Doping at the World Athletics Championships

As a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Code, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) prohibits the use of banned performance-enhancing substances by competitors at the World Championships in Athletics. A list of WADA-banned substances is regularly published to the public and amended as scientific knowledge expands.[1] The IAAF and anti-doping bodies undertake in-competition sampling of athletes blood and urine in order to detect where athletes have taken banned substances. This is also complemented by out-of-competition tests during the tournament and in the preceding period.[2]

Where a banned substance is detected in-competition the athlete's performance will be annulled and—depending on the severity of the infraction—the athlete may be banned from the sport for a set period. Where an out-of-competition sample tests positive for a banned substance, any performances by the athlete after that date may also be annulled. Athletes may also be banned via doping regulations if the athlete fails to submit to testing, tampers or interferes with the undertaking of anti-doping procedures, or is found in possession of banned substances.[2] Where a performance is annulled, any medals won by the athlete will be stripped from the athlete and the IAAF may decided to reallocate the medal(s) to the next best performers. This includes disqualification of whole national relay teams should one member break anti-doping rules. Samples are stored for future retesting, as improved methods over time may lead to previously unidentified cases of doping. The IAAF began a long-term storage approach from the 2007 World Championships onwards.[3]

A total of 162 athletes (69 men and 93 women) have had their results annulled at the World Championships, and 40 of these have been stripped of medals as a result. A total of 53 medals have been stripped as a result of doping infractions. The first doping failure pre-dates the main championships and comes from Spanish hurdler Rosa Colorado at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – an event which only featured two women's events not on the Olympic programme. World champions to be banned include North American sprinters Ben Johnson, Marion Jones, Tim Montgomery and Kelli White. Other prominent champions to have been banned include Russian middle-distance runner Mariya Savinova, steeplechaser Yuliya Zaripova and racewalker Olga Kaniskina. The majority of stripped medallists have come from Russia.[4]

There has been an upward trend in the number of doping violations at the championships, with a peak of 50 athletes having had their performances annulled at the 2011 event, though it is assumed that this reflects improved detection rather than increased overall doping – an anonymous survey at that championships revealed over 30% of athletes had used banned substances during their career.[5]

Given the susceptibility of the sport of athletics to doping issues, the IAAF has been central in the development of anti-doping standards and anti-doping measures have been were present at World Championships since the first edition in 1983.[6] The anti-doping approach had a new development at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics, where all Russian athletes were banned due to state-sponsored doping and had to request dispensation to compete at Authorised Neutral Athletes.[7]

Disqualifications by yearEdit

 
Ben Johnson's disqualification in 1987 was the first time a world champion was stripped of their title for doping.
 
Marion Jones was stripped of three sprint medals for doping at the 2001 event

.

Edition Year Host city Host country Athletes
disqualified
Medals
stripped
- 1976 Malmö Sweden 0 0
- 1980 Sittard Netherlands 1 0
1st 1983 Helsinki Finland 0 0
2nd 1987 Rome Italy 3 2
3rd 1991 Tokyo Japan 3 1
4th 1993 Stuttgart Germany 4 2
5th 1995 Gothenburg Sweden 0 0
6th 1997 Athens Greece 7 3
7th 1999 Seville Spain 7 3
8th 2001 Edmonton Canada 17 9
9th 2003 Saint-Denis France 11 6
10th 2005 Helsinki Finland 11 4
11th 2007 Osaka Japan 9 5
12th 2009 Berlin Germany 31 5
13th 2011 Daegu South Korea 50 10
14th 2013 Moscow Russia 21 3
15th 2015 Beijing China 7 0
16th 2017 London United Kingdom 3[8] 0
17th 2019 Doha Qatar
18th 2021 Eugene United States

Disqualifications by nationEdit

 
Three-time racewalk world champion Olga Kaniskina of Russia has been stripped of two of those titles for doping.
 
Mariya Savinova is one of many Russian athletes to be stripped for World Championships medals.
 
Zhanna Pintusevich-Block is one of two Ukrainians to be stripped of medals for doping at the event.

This table collates the total number of athletes who have been disqualified for doping at the championships by nation. Athletes with multiple disqualifications are counted as one. Where a relay team is disqualified, this is counted as one disqualification, though multiple team members may have been sanctioned.

Last updated 17 March 2018

Nation Men
disqualified
Women
disqualified
Total Medals
stripped
  Russia (RUS)[nb1] 14 38 52 24
  Ukraine (UKR) 4 10 14 2
  United States (USA) 8 5 13 14
  Morocco (MAR) 8 3 11 0
  Turkey (TUR) 0 8 8 1
  Belarus (BLR) 4 3 7 4
  Nigeria (NGR) 2 4 6 1
  Spain (ESP) 3 2 5 1
  France (FRA) 4 0 4 0
  Canada (CAN) 1 2 3 1
  Saudi Arabia (KSA) 3 0 3 0
  Greece (GRE) 0 2 2 1
  Kenya (KEN) 0 2 2 0
  Kazakhstan (KAZ) 0 2 2 0
  Afghanistan (AFG) 1 0 1 0
  Algeria (ALG) 1 0 1 1
  Australia (AUS) 1 0 1 0
  Bahrain (BHR) 0 1 1 0
  Belgium (BEL) 1 0 1 0
  Brazil (BRA) 1 0 1 0
  Bulgaria (BUL) 0 1 1 0
  Cuba (CUB) 1 0 1 0
  Great Britain & N.I. (GBR) 1 0 1 1
  Guatemala (GUA) 1 0 1 0
  Hungary (HUN) 1 0 1 0
  India (IND) 0 1 1 0
  Iran (IRI) 1 0 1 0
  Italy (ITA) 1 0 1 0
  South Korea (KOR) 1 0 1 0
  Liberia (LBR) 1 0 1 0
  Lithuania (LTU) 1 0 1 0
  Moldova (MDA) 0 1 1 0
  Malaysia (MAS) 1 1 1 0
  Norway (NOR) 1 0 1 1
  Portugal (POR) 0 1 1 0
  Romania (ROM) 0 1 1 0
  Somalia (SOM) 1 0 1 0
  Soviet Union (URS) 0 1 1 0
  Switzerland (SUI) 0 1 1 1
  Trinidad and Tobago (TTO) 0 1 1 0
  Turkmenistan (TKM) 0 1 1 0
  Uzbekistan (UZB) 1 0 1 1
  Venezuela (VEN) 0 1 1 0

Disqualifications by eventEdit

This table collates the total number of disqualifications within a given event. Where the same athlete has been disqualified at multiple editions of the championships, each athlete disqualified per year is counted. Last updated 17 March 2018

Event Male
disqualifications
Female
disqualifications
Total
100 metres 8 11 19
200 metres 2 10 12
400 metres 7 9 16
800 metres 0 11 11
1500 metres 4 14 18
5000 metres 6 4 10
10,000 metres 0 2 2
Sprint hurdles 1 2 3
400 metres hurdles 2 3 5
3000 metres s'chase 2 8 10
4 × 100 metres relay 7 7 14
4 × 400 metres relay 5 7 12
Marathon 9 4 13
20 km walk[nb2] 7 6 13
50 km walk 5 0 5
High jump 1 2 3
Pole vault 1 0 1
Long jump 0 3 3
Triple jump 1 2 3
Shot put 11 4 12
Discus throw 2 5 7
Javelin throw 2 1 3
Hammer throw 4 6 10
Combined events 0 1 1
  • nb2 Includes precursor women's walk event over 10,000 m

Disqualified athletesEdit

Athlete Nation Sex Event Year(s) Result Notes
Rosa Colorado   Spain (ESP) Women 400 m hurdles 1980 1st Ran in B-final
Ben Johnson   Canada (CAN) Men 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
1987   4th place Canadian relay team disqualified
Sandra Gasser   Switzerland (SUI) Women 1500 m 1987  
Angella Issajenko   Canada (CAN) Women 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
1987 5th 6th place Canadian relay team disqualified
Georg Andersen   Norway (NOR) Men Shot put 1991  
Delisa Walton-Floyd   United States (USA) Women 800 m 1991 8th (semis)
Irina Slyusar   Soviet Union (URS) Women 100 m 1991 6th (semis)
Dmitriy Polyunin   Uzbekistan (UZB) Men Javelin throw 1993  
Mike Stulce   United States (USA) Men Shot put 1993  
Romas Ubartas   Lithuania (LTU) Men Discus throw 1993 4th
Liliya Nurutdinova   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 1993 7th
Aleksandr Bagach   Ukraine (UKR) Men Shot put 1997  
Pascal Maran   France (FRA) Men 400 m hurdles 1997 6th (heats)
Antonio Pettigrew   United States (USA) Men 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
1997
1999
2001
7th (1997)
5th (1999)
4th (2001)
1997, 1999 and 2001 gold medal-winning American relay teams disqualified. Disqualified at three editions.
Daniel Plaza   Spain (ESP) Men 20 kilometres walk 1997 10th
Olimpiada Ivanova   Russia (RUS) Women 10,000 m walk 1997  
Lyubov Tsyoma   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 1997 DNF (semis)
Oksana Zelinskaya   Kazakhstan (KAZ) Women Triple jump 1997 15th (q)
Mohamed Ibrahim Aden   Somalia (SOM) Men 1500 m 1999 6th (semis)
Innocent Asonze   Nigeria (NGR) Men 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
1999 4th (q-finals) Bronze medal-winning Nigerian relay team disqualified
Davidson Ezinwa   Nigeria (NGR) Men 100 m 1999 7th (semis)
German Skurygin   Russia (RUS) Men 50 kilometres walk 1999  
Jerome Young   United States (USA) Men 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
1999
2001
2003
4th (1999)
4th (semis, 2001)
 
2001 and 2003 gold medal-winning American relay teams disqualified. Disqualified at three editions
Hannah Cooper   Liberia (LBR) Women 4 × 400 m relay 1999 6th (h) Liberian relay team disqualified
Roberto Barbi   Italy (ITA) Men Marathon 2001 60th
Christophe Cheval   France (FRA) Men 200 m
4 × 100 m relay
2001 7th (q-finals) French relay team disqualified
Ramon Clay   United States (USA) Men 200 m 2001 8th (q-finals)
Andrei Mikhnevich   Belarus (BLR) Men Shot put 2001
2005
2007
2009
2011
10th (2001)
5th (2005)
  (2007)
7th (2009)
  (2011)
Banned for life, disqualified at five editions
Tim Montgomery   United States (USA) Men 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
2001
2003
  (2001)
5th (2003)
2001 Gold medal-winning American relay team disqualified. Disqualified at two editions
Ali Saïdi-Sief   Algeria (ALG) Men 5000 m 2001  
Javier Sotomayor   Cuba (CUB) Men High jump 2001 4th
Venolyn Clarke   Canada (CAN) Women 100 m 2001 8th (q-finals)
Marion Jones   United States (USA) Women 100 m
200 m
4 × 100 m relay
2001  
 
2001 gold medal-winning American relay team disqualified
Svetlana Laukhova   Russia (RUS) Women 100 m hurdles 2001 5th (heats)
Yekaterina Leshchova   Russia (RUS) Women 200 m 2001 6th (heats)
Natalya Sadova   Russia (RUS) Women Discus throw 2001  
Natalya Sologub   Belarus (BLR) Women 400 m 2001 5th (semis)
Ana Mirela Termure   Romania (ROM) Women Javelin throw 2001 10th (q)
Kelli White   United States (USA) Women 100 m
200 m
4 × 100 m relay
2001
2003
7th (100 m, 2001)
  (200 m, 2001)
  (100 m, 2003)
  (200 m, 2003)
2001 gold medal-winning American relay team disqualified. Disqualified at two editions.
Dwain Chambers   Great Britain & N.I. (GBR) Men 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
2003 4th Silver medal-winning British relay team disqualified
Fouad Chouki   France (FRA) Men 1500 m 2003 8th
Calvin Harrison   United States (USA) Men 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2003 6th Gold medal-winning American relay team disqualified
Chris Phillips   United States (USA) Men 110 m hurdles 2003 5th
Kevin Toth   United States (USA) Men Shot put 2003 4th
Zhanna Block   Ukraine (UKR) Women 100 m
200 m
2003
2005
  (100 m, 2003)
4th (200 m, 2003),
5th (200 m semis, 2005)
Disqualified at two editions
Regina Jacobs   United States (USA) Women 1500 m 2003 6th (semis)
Melissa Price   United States (USA) Women Hammer throw 2003 12th
Yuriy Belonog   Ukraine (UKR) Men Shot put 2005 4th
Vladyslav Piskunov   Ukraine (UKR) Men Hammer throw 2005 12th
Ivan Tikhon   Belarus (BLR) Men Hammer throw 2005  
Andrei Varantsou   Belarus (BLR) Men Hammer throw 2005 15th (q)
Neelam Jaswant Singh   India (IND) Women Discus throw 2005 9th (q)
Svetlana Krivelyova   Russia (RUS) Women Shot put 2005 4th
Tatyana Kotova   Russia (RUS) Women Long jump 2005  
Olga Kuzenkova   Russia (RUS) Women Hammer throw 2005  
Nadzeya Ostapchuk   Belarus (BLR) Women Shot put 2005  
Naman Keïta   France (FRA) Men 400 m hurdles 2007 4th (semis)
Elvan Abeylegesse   Turkey (TUR) Women 5000 m
10,000 m
2007
2009
5th (5000 m, 2007)
  (10,000 m, 2007)
DQ (10,000 m, 2009)
Disqualified at two editions
Svetlana Cherkasova   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 2007 6th (h)
Yuliya Fomenko   Russia (RUS) Women 1500 m 2007 7th
Hrisopiyí Devetzí   Greece (GRE) Women Triple jump 2007  
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva   Russia (RUS) Women Hammer throw 2007 10th
Darya Pishchalnikova   Russia (RUS) Women Discus throw 2007  
Yelena Soboleva   Russia (RUS) Women 1500 m 2007  
Hussain Al-Hamdah   Saudi Arabia (KSA) Men 5000 m 2009
2011
12th (h, 2009)
13th (2001
Disqualified at two editions
Valeriy Borchin   Russia (RUS) Men 20 kilometres walk 2009
2011
  (2009)
  (2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Jamel Chatbi   Morocco (MAR) Men 3000 m steeplechase 2009 DNS (final)
Leonardo dos Santos   Brazil (BRA) Men Triple jump 2009 20th (q)
Abderrahim Goumri   Morocco (MAR) Men Marathon 2009
2011
DNF
DNF
Disqualified at two editions
Sergey Kirdyapkin   Russia (RUS) Men 50 kilometres walk 2009
2011
  (2009)
DNF (2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Mikhail Lemayev   Russia (RUS) Men Marathon 2009 45th
Ildar Minshin   Russia (RUS) Men 3000 m steeplechase 2009 7th
Kevin Rans   Belgium (BEL) Men Pole vault 2009 12th
Rakia Al-Gasara   Bahrain (BHR) Women 100 m
200 m
2009 7th (q-finals)
5th (h)
Mariem Selsouli   Morocco (MAR) Women 1500 m 2009 DNS (final)
Anna Alminova   Russia (RUS) Women 1500 m 2009 10th (semis)
Olena Antonova   Ukraine (UKR) Women Discus throw 2009 17th (q)
Toyin Augustus   Nigeria (NGR) Women 100 m hurdles
4 × 100 m relay
2009 6th (semis) Nigerian relay team disqualified
Alemitu Bekele Degfa   Turkey (TUR) Women 1500 m
5000 m
2009
2011
11th (1500 m heats, 2009)
13th (5000 m, 2009)
9th (5000 m heats, 2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya   Russia (RUS) Women 4 × 100 m relay 2009 4th Russian relay team disqualified
Marta Domínguez   Spain (ESP) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2009  
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova   Russia (RUS) Women 5000 m 2009
2011
10th (h)
14th
Disqualified at two editions
Olga Kaniskina   Russia (RUS) Women 20 kilometres walk 2009
2011
  (2009)
  (2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Anastasiya Kapachinskaya   Russia (RUS) Women 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2009
2011
7th (2009)
  (2011)
2009 and 2011 bronze medal-winning Russian relay teams disqualified. Disqualified at two editions
Svetlana Klyuka   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 2009 5th (semis)
Iríni Kokkinaríou   Greece (GRE) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2009
2011
8th (q, 2009)
11th (q, 2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Mariya Konovalova   Russia (RUS) Women 10,000 m 2009 11th
Zalina Petrivskaya   Moldova (MDA) Women Hammer throw 2009
2011
14th (q, 2009)
8th (2011)
Disqualified at two editions
Amaka Ogoegbunam   Nigeria (NGR) Women 400 m
400 m hurdles
2009 DNF (semis)
DQ (semis)
Hanane Ouhaddou   Morocco (MAR) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2009
2011
5th (h)
8th
Disqualified at two editions
Vita Palamar   Ukraine (UKR) Women High jump 2009 8th (q)
Tatyana Petlyuk   Ukraine (UKR) Women 800 m
4 × 400 m relay
2009
2011
6th (semis)
DNF (h)
2009 Russian relay team disqualified. Disqualified at two editions
Nailya Yulamanova   Russia (RUS) Women Marathon 2009 8th Bronze medal-winning Russian team for the 2009 World Marathon Cup disqualified
Denis Alekseyev   Russia (RUS) Men 4 × 400 m relay 2011 4th Russian relay team disqualified
Ahmed Baday   Morocco (MAR) Men Marathon 2011 27th
Sergey Bakulin   Russia (RUS) Men 50 kilometres walk 2011  
Abderrahime Bouramdane   Morocco (MAR) Men Marathon 2011 4th
Zoltán Kovágó   Hungary (HUN) Men Discus throw 2011 7th (q)
Lim Hee-Nam   South Korea (KOR) Men 4 × 100 m relay 2011 5th (h) South Korean relay team disqualified
Vladimir Kanaykin   Russia (RUS) Men 20 kilometres walk 2011  
Hadi Md Nor Imran   Malaysia (MAS) Men 100 m 2011 7th (q-finals)
Sergey Morozov   Russia (RUS) Men 20 kilometres walk 2011 12th
Mohamed Othman Shahween   Saudi Arabia (KSA) Men 1500 m 2011 DNF (h)
Stanislav Yemelyanov   Russia (RUS) Men 20 kilometres walk 2011 5th
Igor Yerokhin   Russia (RUS) Men 50 kilometres walk 2011
Aslı Çakır Alptekin   Turkey (TUR) Women 1500 m 2011 10th (semis)
Bahar Doğan   Turkey (TUR) Women Marathon 2011 36th
Inna Eftimova   Bulgaria (BUL) Women 100 m 2011 4th (h)
Tetyana Gamera   Ukraine (UKR) Women Marathon 2011 15th
Semoy Hackett   Trinidad and Tobago (TTO) Women 100 m
4 × 100 m relay
2011 4th (semis) 4th-placed Trinidad and Tobago relay team disqualified
Norjannah Hafiszah Jamaludin   Malaysia (MAS) Women 100 m 2011 6th (q-finals)
Natallia Kareiva   Belarus (BLR) Women 1500 m 2011 6th (h)
Yekaterina Kostetskaya   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 2011 5th
Olga Kucherenko   Russia (RUS) Women Long jump 2011
2013
 
5th
Disqualified at two editions
Yekaterina Sharmina   Russia (RUS) Women 1500 m 2011
2013
9th (semis)
6th
Disqualified at two editions
Tatyana Mineyeva   Russia (RUS) Women 20 kilometres walk 2011 17th
Sara Moreira   Portugal (POR) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2011 12th
Semiha Mutlu   Turkey (TUR) Women 20 kilometres walk 2011 DNF
Anna Omorova   Russia (RUS) Women Shot put 2011 10th
Marielys Rojas   Venezuela (VEN) Women High jump 2011 12th (q)
Yuliya Stepanova   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 2011 8th
Pınar Saka   Turkey (TUR) Women 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2011 6th (h) Turkish relay team disqualified
Mariya Savinova   Russia (RUS) Women 800 m 2011
2013
 
 
Disqualified at two editions
Anzhelika Shevchenko   Ukraine (UKR) Women 1500 m 2011 9th (h)
Olesya Syreva   Russia (RUS) Women 1500 m 2011 9th (semis)
Nataliya Tobias   Ukraine (UKR) Women 1500 m 2011 9th
Binnaz Uslu   Turkey (TUR) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2011 7th
Antonina Yefremova   Ukraine (UKR) Women 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2011 4th (semis) Fifth-place Ukrainian relay team disqualified
Lyudmyla Yosypenko   Ukraine (UKR) Women Heptathlon 2011 10th
Yuliya Zaripova   Russia (RUS) Women 3000 m steeplechase 2011  
Roman Avramenko   Ukraine (UKR) Men Javelin throw 2013 5th
Massoud Azizi   Afghanistan (AFG) Men 100 m 2013 8th (h)
Hafid Chani   Morocco (MAR) Men Marathon 2013 DNF
Othmane El Goumri   Morocco (MAR) Men 5000 m 2013
2015
7th (h)
13th (h)
Disqualified at two editions
Pavel Kryvitski   Belarus (BLR) Men Hammer throw 2013 9th (q)
Ebrahim Rahimian   Iran (IRI) Men 20 kilometres walk 2013 52nd
Joshua Ross   Australia (AUS) Men 200 m
4 × 100 m relay
2013 7th (h) Australian relay team disqualified
Jeremias Saloj   Guatemala (GUA) Men Marathon 2013 33rd
Sergio Sánchez   Spain (ESP) Men 5000 m 2013 14th (h)
Soslan Tsirikhov   Russia (RUS) Men Shot put 2013 13th (q)
Anna Bulgakova   Russia (RUS) Women Hammer throw 2013 5th
Yelizaveta Bryzgina   Ukraine (UKR) Women 200 m
4 × 100 m relay
2013 5th (semis) Ukrainian relay team disqualified
Vera Ganeyeva   Russia (RUS) Women Discus throw 2013 7th (q)
Ümmü Kiraz   Turkey (TUR) Women Marathon 2013 DNF
Yevgeniya Kolodko   Russia (RUS) Women Shot put 2013 5th
Ayman Kozhakhmetova   Kazakhstan (KAZ) Women 20 kilometres walk 2013 27th
Antonina Krivoshapka   Russia (RUS) Women 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2013   Gold medal-winning Russian relay team disqualified
Yelena Ryabova   Turkmenistan (TKM) Women 200 m 2013 6th (h)
Adil Annani   Morocco (MAR) Men Marathon 2015 DNF
Yassine Bensghir   Morocco (MAR) Men 1500 m 2015 9th (semis)
Tosin Adeloye   Nigeria (NGR) Women 400 m
4 × 400 m relay
2015 5th (h) Fourth-placed Nigerian relay team disqualified
Francisca Koki   Kenya (KEN) Women 400 m hurdles 2015 6th (h)
Deborah Odeyemi   Nigeria (NGR) Women 4 × 100 m relay 2015 8th (h) Nigerian relay team disqualified
Joyce Zakari   Kenya (KEN) Women 400 m 2015 DNS (semis)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Prohibited List. WADA. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  2. ^ a b IAAF ANTI-DOPING RULES. IAAF. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  3. ^ IAAF statement in response to second McLaren report. IAAF (2016-12-09). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  4. ^ a b 2017 World Championships in Athletics Statistics Book (pp. 82–87). IAAF (2017). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  5. ^ Doping: More than 30% of athletes at 2011 Worlds admit to doping. BBC Sport (2017-08-29). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  6. ^ IAAF commitment to healthy and drug-free athletics. IAAF. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  7. ^ IAAF clears eight Russian athletes to compete as neutrals but rejects 53 more. The Guardian (2017-07-20). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  8. ^ World Championships 2017: Three 'adverse' London findings investigated. BBC Sport (2017-08-25). Retrieved 2018-03-17.
List of banned athletes