Colorado's candidates for governor: Wealthy? Yes. How wealthy? Good question". coloradopolitics.com. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  4. ^ "Jared Polis to become Colorado's first openly gay governor". latimes.com. Associated Press. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  5. ^ "Jared Polis Makes History As America's First Openly Gay Male Governor". time.com. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  6. ^ "Jared Polis elected first Jewish governor of Colorado". timesofisrael.com. Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  7. ^ "Colorado Gov. Jared Polis and his longtime partner, Marlon Reis, are engaged". coloradosun.com. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  8. ^ Birkeland, Bente. "Gov. Jared Polis And Long-Time Partner Marlon Reis Marry In Small, Private Ceremony". Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  9. ^ Michael Roberts (August 19, 2004). "Young Blood". Westword.
  10. ^ Schutz, Jared Polis. Swain, Carol (ed.). Paradigm Shift: Politics in the Information Age (Thesis). Princeton University. Department of Politics.
  11. ^ "Jared Polis '96 reflects on goals, openly gay identity". The Princetonian. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  12. ^ a b "Bio" (PDF). Retrieved November 10, 2018.
  13. ^ Susan Glairon (January 20, 2006). "After 35 Years, Card Company Still on Top". Associated Press.
  14. ^ Larry Dignan (October 25, 1999). "Excite@Home buys Bluemountainarts.com for $780m". zdnet.co.uk. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2008.
  15. ^ "NASDAQ: Prospectus Provide Commerce, Inc". Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  16. ^ Perez, Juan Carlos (December 6, 2005). "Liberty Media buys e-commerce provider". Computerworld. Retrieved March 9, 2021.
  17. ^ "What investments does Techstars make in its Accelerator portfolio companies?". Techstars.
  18. ^ "Jared Polis (D-Colo), 2015". OpenSecrets. Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  19. ^ "Education: Jared Polis". Daily Camera. January 28, 2007. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2007.
  20. ^ "Ground Floor Media". Archived from the original on November 1, 2006. Retrieved March 1, 2007.
  21. ^ Stuart Steers (May 2005). "The Gang of Four". 5280 The Denver Magazine. Archived from the original on October 13, 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  22. ^ "In the case that the number of congressional districts is even, one member is elected at-large" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
  23. ^ "Recount confirms Polis won seat on ed board; Republican Alexander won't contest second tally". Denver Post. November 29, 2000.
  24. ^ Colbert, Stephen (August 17, 2009). "Even Better-er Know a District – Colorado's 2nd". Better Know a District. The Colbert Report. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
  25. ^ "Polis on Politics". Boulder Weekly. June 26, 2008. Archived from the original on June 29, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2008.
  26. ^ Fender, Jessica (August 13, 2008). "Polis moves on to November". Denver Post. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  27. ^ "Gift law spurs major battle". Rocky Mountain News. January 24, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
  28. ^ "Bonds will pump new money into aging schools". Daily Camera. November 10, 2006. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2006.
  29. ^ Healy, Jack (August 4, 2014). "Deal Struck in Colorado Over Vote on Drilling". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  30. ^ Frosch, Dan (August 13, 2008). "Gay Candidate Wins a Colorado Primary". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 5, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  31. ^ "Election Results - cbs4denver.com". Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  32. ^ "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 2010" (PDF).
  33. ^ "Colorado's 2nd Congressional District elections, 2012". Ballotpedia.
  34. ^ "Colorado's 2nd Congressional District elections, 2014". Ballotpedia.
  35. ^ "Colorado's 2nd Congressional District election, 2016". Ballotpedia.
  36. ^ "In Governors' Elections This Year, Republicans Have A Lot To Lose". National Public Radio. November 2, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  37. ^ "Colorado Governor's Race: Jared Polis Tops Walker Stapleton". Colorado Public Radio. November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  38. ^ Eason, Brian (March 11, 2019). "Worried about slowing economy, Democrats look to delay Polis pledge for full-day kindergarten". The Colorado Sun. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  39. ^ "McGreevey: 'I am a gay American'". CNN. August 13, 2004. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
  40. ^ "DEMOCRATIC HOUSE AND CAUCUS LEADERSHIP". dccc.org. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  41. ^ "Jared Polis has leadership spot in sights". politico.com. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  42. ^ "Barbara Lee drops leadership bid, clears way for Joe Crowley". politico.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  43. ^ "Jared Polis' Biography". votesmart.org. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  44. ^ "U.S. Rep. Jared Polis joins with congressional colleagues to create Cannabis Caucus – The Denver Post". The Denver Post. February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
  45. ^ "Caucus Members". Congressional Progressive Caucus. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  46. ^ "Members of the Veterinary Medicine Caucus". Veterinary Medicine Caucus. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  47. ^ "Members". New Democrat Coalition. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
  48. ^ "Membership". Congressional Arts Caucus. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  49. ^ "Members". Congressional NextGen 9-1-1 Caucus. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  50. ^ Trickey, Erick (July 12, 2017). "Khanna starts PAC-free caucus". Politico. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  51. ^ Garcia, Nic (September 2, 2018). "Is Jared Polis a "Boulder liberal?" Republicans make the case, but his record is more complicated". The Denver Post. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  52. ^ "Members". U.S. - Japan Caucus. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  53. ^ "Featured Members". Problem Solvers Caucus. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  54. ^ "Polis' Summit County land Exchange Bill Passes House". Congressman Jared Polis' Official Website. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  55. ^ "Jared Polis announces transition team stocked with big-name Democrats". The Colorado Sun. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  56. ^ "Attempt to force recall election of Colorado Gov. Jared Polis falls short". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 11, 2019.
  57. ^ "Polis, Lieberman introduce Race to the Top Education Reform Bill". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  58. ^ Tough, Paul (July 7, 2011). "No, Seriously: No Excuses". newyorktimes.com. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  59. ^ "Reform Effors are on the way and information sharing could be improved". gao.gov. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  60. ^ "H.R. 5789 – School Lunch Improvements for Children's Education Act". opencongress.org. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  61. ^ "The SLICE (School Lunch Improvements for Children's Education) Act: Restoring Better Nutrition in School Meals" (PDF). polis.house.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  62. ^ "Pizza as a vegetable? No, says congressman introducing SLICE Act". Los Angeles Times.
  63. ^ "Polis to Congress: Pizza is not a vegetable". polis.house.gov. May 14, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2012.
  64. ^ "Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004". ed.gov. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  65. ^ "IDEA –Funding Distribution". newamerica.net. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  66. ^ "Polis Special Education Bill Fulfills 40 year old Promise". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  67. ^ "S. 1614: Computer Science Education Act of 2011". govtrack.us. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  68. ^ "ACE Act to Reforming Low-Performing Schools". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  69. ^ House hearing on college sexual assaults, retrieved September 11, 2015
  70. ^ Jared Polis (September 15, 2015). "Jared Polis: Colleges should handle sex assault cases".
  71. ^ "Candidate Q&A: Jared Polis". www.dailycamera.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  72. ^ Polis, Jared (April 9, 2009). "Congressional Visit to Iraq, Part II: Observation on Strategy (My Return to Iraq, 1.5 Years Later)". www.huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  73. ^ "Congressional Visit to Iraq, Part II". www.windycitytimes.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  74. ^ "Representative Jared Polis's Political Positions". votesmart.org. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  75. ^ "Boulder Rep. Jared Polis: Withdraw U.S. troops from Afghanistan". www.dailycamera.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  76. ^ "Just Back from Afghanistan". www.huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  77. ^ "Congressional Visit to Afghanistan". Congressional Trip to Afghanistan. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  78. ^ "Jared Polis - Iran". PoliGu.com - The Political Guide.
  79. ^ "H R 1327 in Congressional Session 111". www.thepoliticalguide.com. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  80. ^ "LGBT Equality & Civil Rights (Iraqi LGBT Rights)". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 21, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
  81. ^ "Jared Polis on Homeland Security". ontheissues.org. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  82. ^ "February 10, 2011 Congressional Record House" (PDF). www.gpo.gov. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  83. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 36". clerk.house.gov. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  84. ^ "Bill Text Versions 112th Congress (2011-2012) H.R.514". Thomas.loc.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  85. ^ Kain, Erik (January 18, 2012). "An Interview With Rep. Jared Polis: Why We Need To Stop SOPA". forbes.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  86. ^ "Protecting an Open Internet by Fighting SOPA". youtube.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  87. ^ "How CISPA would affect you (faq)". news.cnet.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  88. ^ "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 192". clerk.house.gov. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  89. ^ "Lawmakers slam DOJ prosecution of Swartz as 'ridiculous, absurd'". thehill.com. January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  90. ^ "Aaron's Law: Violating a Site's Terms of Service Should Not Land You in Jail". theatlantic.com. January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  91. ^ "113th Congress 1st Session H.R. l" (PDF). lofgren.house.gov. January 15, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  92. ^ "Aaron Swartz's Suicide Triggers Response from Top U.S. Lawmakers". time.com. January 16, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  93. ^ Pearce, Matt (January 18, 2013). "Aaron Swartz suicide has U.S. lawmakers scrutinizing prosecutors". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
  94. ^ "H.R. 1540: National Defense Authorization Act for ... (On Passage of the Bill)". govtrack.us. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  95. ^ "H Amdt 1127 – Repeals Indefinite Military Detention Provisions – Key Vote". votesmart.org. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  96. ^ Brian Montopoli; CBS News (April 6, 2011). "Rep. Jared Polis: Federal government shouldn't be banning marijuana". cbsnews.com.
  97. ^ Tom Dickinson; Rolling Stone (February 6, 2012). "Legalization Hits the Hill: New bills in Congress would take Colorado's tax-and-regulate model for pot nationwide". rollingstone.com.
  98. ^ "US Congress: Legislation Introduced To Get the Feds Out Of The Marijuana Enforcement Business". NORML. February 26, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
  99. ^ Baca, Ricardo (June 3, 2015). "House passes bill to prevent DOJ from interfering in states' medical pot laws". The Cannabist. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  100. ^ "House Introduces Marijuana Legalization Bill, Focused on Racial Justice, As Companion to Cory Booker's Senate Bill" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Drug Policy Alliance. January 17, 2018.
  101. ^ Matthews, Mark K. (February 16, 2017). "U.S. Rep. Jared Polis joins with congressional colleagues to create Cannabis Caucus". The Denver Post. Retrieved December 23, 2019.
  102. ^ "President Obama Instructs Justice Department to Stop Defending Defense of Marriage Act cal Clinton-Signed Law "Unconstitutional"". abcnews.go.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  103. ^ "Polis cheers Justice Department's Decision on DOMA". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  104. ^ "Jared Polis: Obama Support For Gay Marriage 'Welcome News'". livewire.talkingpointsmemo.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  105. ^ "Bill Summary & Status 112th Congress (2011-2012) H.R. 116 Cosponsors". thomas.loc.gov. Archived from the original on July 4, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  106. ^ "Historic Support for Non-Discrimination Act". aclu.org. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  107. ^ "Polis reintroduces Student Non-Discrimination Act". washingtonblade.com. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  108. ^ "H.R.998 - Student Non-Discrimination Act of 2011". opencongress.org. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  109. ^ Hurley, Morgan M (March 13, 2010). "California high school student joins ACLU to advocate for H.R. 4530". sdgln.com. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  110. ^ "House Vote 638 – Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'". nytimes.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  111. ^ "Congress of the United States Washington, D.C. September 23, 2010" (PDF). polis.house.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  112. ^ "Polis Applauds the End of Discriminatory 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  113. ^ "H.R. 1913 – Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009". opencongress.org. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  114. ^ "Violence Against Women Act Should Include LGBT Protections". polis.house.gov. Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  115. ^ "Polis files discharge petition on ENDA with narrowed religious exemption". LGBTQ Nation.
  116. ^ "LGBT Members Of Congress Object To Free-Trade Deal With Countries Criminalizing LGBT People". BuzzFeed. February 18, 2015.
  117. ^ "Protect Colorado Residents From Federal Government Overreach | Colorado General Assembly". leg.colorado.gov. 2019.
  118. ^ Federal Regulators Approve Bitcoin for Political Campaign Donations - NBC News, November 26, 2014
  119. ^ Newton-Small, Jay (July 14, 2014). "Friendly Fire Over Colorado Fracking Could Cost Democrats the U.S. Senate". TIME. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  120. ^ Newton-Small, Jay (August 4, 2014). "Democrat Jared Polis Withdraws Support for Colorado Fracking Initiatives". Time. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
  121. ^ "Better that five innocent students get expelled than one guilty student stay enrolled - The Washington Post". Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  122. ^ "Polis sparks controversy with remarks about campus rape cases". Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  123. ^ Chasmar, Jessica (September 16, 2015). "Democratic Rep. Jared Polis: 'I went too far' with Campus Rape Remarks". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  124. ^ Hamblin, James (December 8, 2016). "Is Fermented Tea Making People Feel Englightened Because of ... Alcohol". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  125. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  126. ^ "The Kombucha Freedom Warrior". The Atlantic. December 6, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2021.
  127. ^ Evich, Helena Bottemiller; Parti, Tarini. "Food Freedom cause grows with help". POLITICO.
  128. ^ "Governor Jared Polis marries First Gentleman Marlon Reis in small ceremony". msn.com. September 15, 2021.
  129. ^ Phillips, Kate (January 6, 2009). "New Voices in Congress Will Change the Tone of the Democratic Majority". The New York Times. Retrieved January 7, 2008.
  130. ^ Terkel, Amanda (September 30, 2011). "Jared Polis Announces Birth Of Son, Becoming First Openly Gay Parent In Congress". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
  131. ^ Parkinson, John. "House Democrat Jared Polis Becomes First Openly Gay Parent in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  132. ^ 'Gay congressman announces birth of new son', in Forbes, 09.30.11 [1]
  133. ^ Ryan Howe (November 6, 2018). "Jared Polis Makes History As Nation's First Openly Gay Governor". Out Front. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  134. ^ Julie Turke (June 22, 2018). "In the Race for Governor, How Far Left Is Colorado Willing to Go?". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  135. ^ Colorado Public Radio Staff and The Associated Press (November 7, 2018). "Colorado Governor's Race: Jared Polis Defeats Walker Stapleton And Makes History". Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  136. ^ "Three New Jewish Members of Congress". The Jewish Federations. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
  137. ^ "Jared Polis: Community Congressman - League of Legends". na.leagueoflegends.com. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  138. ^ "Queerty Pride50 2019 Honorees". Queerty. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  139. ^ Augustine, Josh (January 11, 2012). "U.S. Congressman joins League of Legends developer in urging fans to oppose SOPA/PIPA". pcgamer. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  140. ^ Bianchi, Chris (October 21, 2018). "Jared Polis on Home Life, His Childhood and the Rockies". Westword.
  141. ^ "Remembering Pat Bowlen: NFL, Broncos and Colorado communities honor legendary Denver Broncos owner". KMGH. June 14, 2019.
  142. ^ "Colorado Gov. Donates to Minnesota Rep. Ilhan Omar's primary opponent". July 28, 2020.
  143. ^ "Colorado governor tests positive for coronavirus". ABC News. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  144. ^ "Governor Jared Polis marries First Gentleman Marlon Reis in small ceremony". www.msn.com.
  145. ^ "Election Night Reporting".
  146. ^ "Official Publication of the Abstract of Votes Cast for the 2008 Primary and 2008 General" (PDF). Secretary of State of Colorado. August 14, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  147. ^ "Official Publication of the Abstract of Votes Cast for the 2008 Primary and 2010 General" (PDF).

External linksEdit

Educational offices
Preceded by
Ben Alexander
Member of the Colorado State Board of Education
from the at-large district

Seat abolished
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Colorado's 2nd congressional district

Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of Colorado
Most recent
Political offices
Preceded by Governor of Colorado
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded byas Vice President Order of precedence of the United States
Within Colorado
Succeeded by
Mayor of city
in which event is held
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Governor of Nebraska Order of precedence of the United States
Outside Colorado
Succeeded byas Governor of North Dakota