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400 metres hurdles

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The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men and since 1984 for women.

Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Naisten 400 m aidat.jpg
Women's 400m hurdles.
Men's records
WorldUnited States Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)
OlympicUnited States Kevin Young 46.78 (1992)
Women's records
WorldRussia Yuliya Pechonkina 52.34 (2003)
OlympicJamaica Melaine Walker 52.64 (2008)

On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track. The hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down.

The best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 47 seconds, while the best female athletes achieve a time of around 53 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Kevin Young with 46.78 seconds and Yuliya Pechonkina with 52.34 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer.

The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, England, over a course of 440 yards (402.336 m). While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals.

To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only officially accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing.

The 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized so that virtually identical races could be held and the finish times compared to each other. As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 91.4 cm (3 feet) for men and 76.20 cm (2 ft, 6 inches) for women. The hurdles were now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, a distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, and a home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line of 40 metres.

The first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) introduced the event officially as a discipline in 1974, although it was not run at the Olympics until 1984, the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles happened in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included in the boycotted 1980 Moscow Olympics and the Liberty Bell Classic.

Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill. This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein: "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is considerably depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal. This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can often be seen at international and national meetings."[citation needed]

Hurdling techniqueEdit

"The 400m hurdle race one of the most demanding of all events in the sprint-hurdle group." (Lindeman) It requires speed, endurance, and hurdling technique all along with unique awareness and special concentration throughout the race.

Block startEdit

When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off. Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at take off will result in loss of momentum and speed.

HurdlingEdit

At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot then extended. The leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete’s body has great flexibility, the knee must be slightly bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance. The knee should pull through under the armpit and should not be flat across the top of the hurdle.

It is also important that the hurdler doesn’t reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle. This will also result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.

Stride lengthEdit

Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead, then the athlete's upper body can be leaned to the left, making it easier to bring the trail leg through. Additionally, an athlete hurdling with a right leg lead around the bends must take care that they do not inadvertently trail their foot or toe around the hurdle rather than passing over the top, which would lead to a disqualification from the race. Depending on the height and strength of the athlete, men work toward a stride pattern of 13 to 15 steps between each hurdle, and women work toward a stride pattern of 15 to 17. This does not include the landing step from the previous hurdle. Weaker athletes will typically hold a longer step pattern throughout the race so that they do not bound or reach with each step, which also results in a loss of speed. These patterns are ideal because it allows the hurdler to take off from their predominant leg throughout the race without switching legs. However, fatigue from the race will knock athletes of their stride pattern and force runners to switch legs. At an early age, many coaches train their athletes to hurdle with both legs. This is a useful skill to learn since as a runner tires, their stride length may decrease, resulting in the need either to add a stutter stride, or to take a hurdle on the other leg. The 400 metre hurdles is a very physically demanding race. It requires intense training to get the endurance, speed and technique needed to compete.

All-time top 25 hurdlersEdit

MenEdit

As of August 2018[1]

Rank Time Athlete Country Date Venue Ref
1 46.78 Kevin Young   United States 6 August 1992 Barcelona
2 46.98 Abderrahman Samba   Qatar 30 June 2018 Paris [2]
3 47.02 Edwin Moses   United States 31 August 1983 Koblenz
Rai Benjamin   Antigua and Barbuda 8 June 2018 Eugene [3]
5 47.03 Bryan Bronson   United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
6 47.10 Samuel Matete   Zambia 7 August 1991 Zürich
7 47.19 Andre Phillips   United States 25 September 1988 Seoul
8 47.23 Amadou Dia Ba   Senegal 25 September 1988 Seoul
9 47.24 Kerron Clement   United States 26 June 2005 Carson, California
10 47.25 Félix Sánchez   Dominican Republic 29 August 2003 Paris, Saint-Denis
Angelo Taylor   United States 18 August 2008 Beijing
12 47.30 Bershawn Jackson   United States 9 August 2005 Helsinki
13 47.37 Stéphane Diagana   France 5 July 1995 Lausanne
14 47.38 Danny Harris   United States 10 July 1991 Lausanne
15 47.43 James Carter   United States 9 August 2005 Helsinki
16 47.48 Harald Schmid   West Germany 8 September 1982 Athens
17 47.53 Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily   Saudi Arabia 27 September 2000 Sydney
18 47.54 Derrick Adkins   United States 5 July 1995 Lausanne
Fabrizio Mori   Italy 10 August 2001 Edmonton
Kyron McMaster   British Virgin Islands 30 June 2018 Paris [4]
21 47.60 Winthrop Graham   Jamaica 4 August 1993 Zürich
22 47.63 Johnny Dutch   United States 26 June 2010 Des Moines
23 47.64 Karsten Warholm   Norway 9 August 2018 Berlin [5]
24 47.66 A L. J. van Zyl   South Africa 25 February 2011 Pretoria
47.66 31 May 2011 Ostrava
25 47.67 Bennie Brazell   United States 11 June 2005 Sacramento

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other times superior to 47.35:

WomenEdit

As of May 2018[6]

Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 52.34 Yuliya Pechonkina   Russia 8 August 2003 Tula
2 52.42 Melaine Walker   Jamaica 20 August 2009 Berlin
3 52.47 Lashinda Demus   United States 1 September 2011 Daegu
4 52.61 Kim Batten   United States 11 August 1995 Gothenburg
5 52.62 Tonja Buford-Bailey   United States 11 August 1995 Gothenburg
6 52.64 Dalilah Muhammad   United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [7]
7 52.70 Natalya Antyukh   Russia 8 August 2012 London [8]
8 52.74 Sally Gunnell   Great Britain 19 August 1993 Stuttgart
9 52.75 Shamier Little   United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [9]
Sydney McLaughlin   United States 13 May 2018 Knoxville [10]
11 52.77 Fani Halkia   Greece 22 August 2004 Athens
12 52.79 Sandra Farmer-Patrick   United States 19 August 1993 Stuttgart
Kaliese Spencer   Jamaica 5 August 2011 London
14 52.82 Deon Hemmings   Jamaica 31 July 1996 Atlanta
15 52.83 Zuzana Hejnová   Czech Republic 15 August 2013 Moscow
16 52.89 Daimí Pernía   Cuba 25 August 1999 Seville
17 52.90 Nezha Bidouane   Morocco 25 August 1999 Seville
18 52.94 Marina Stepanova   Soviet Union 17 September 1986 Tashkent
19 52.95 Sheena Johnson   United States 11 July 2004 Sacramento
Kori Carter   United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [11]
21 53.02 Irina Privalova   Russia 27 September 2000 Sydney
22 53.11 Tatyana Ledovskaya   Soviet Union 29 August 1991 Tokyo
Ashley Spencer   United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [12]
24 53.14 Georganne Moline   United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [13]
25 53.17 Debbie Flintoff-King   Australia 28 September 1988 Seoul

NotesEdit

Below is a list of all other times superior to 52.88.

MilestonesEdit

Most successful athletesEdit

American athlete Glenn Davis had a prodigious start to his hurdling career, running his first race in April 1956 in 54.4 s. Two months later, he ran a new world record with 49.5 s and later that year he won the 400 m hurdles at the Olympics, and was also the first to repeat that feat in 1960.

In terms of success and longevity in competition, Edwin Moses' record is significant: he won 122 races in a row between 1977 and 1987 plus two gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal and the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He was undefeated for exactly nine years nine months and nine days, from 26 August 1977 until 4 June 1987. The U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from winning a hat-trick of gold medals, but his career is nonetheless widely regarded as one of the most successful in hurdling. He finished third in the 1988 Olympic final, the last race in his professional career. He also held the world record for sixteen years from when he first broke it at the Olympics on 25 July 1976 (twice in one day) until it was finally broken by Kevin Young at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

 
Edwin Moses

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
Walter Tewksbury
  United States
Henri Tauzin
  France
George Orton
  Canada
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
  United States
Frank Waller
  United States
George Poage
  United States
1908 London
details
Charles Bacon
  United States
Harry Hillman
  United States
Jimmy Tremeer
  Great Britain
1912 Stockholm not included in the Olympic program
1920 Antwerp
details
Frank Loomis
  United States
John Norton
  United States
August Desch
  United States
1924 Paris
details
Morgan Taylor
  United States
Erik Wilén
  Finland
Ivan Riley
  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
David Burghley
  Great Britain
Frank Cuhel
  United States
Morgan Taylor
  United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bob Tisdall
  Ireland
Glenn Hardin
  United States
Morgan Taylor
  United States
1936 Berlin
details
Glenn Hardin
  United States
John Loaring
  Canada
Miguel White
  Philippines
1948 London
details
Roy Cochran
  United States
Duncan White
  Ceylon
Rune Larsson
  Sweden
1952 Helsinki
details
Charles Moore
  United States
Yuriy Lituyev
  Soviet Union
John Holland
  New Zealand
1956 Melbourne
details
Glenn Davis
  United States
Eddie Southern
  United States
Josh Culbreath
  United States
1960 Rome
details
Glenn Davis
  United States
Clifton Cushman
  United States
Dick Howard
  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Rex Cawley
  United States
John Cooper
  Great Britain
Salvatore Morale
  Italy
1968 Mexico City
details
David Hemery
  Great Britain
Gerhard Hennige
  West Germany
John Sherwood
  Great Britain
1972 Munich
details
John Akii-Bua
  Uganda
Ralph Mann
  United States
David Hemery
  Great Britain
1976 Montreal
details
Edwin Moses
  United States
Michael Shine
  United States
Yevgeniy Gavrilenko
  Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Volker Beck
  East Germany
Vasyl Arkhypenko
  Soviet Union
Gary Oakes
  Great Britain
1984 Los Angeles
details
Edwin Moses
  United States
Danny Harris
  United States
Harald Schmid
  West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
André Phillips
  United States
Amadou Dia Ba
  Senegal
Edwin Moses
  United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Kevin Young
  United States
Winthrop Graham
  Jamaica
Kriss Akabusi
  Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Derrick Adkins
  United States
Samuel Matete
  Zambia
Calvin Davis
  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Angelo Taylor
  United States
Hadi Al-Somaily
  Saudi Arabia
Llewellyn Herbert
  South Africa
2004 Athens
details
Félix Sánchez
  Dominican Republic
Danny McFarlane
  Jamaica
Naman Keïta
  France
2008 Beijing
details
Angelo Taylor
  United States
Kerron Clement
  United States
Bershawn Jackson
  United States
2012 London
details
Félix Sánchez
  Dominican Republic
Michael Tinsley
  United States
Javier Culson
  Puerto Rico
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Kerron Clement
  United States
Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
  Kenya
Yasmani Copello
  Turkey

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1984 Los Angeles
details
Nawal El Moutawakel
  Morocco
Judi Brown
  United States
Cristieana Cojocaru
  Romania
1988 Seoul
details
Debbie Flintoff-King
  Australia
Tatyana Ledovskaya
  Soviet Union
Ellen Fiedler
  East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Sally Gunnell
  Great Britain
Sandra Farmer-Patrick
  United States
Janeene Vickers
  United States
1996 Atlanta
details
Deon Hemmings
  Jamaica
Kim Batten
  United States
Tonja Buford-Bailey
  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Irina Privalova
  Russia
Deon Hemmings
  Jamaica
Nezha Bidouane
  Morocco
2004 Athens
details
Fani Halkia
  Greece
Ionela Târlea-Manolache
  Romania
Tetyana Tereshchuk-Antipova
  Ukraine
2008 Beijing
details
Melaine Walker
  Jamaica
Sheena Tosta
  United States
Tasha Danvers
  Great Britain
2012 London
details
Natalya Antyukh
  Russia
Lashinda Demus
  United States
Zuzana Hejnová
  Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dalilah Muhammad
  United States
Sara Petersen
  Denmark
Ashley Spencer
  United States

World Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Edwin Moses (USA)   Harald Schmid (FRG)   Aleksandr Kharlov (URS)
1987 Rome
details
  Edwin Moses (USA)   Danny Harris (USA)   Harald Schmid (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Winthrop Graham (JAM)   Kriss Akabusi (GBR)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Kevin Young (USA)   Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Winthrop Graham (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Derrick Adkins (USA)   Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Stéphane Diagana (FRA)
1997 Athens
details
  Stéphane Diagana (FRA)   Llewellyn Herbert (RSA)   Bryan Bronson (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Fabrizio Mori (ITA)   Stéphane Diagana (FRA)   Marcel Schelbert (SUI)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Fabrizio Mori (ITA)   Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Joey Woody (USA)   Periklis Iakovakis (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Bershawn Jackson (USA)   James Carter (USA)   Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2007 Osaka
details
  Kerron Clement (USA)   Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Marek Plawgo (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Kerron Clement (USA)   Javier Culson (PUR)   Bershawn Jackson (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Dai Greene (GBR)   Javier Culson (PUR)   L. J. van Zyl (RSA)
2013 Moscow
details
  Jehue Gordon (TRI)   Michael Tinsley (USA)   Emir Bekrić (SRB)
2015 Beijing
details
  Nicholas Bett (KEN)   Denis Kudryavtsev (RUS)   Jeffery Gibson (BAH)
2017 London
details
  Karsten Warholm (NOR)   Yasmani Copello (TUR)   Kerron Clement (USA)

WomenEdit

  • The official IAAF World Championships in Athletics began in 1983, but in 1980, the women's 3000 metres and 400 metres hurdles events had a World Championship competition in Sittard, Netherlands. This was due to these events not yet being on the Olympic program (the same had happened in 1976 for the men's 50 km walk).[14]


Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1980 Sittard
details
  Bärbel Broschat (GDR)   Ellen Neumann (GDR)   Petra Pfaff (GDR)
1983 Helsinki
details
  Yekaterina Fesenko (URS)   Ana Ambrazienė (URS)   Ellen Neumann-Fiedler (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
  Sabine Busch (GDR)   Debbie Flintoff (AUS)   Cornelia Feuerbach (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS)   Sally Gunnell (GBR)   Janeene Vickers (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Sally Gunnell (GBR)   Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA)   Margarita Ponomaryova (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Kim Batten (USA)   Tonja Buford (USA)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
  Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)   Kim Batten (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Daimí Pernía (CUB)   Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)   Daimí Pernía (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Jana Pittman (AUS)   Sandra Glover (USA)   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)   Lashinda Demus (USA)   Sandra Glover (USA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Jana Rawlinson (AUS)   Yuliya Pechenkina (RUS)   Anna Jesień (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Melaine Walker (JAM)   Lashinda Demus (USA)   Josanne Lucas (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
  Lashinda Demus (USA)   Melaine Walker (JAM)   Natalya Antyukh (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)   Dalilah Muhammad (USA)   Lashinda Demus (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)   Shamier Little (USA)   Cassandra Tate (USA)
2017 London
details
  Kori Carter (USA)   Dalilah Muhammad (USA)   Ristananna Tracey (JAM)

Season's bestsEdit

External linksEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Men All Time". IAAF.
  2. ^ "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  3. ^ Roy Jordan (9 June 2018). "Benjamin and Norman break collegiate records at NCAA Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  4. ^ "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  5. ^ "400m Hurdles Men Final Results" (PDF). EAA. 9 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  6. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Women All Time". IAAF.
  7. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  8. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Results". IAAF. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  9. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  10. ^ Jon Mulkeen (14 May 2018). "McLaughlin smashes own world U20 400m hurdles record with 52.75 in Knoxville". IAAF. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  11. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  12. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  13. ^ Roy Jordan (25 June 2017). "Muhammad wins historic 400m hurdles race at US Championships". IAAF. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  14. ^ IAAF World Championships in Athletics. GBR Athletics.