Open main menu

Doping at the Olympic Games

HistoryEdit

The use of performance-enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men.[1] Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of giving them an athletic edge on their competition.[2] If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium.[1] In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance-enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race.[3]

During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to improve their athletic abilities by boosting testosterone. As their methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance-enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race.[4] Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes.[5] By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967.[6]

The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use, 'two beers to steady his nerves'.[7] Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.

 
Kornelia Ender

The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance-enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games.[8] Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system.[9][10]

According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".[11] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."[11]

Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.[12] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[12]

A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition.[13]

ResponseEdit

In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance-enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.[14] During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.[15][16]

Prohibited drugsEdit

Summer Olympic GamesEdit

What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances.[17] Mandatory testing began at the following year's Games.[17] In a few cases the IOC has reversed earlier rulings that stripped athletes of medals.

1968 Mexico CityEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall   Sweden Modern pentathlon Ethanol   (team)

1972 MunichEdit

As a 16-year-old, Rick DeMont qualified to represent the United States at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. He originally won the gold medal in the men's 400-meter freestyle, but following the race, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) disqualified DeMont [18] after his post-race urinalysis tested positive for traces of the banned substance ephedrine contained in his prescription asthma medication, Marax. The positive test following the 400-meter freestyle final also deprived him of a chance at multiple medals, as he was barred from any other events at the Olympics, including the 1,500-meter freestyle for which he was the then-current world record-holder.

Before the Olympics, DeMont had properly declared his asthma medications on his medical disclosure forms, but the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) had not cleared them with the IOC's medical committee.[19] The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) has recognized his gold medal performance in the 1972 Summer Olympics in 2001,[20] but only the IOC has the power to restore his medal, and it has, as of 2019, refused to do so.[20]

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Bakaava Buidaa   Mongolia Judo Caffeine   (63 kg) [21]
Miguel Coll   Puerto Rico Basketball Amphetamine [21][22]
Rick DeMont   United States Swimming Ephedrine   (men's 400 m freestyle) [21]
Aad van den Hoek   Netherlands Cycling Coramine   (100 km team race) [21]
Jaime Huélamo   Spain Cycling Coramine   (individual road race) [21]
Walter Legel   Austria Weightlifting Amphetamine [21]
Mohammad Reza Nasehi   Iran Weightlifting Ephedrine [21]

1976 MontrealEdit

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Blagoi Blagoev   Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid   (82.5 kg) [21]
Mark Cameron   United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [21]
Paul Cerutti   Monaco Shooting Amphetamine [21]
Dragomir Cioroslan   Romania Weightlifting Fencamfamine [21]
Philippe Grippaldi   United States Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [21]
Zbigniew Kaczmarek   Poland Weightlifting Anabolic steroid   (67.5 kg) [21]
Valentin Khristov   Bulgaria Weightlifting Anabolic steroid   (110 kg) [21]
Lorne Liebel   Canada Sailing Phenylpropanolamine [21]
Arne Norrback   Sweden Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [21]
Peter Pavlasek   Czechoslovakia Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [21]
Danuta Rosani   Poland Athletics Anabolic steroid [21][23]

1980 MoscowEdit

Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".[24]

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official.[24] The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[25] The first documented case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[26]

1984 Los AngelesEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Serafim Grammatikopoulos   Greece Weightlifting Nandrolone
Vésteinn Hafsteinsson   Iceland Athletics Nandrolone [23]
Tomas Johansson   Sweden Wrestling Methenolone   (super-heavy)
Stefan Laggner   Austria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Göran Pettersson   Sweden Weightlifting Nandrolone
Eiji Shimomura   Japan Volleyball Testosterone
Mikiyasu Tanaka   Japan Volleyball Ephedrine
Ahmed Tarbi   Algeria Weightlifting Nandrolone
Mahmud Tarha   Lebanon Weightlifting Nandrolone
Giampaolo Urlando   Italy Athletics Testosterone [23]
Martti Vainio   Finland Athletics Methenolone   (10,000 m) [23]
Anna Verouli   Greece Athletics Nandrolone [23]

The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen.[24] A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records.[24] Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy.[24]

The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games.[27] Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics.[27] "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985 (at the time of the Olympics it was not banned), though no test existed for it at the time.[27]

1988 SeoulEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Ali Dad   Afghanistan Wrestling Furosemide
Kerrith Brown   Great Britain Judo Furosemide
Kalman Csengeri   Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol
Mitko Grablev   Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide   (56 kg)
Angell Guenchev   Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide   (67.5 kg)
Ben Johnson   Canada Athletics Stanozolol   (men's 100 m) [23]
Fernando Mariaca   Spain Weightlifting Pemoline
Jorge Quesada   Spain Modern pentathlon Propanolol
Andor Szanyi   Hungary Weightlifting Stanozolol   (100 kg)
Alexander Watson   Australia Modern Pentathlon Caffeine

1992 BarcelonaEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Madina Biktagirova   Unified Team Athletics Norephedrine [23]
Wu Dan   China Volleyball Strychnine
Bonnie Dasse   United States Athletics Clenbuterol [23]
Jud Logan   United States Athletics Clenbuterol [23]
Nijolė Medvedeva   Lithuania Athletics Mesocarb [23]

1996 AtlantaEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Antonella Bevilacqua   Italy Athletics Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine [23][28]
Dean Capobianco   Australia Athletics Stanozolol [23][28]
Sandra Farmer-Patrick   United States Athletics Testosterone [23][29]
Daniel Plaza   Spain Athletics Nandrolone [23][30][31]
Iva Prandzheva   Bulgaria Athletics Metadienone [23][32]
Mary Slaney   United States Athletics Testosterone [23][33]
Natalya Shekhodanova   Russia Athletics Stanozolol [23][32][34]

Five athletes tested positive for the stimulant bromantan and were disqualified by the IOC, but later reinstated after an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport: swimmers Andrey Korneyev and Nina Zhivanevskaya, Greco-Roman wrestler Zafar Guliyev and sprinter Marina Trandenkova, all from Russia, and the Lithuanian track cyclist Rita Razmaitė. Dr. Vitaly Slionssarenko, physician to the Lithuanian cycling team and team coach Boris Vasilyev were expelled from the games by the IOC for their role in the scandal.[35][36][37][32] The athletes and officials were reprimanded.[38][39][40][41][42]

The Irish long-distance runner Marie McMahon (Davenport) got a reprimand after testing positive for the stimulant phenylpropanolamine,[32][43][44] and Cuban judoka Estella Rodriguez Villanueva got a reprimand after she tested positive for the diuretic furosemide.[32]

2000 SydneyEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Ref.
Fritz Aanes   Norway Wrestling Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone
Lance Armstrong   United States Cycling
(Road race and Time trial)
Investigation concluded 2012:
Use, Possession, Trafficking, Administration of Prohibited Substances and Methods and Assisting, Encouraging, Aiding, Abetting, Covering Up or any other type of complicity involving one or more anti-doping rule violations and/or attempted anti-doping rule violations.
  (Time trial)
Ashot Danielyan   Armenia Weightlifting Stanozolol   (+105 kg)
Izabela Dragneva   Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide   (48 kg)
Stian Grimseth   Norway Weightlifting Nandrolone
Ivan Ivanov   Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide   (56 kg)
Marion Jones   United States Athletics THG   (women's 100 m),   (women's 200 m),
  (women's 4x400 m relay),   (women's long jump),
  (women's 4x100 m relay)
[23]
Alexander Leipold   Germany Wrestling Nandrolone   (76 kg)
Sevdalin Minchev   Bulgaria Weightlifting Furosemide   (62 kg)
Antonio Pettigrew   United States Athletics EPO and HGH   (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [23]
Svetlana Pospelova   Russia Athletics Stanozolol [23][45]
Oyuunbilegiin Pürevbaatar   Mongolia Wrestling Furosemide
Andreea Răducan   Romania Gymnastics Pseudophedrine[46]   (women's individual all-round)
Andris Reinholds   Latvia Rowing Nandrolone
Jerome Young   United States Athletics Nandrolone   (men's 4 × 400 m relay) [23]

2004 AthensEdit

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Wafa Ammouri   Morocco Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Adrián Annus   Hungary Athletics Falsified test result, evasion of doping control   (men's hammer throw) [23][47]
Ludger Beerbaum   Germany Equestrian Betamethasone (to horse Goldfever)   (team jumping)
Yuriy Bilonog   Ukraine Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012)   (men's shot put) [23][48][49]
Zhanna Block   Ukraine Athletics BALCO investigation [23]
Andrew Brack   Greece Baseball Stanozolol (pre-Games test) [50]
Viktor Chislean   Moldova Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Crystal Cox   United States Athletics Anabolic agents and hormones (investigation completed 2010)   (women's 4 × 400 m relay) [23][51]
Róbert Fazekas   Hungary Athletics Refused to submit sample   (men's discus throw) [23][47][52]
Mabel Fonseca   Puerto Rico Wrestling Stanozolol [47]
Anton Galkin   Russia Athletics Stanozolol [23][47]
Ferenc Gyurkovics   Hungary Weightlifting Oxandrolone   (105 kg) [47]
Tyler Hamilton   United States Cycling Use of prohibited substances and methods (self admission)   (men's road time trial) [53]
Marion Jones   United States Athletics BALCO investigation [23]
Zoltan Kecskes   Hungary Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Konstantinos Kenteris   Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [47][52]
Albina Khomich   Russia Weightlifting Testosterone [47]
Aye Khine Nan   Myanmar Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Irina Korzhanenko   Russia Athletics Stanozolol   (women's shot put) [23][47][52]
Zoltán Kovács   Hungary Weightlifting Refused to submit sample [47]
Svetlana Krivelyova   Russia Athletics Oxandrolone (positive after retest in 2012)   (women's shot put) [23][49][54][55]
Pratima Kumari Na   India Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Aleksey Lesnichiy   Belarus Athletics Clenbuterol [23][47][52]
David Munyasia   Kenya Boxing Cathine [47]
Derek Nicholson   Greece Baseball Diuretic (pre-Games test) [50]
Cian O'Connor   Ireland Equestrian Antipsychotics (to horse Waterford Crystal)   (individual jumping)
Olena Olefirenko   Ukraine Rowing Ethamivan   (women's quadruple sculls) [47]
Oleg Perepetchenov   Russia Weightlifting Clenbuterol (positive after retest in 2012)   (77 kg) [56][57]
Duane Ross   United States Athletics BALCO investigation [23]
Leonidas Sampanis   Greece Weightlifting Testosterone   (62 kg) [47]
Thinbaijam Sanamcha Chanu   India Weightlifting Furosemide [47]
Mital Sharipov   Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting Furosemide [47]
Olga Shchukina   Uzbekistan Athletics Clenbuterol [23][47][52]
Şule Şahbaz   Turkey Weightlifting Anabolic steroid [47]
Ekaterini Thanou   Greece Athletics Evasion of doping control [47][52]
Ivan Tsikhan   Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012)   (men's hammer throw) [23][49]
Irina Yatchenko   Belarus Athletics Methandienone (positive after retest in 2012)   (women's discus throw) [23][49]

2008 BeijingEdit

"Zero Tolerance for Doping" was adopted as an official slogan for the Beijing Olympic Games.[58] A number of athletes were already eliminated by testing prior to coming to Beijing.[58]

Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. Further positive tests were found in 2016, as samples had been sealed and stored for eight years. The quality of the original testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July, 2008.[59] The initial rate of positive findings was lower than at Athens in 2004, but the prevalence of doping had not necessarily decreased; the technology for creating and concealing drugs had become more sophisticated, and a number of drugs could not be detected.[58][59][60]

In August 2015, the Turkish Athletics Federation confirmed that an in-competition test of Elvan Abeylegesse at the 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics had been retested and found to be positive for a controlled substance, and that she had been temporarily suspended.[61] On 29 March 2017, the IAAF confirmed the positive test, announced retroactive disqualifications and voided all of her results from 25 August 2007 until 25 August 2009, including the 2008 Summer Olympics.[62] As a result, she was stripped of two silver medals she had won in the women's 5,000 and 10,000 meter races.

In May 2016, following the Russian doping scandal, the IOC announced that 32 targeted retests had come back positive for performance-enhancing drugs, of which Russian News Agency TASS announced that 14 were from Russian athletes, 11 of them track and field athletes, including 2012 Olympic champion high jumper Anna Chicherova. Authorities have sent the B-samples for confirmation testing. Those confirmed as having taken doping agents stand to lose records and medals from the 2008 games to 2016 under IOC and WADA rules.[63]

On 18 June 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following seven weightlifters had returned positive results: Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia), Intigam Zairov (Azerbaijan), Alexandru Dudoglo (Moldova), gold medalist Ilya Ilyin (Kazakhstan), bronze medalist Nadezda Evstyukhina and silver medalist Marina Shainova (both from Russia), and Nurcan Taylan (Turkey). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes. Zairov and Ilyin had been serving previous suspensions.[64] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the gold medal.[65]

On 22 July 2016, Sibel Özkan (TUR) was disqualified due to an anti-doping rule violation and stripped of her silver medal.[66] Medals have not been reallocated as yet.

On 28 July 2016, it was announced that retests of samples from the 2008 Summer Olympics detected a positive sample for performance-enhancing drugs from Aksana Miankova of Belarus, who won a gold medal in the women's hammer throw.[67][68] There have been no decisions about stripping and reallocation of medals as yet.

On 16 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 100 metres relay team was disqualified for doping. Russian teammates were stripped of their gold Olympic medals, as Yuliya Chermoshanskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for two prohibited substances.[69] The IAAF was requested to modify the results accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence.[70]

On 19 August 2016, the Russian women's 4 × 400 metres relay team was disqualified for doping.[71] Russian teammates were stripped of their silver Olympic medals, as Anastasiya Kapachinskaya had her samples reanalyzed and tested positive for the same two prohibited substances as Chermoshanskaya.[72]

On 24 August 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2008 Olympic Games, the samples of the following athletes had returned positive results: Nizami Pashayev (Azerbaijan), Iryna Kulesha, Nastassia Novikava, Andrei Rybakou (all from Belarus), Cao Lei, Chen Xiexia, Liu Chunhong (all from China), Mariya Grabovetskaya, Maya Maneza, Irina Nekrassova, Vladimir Sedov (all from Kazakhstan), Khadzhimurat Akkaev, Dmitry Lapikov (both from Russia), and Natalya Davydova and Olha Korobka (both from Ukraine). In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon the athletes, who remain provisionally suspended in view of potential anti-doping rule violations until their cases are closed.[73]

On 29 August 2016, some non-official reports indicated that Artur Taymazov of Uzbekistan had been stripped of the 2008 Olympic gold medal in the freestyle wrestling 120 kg event due to a positive test for doping.[74]

On 31 August 2016, the IOC disqualified six sportspeople for failing doping tests at the 2008 Games. They included three Russian medalists: weightlifters Nadezhda Evstyukhina (bronze medal in the women's 75 kg event), Marina Shainova (silver medal in the women's 58 kg event), and Tatyana Firova, who finished second with teammates in the 4 × 400 m relay. Bronze medal weightlifter Tigran Martirosyan of Armenia (men's 69 kg event) and fellow weightlifters Alexandru Dudoglo (9th place) of Moldova and Intigam Zairov (9th place) of Azerbaijan were also disqualified.[75]

On 1 September 2016, the IOC disqualified a further two athletes. Cuban discus thrower Yarelys Barrios, who won a silver medal in the women's discus, was disqualified after testing positive for Acetazolamide and ordered to return her medal. Qatari sprinter Samuel Francis, who finished 16th in the 100 meters, was also disqualified after testing positive for Stanozolol.[76]

On 13 September 2016, four more Russian athletes were disqualified for doping offenses. Two of those were medalists from the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver medalist Mariya Abakumova in the women's javelin throw and Denis Alekseyev, who was part of the bronze medal team in the men's 4 × 400 m relay. Inga Abitova, who finished 6th in the 10,000 meters, and cyclist Ekaterina Gnidenko also tested positive for a banned substance and were disqualified. [77]

On 23 September 2016, some non-official reports indicate wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn of Ukraine has been stripped of the 2008 Olympic silver medal in the freestyle 60 kg event due to a positive test for doping.[78]

On 6 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Anna Chicherova of the Russian Federation for testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs. She won a bronze medal in the women's high jump. Russia would likely keep the bronze medal, as the fourth-place athlete in the competition was also from Russia.[79] Through 6 October 2016, the IOC has reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 25 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, all but three of whom tested positive for anabolic agents (three Chinese weightlifters were positive for growth hormones).[80]

On 26 October 2016, the IOC disqualified nine more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 Games. Among them were six medal winners: weightlifters Andrei Rybakou and Nastassia Novikava, both from Belarus, and Olha Korobka of Ukraine; women's steeplechase bronze medalist Ekaterina Volkova of Russia; and freestyle wrestlers Soslan Tigiev of Uzbekistan and Taimuraz Tigiyev of Kazakhstan. The others were men's 62 kg weightlifter Sardar Hasanov of Azerbaijan, long jumper Wilfredo Martinez of Cuba, and 100m-hurdler Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia of Spain.[81]

On 17 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 16 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 10 medal winners: weightlifters Khadzhimurat Akkayev and Dmitry Lapikov and wrestler Khasan Baroyev from the Russian Federation, weightlifters Mariya Grabovetskaya, Irina Nekrassova and wrestler Asset Mambetov from Kazakhstan, weightlifter Nataliya Davydova and pole vaulter Denys Yurchenko from Ukraine, long/triple jumper Hrysopiyí Devetzí of Greece and wrestler Vitaliy Rahimov of Azerbaijan. The others were women's 75 kg weightlifter Iryna Kulesha of Belarus, women's +63 kg weightlifter Maya Maneza of Kazakhstan, women's high jumper Vita Palamar of Ukraine, men's 94 kg weightlifter Nizami Pashayev of Azerbaijan, men's 85 kg weightlifter Vladimir Sedov of Kazakhstan, and women's high jumper Elena Slesarenko of the Russian Federation.[82]

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 5 more athletes for failing drugs tests at the 2008 games. Among them were 3 medal winners: gold-medalists 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan and hammer thrower Aksana Miankova of Belarus and silver-medalist shot putter Natallia Mikhnevich of Belarus. The others were shot putter Pavel Lyzhyn and 800m runner Sviatlana Usovich, both of Belarus.[83]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified five more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2008 Games. These included three Chinese women's weightlifting gold medalists: Lei Cao (75 kg), Xiexia Chen (48 kg) and Chunhong Liu (69 kg). Two women athletes from Belarus were disqualified: bronze medalist shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk and hammer thrower Darya Pchelnik, who did not medal.[84]

On 25 January 2017, the IOC stripped Jamaica of the athletics gold medal in the men's 4 × 100 m relay due to Nesta Carter testing positive for the prohibited substance methylhexaneamine.[85][86][87] The IOC also stripped Russian jumper Tatyana Lebedeva of two silver medals in women's triple jump and long jump due to use of turinabol.[85]

On 1 March 2017, the IOC disqualified Victoria Tereshchuk of Ukraine due to use of turinabol and stripped her of the bronze medal in modern pentathlon.[88]

By April 2017, the 2008 Summer Olympics has had the most (50) Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. Russia is the leading country with 14 medals stripped.

DisqualifiedEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details
Elvan Abeylegesse   Turkey Athletics   (5,000 meters)
  (10,000 meters)
disqualification following post-event testing for 2007 IAAF World Championships [62]
Christian Ahlmann   Germany Equestrian Capsaicin
Bernardo Alves   Brazil Equestrian Capsaicin
Lyudmila Blonska   Ukraine Athletics Methyltestosterone   (heptathlon) IOC post-event testing[23][89]
Tony André Hansen   Norway Equestrian Capsaicin   (team jumping)
Alissa Kallinikou   Cyprus Athletics Testosterone In competition test in July 2008[23][90]
Kim Jong-su   North Korea Shooting Propranolol   (men's 10 m air pistol),   (50 m pistol)
Courtney King   United States Equestrian Felbinac
Denis Lynch   Ireland Equestrian Capsaicin
Andrei Mikhnevich   Belarus Athletics Retest of sample from 2005 WCh: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone   (men's shot put) IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[23][91][92]
Tezdzhan Naimova   Bulgaria Athletics Tampering with doping control IAAF out-of-competition test in June 2008.[23][90]
Rodrigo Pessoa   Brazil Equestrian Nonivamide
Igor Razoronov   Ukraine Weightlifting Nandrolone [93]
Adam Seroczyński   Poland Canoeing Clenbuterol
Do Thi Ngan Thuong   Vietnam Gymnastics Furosemide
Vanja Perisic   Croatia Athletics
800 Metres
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[23][94]
Rashid Ramzi   Bahrain Athletics
1500 Metres
CERA   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[23][94]
Davide Rebellin   Italy Cycling
Road Race
CERA   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[94]
Stefan Schumacher   Germany Cycling
Time Trial
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[94]
Athanasia Tsoumeleka   Greece Athletics
20 Kilometre Walk
CERA IOC re-analysis of sample in 2009[23][94]
Yuliya Chermoshanskaya   Russia Athletics
200 Metres
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol   (4x100 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[95]
Tatyana Firova   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol & Metabolite of 1-Testosterone, 1-Androstenedione or 1-Androstenediol   (4×400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Anastasia Kapachinskaya   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 × 400 Metres Relay
Stanozolol & Turinabol   (4x400 metre relay) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[96]
Hripsime Khurshudyan   Armenia Weightlifting
75 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Tigran Gevorg Martirosyan   Armenia Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Samuel Adelebari Francis   Qatar Athletics
100 Metres
200 Metres
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[98]
Nadezhda Evstyukhina   Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & EPO   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Alexander Pogorelov   Russia Athletics
Decathlon
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[96]
Marina Shainova   Russia Weightlifting
58 kg
Stanozolol and Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Alexandru Dudoglo   Moldova Weightlifting
69 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Nurcan Taylan   Turkey Weightlifting
48 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Yarelys Barrios   Cuba Athletics
Discus Throw
Acetazolamide   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[98]
Intigam Zairov   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[75]
Ivan Yushkov   Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Stanozolol, Oxandrolone & Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[96]
Sibel Özkan   Turkey Weightlifting
48 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[99]
Ilya Ilyin   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Mariya Abakumova   Russia Athletics
Javelin Throw
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[100]
Inga Abitova   Russia Athletics
10,000 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[100]
Denis Alexeev   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[100]
Anna Chicherova   Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[79]
Sardar Hasanov   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
62 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Wilfredo Martínez   Cuba Athletics
Long Jump
Acetazolamide IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Josephine Nnkiruka Onyia   Spain Athletics
100 Metre Hurdles
Methylhexanamine IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Soslan Tigiev   Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Ekaterina Volkova   Russia Athletics
3000 Metre Steeplechase
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Olha Korobka   Ukraine Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Nastassia Novikava   Belarus Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Andrei Rybakou   Belarus Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol & Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Taimuraz Tigiyev   Kazakhstan Wrestling
Freestyle 96 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[81]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev   Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Khasan Baroyev   Russia Wrestling
Greco-Roman 120 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Nataliya Davydova   Ukraine Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Chrysopigi Devetzi   Greece Athletics
Triple Jump
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Mariya Grabovetskaya   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Iryna Kulesha   Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Dmitry Lapikov   Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Asset Mambetov   Kazakhstan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 96 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Maya Maneza   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Irina Nekrassova   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Vita Palamar   Ukraine Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Nizami Pashayev   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Vitaliy Rahimov   Azerbaijan Wrestling
Greco-Roman 60 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Vladimir Sedov   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
85 kg
Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Elena Slesarenko   Russia Athletics
High Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Denys Yurchenko   Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[82]
Pavel Lyzhyn   Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Aksana Miankova   Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Oxandrolone   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Natallia Mikhnevich   Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Metandienone & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Sviatlana Vusovich   Belarus Athletics
800 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk   Belarus Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Tamoxifen   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Darya Pchelnik   Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Cao Lei   China Weightlifting
75 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Chen Xiexia   China Weightlifting
48 kg
GHRP-2 & Metabolite   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Liu Chunhong   China Weightlifting
69 kg
GHRP-2 , Metabolite & Sibutramine   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Nesta Carter   Jamaica Athletics
4 × 100 Metres Relay
Methylhexanamine   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[101]
Tatyana Lebedeva   Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Long Jump
Turinabol  
 
IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[101]
Victoria Tereshchuk   Ukraine Modern Pentathlon
Individual
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[102]
Vasyl Fedoryshyn   Ukraine Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[103]
Artur Taymazov   Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[103]
Tatyana Chernova   Russia Athletics
Heptathlon
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[104]
Denis Alexeev   Russia Athletics
Men's 4 × 400 m relay
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[77]

Did not startEdit

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Details
Marta Bastianelli   Italy Cycling Fenfluramine Testing at the U-23 world championships[105]
Fani Halkia   Greece Athletics Methyltrienolone Pre-Games testing in Japan[106][107][108]
Maria Isabel Moreno   Spain Cycling Erythropoietin Pre-Games testing in Olympic village, Beijing[109]
Tatyana Tomashova   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Yelena Soboleva   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Svetlana Cherkasova   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Yuliya Fomenko   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Darya Pishchalnikova   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]
Olga Yegorova   Russia Athletics IAAF out-of-competition tests in May and August 2007 [110]

2012 LondonEdit

It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games at GlaxoSmithKline's New Frontiers Science Park site in Harlow, Essex.[111] All medalists would also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory would test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.[111]

The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to 19 June.[112] The "In-competition" period began on 16 July. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance.[113]

British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough[114] competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[111]

Russian Darya Pishchalnikova participated in the 2012 Olympics and was awarded a silver medal. However, she tested positive for the anabolic steroid oxandrolone in the samples taken in May 2012. In December 2012, she sent an email to WADA containing details on an alleged state-run doping program in Russia. According to The New York Times, the email reached three top WADA officials but the agency decided not to open an inquiry and instead sent her email to Russian sports officials.[115] In April 2013 Pishchalnikova was banned by the Russian Athletics Federation for ten years, and her results from May 2012 were annulled, meaning she was set on track to lose her Olympic medal.[116] Her ban by the Russian Athletics Federation was likely in retaliation.

Gold medalists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexander Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race,[117] Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw.[118][119] Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt,[120] and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake.[121]

Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer.[122] Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate.[123]

Prior to the Olympic competition, several prominent track and field athletes were ruled out of the competition due to failed tests. World indoor medallists Dimitrios Chondrokoukis, Debbie Dunn, and Mariem Alaoui Selsouli were withdrawn from their Olympic teams in July for doping, as was 2004 Olympic medallist Zoltán Kővágó.[124][125][126] At the Olympic competition, Tameka Williams admitted to taking a banned stimulant and was removed from the games.[127] Ivan Tsikhan did not compete in the hammer throw as a retest of his sample from the 2004 Athens Olympics, where he won silver, was positive.[128] Amine Laâlou,[129] Marina Marghieva,[130] Diego Palomeque,[131] and defending 50 km walk champion Alex Schwazer were also suspended before taking part in their events.[132]

Syrian hurdler Ghfran Almouhamad became the first track-and-field athlete to be suspended following a positive in-competition doping sample.[133] Nadzeya Astapchuk was stripped of the women's shot put title after her sample came back positive for the banned anabolic agent metenolone.[134] Karin Melis Mey was withdrawn before the long jump final when an earlier failed doping test was confirmed.[135]

A WADA report released in 2015 detailed an extensive Russian state-sponsored doping program implicating athletes, coaches, various Russian institutions, doctors and labs. The report stated that the London Olympic Games "were, in a sense, sabotaged by the admission of athletes who should have not been competing" and detailed incidents of bribery and bogus urine samples. The report recommended that Russia be barred from track and field events for the 2016 Olympics. It also recommended lifetime bans for five coaches and five athletes from the country, including runners Mariya Savinova, Ekaterina Poistogova, Anastasiya Bazdyreva, Kristina Ugarova, and Tatjana Myazina.[136][137]

On 15 June 2016, it was announced that four London 2012 Olympic weightlifting champions had tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs. They include Kazakhstan's Ilya Ilyin (94 kg), Zulfiya Chinshanlo (53 kg), Maiya Maneza (63 kg) and Svetlana Podobedova (75 kg). If confirmed, Kazakhstan would drop from 12th to 23rd in the 2012 medal standings. Six other lifters who competed at the 2012 Games also tested positive after hundreds of samples were reanalysed. Among them are Russia's Apti Aukhadov (silver at 85 kg), Ukraine's Yuliya Kalina (bronze at 58 kg), Belarusian Maryna Shkermankova (bronze at 69 kg), Azerbaijan's Boyanka Kostova and Belarus duo Dzina Sazanavets and Yauheni Zharnasek.[138] On 27 July 2016, IWF has reported in the second wave of re-sampling that three silver medalists from Russia, namely Natalia Zabolotnaya (at 75 kg), Aleksandr Ivanov (at 94 kg) and Svetlana Tsarukayeva (at 63 kg), together with bronze medalists Armenian Hripsime Khurshudyan (at 75+ kg), Belarusian Iryna Kulesha (at 75 kg) and Moldovan Cristina Iovu (at 53 kg) have tested positive for steroid dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.[139] Aukhadov was stripped of his silver medal by the IOC on 18 October 2016.[140] On 27 October 2016 Maiya Maneza was stripped of her gold medal.[141] In November 2016, Ilyin was stripped of the London gold medal.[65]

On 13 July 2016, the IOC announced that Yuliya Kalina of Ukraine had been disqualified from the 2012 Summer Olympics and ordered to return the bronze medal from the 58 kg weightlifting event. Reanalysis of Kalina's samples from London 2012 resulted in a positive test for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[142] The positions were adjusted accordingly.[143]

On 9 August 2016, the IOC announced that Oleksandr Pyatnytsya of Ukraine would be stripped of his silver medal in the javelin throw after he tested positive for the prohibited substance dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol).[144] Redistribution of medals has not yet been announced, but the likely case is the silver and bronze medals will be given to Finland and Czech Republic instead.[145]

On 20 August 2016, the IOC announced that Yevgeniya Kolodko of Russia would be stripped of her silver medal in shot put after she tested positive of dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (turinabol) and ipamorelin.[146] Medals are not reallocated yet.

On 29 August 2016, a report indicated that a retested sample for Besik Kudukhov of Russia, the silver medalist in the men's 60 kg freestyle wrestling event, had returned a positive result (later disclosed as dehydrochlormethyltestosterone).[74] Kudakhov died in a car crash in December 2013. On 27 October 2016, the IOC dropped all disciplinary proceedings against Kudukhov, stating that such proceedings cannot be conducted against a deceased person. As a result, it said, Olympic results that would have been reviewed will remain uncorrected, which is the unavoidable consequence of the fact that the proceedings cannot move forward.[147]

On 13 September 2016, the IWF reported that the men's 94 kg weightlifting bronze medalist, Moldova's Anatolie Cîrîcu, had tested positive for the dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.[148]

On 6 October 2016, the IWF reported that as a consequence of the IOC's reanalyses of samples from the 2012 Olympic Games, a sample of Norayr Vardanyan, who represented Armenia, had returned a positive result. In line with the relevant rules and regulations, the IWF imposed mandatory provisional suspensions upon Vardanyan, who remains provisionally suspended until his case is closed.[149] On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified Vardanyan. Through 6 October 2016, the IOC had reported Adverse Analytical Findings for 23 weightlifters from its 2016 retests of samples from the 2012 London Olympic Games, all of whom tested positive for anabolic agents.[80]

On 11 October 2016, Tatyana Lysenko of the Russian Federation was disqualified from the women's hammer throw, in which she won the gold medal. She had tested positive for a banned substance. The IOC requested the IAAF to modify the results of this event accordingly. The silver medalist Anita Włodarczyk of Poland would likely take the gold medal in her place.[150]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC disqualified Apti Aukhadov of the Russian Federation for doping and stripped him of the silver medal.[151] The IOC requested the IWF to modify the results of this event accordingly; it has not yet published modified results.[143]

On 18 October 2016, the IOC reported that Maksym Mazuryk of Ukraine, who competed in the Men's Pole Vault event, was disqualified from the 2012 London Games, in which he ranked 18th. Re-analysis of Mazuryk's samples resulted in a positive test for dehydrochlormethyltestosterone.

On 27 October 2016 the IOC disqualified a further eight athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included four medal winners in weightlifting: Zulfiya Chinshanlo, Maiya Maneza and Svetlana Podobedova, all from Kazakhstan, and Maryna Shkermankova of Belarus. The others were hammer thrower Kirill Ikonnikov of Russia, women's 69 kg weightlifter Dzina Sazanavets of Belarus, pole vaulter Dmitry Starodubtsev of Russia, and men's +105 kg weightlifter Yauheni Zharnasek of Belarus.[141]

On 21 November 2016 the IOC disqualified a further 12 athletes for failing doping tests at the games. This included 6 medal winners in weightlifting, including Alexandr Ivanov (Russia), Anatoli Ciricu (Moldova), Cristina Iovu (Moldova), Nataliya Zabolotnaya (Russia), Iryna Kulesha (Belarus), and Hripsime Khurshudyan (Armenia).[152] Moldova has lost all its 2012 London medals. The others were hammer thrower Oleksandr Drygol and long jumper Margaryta Tverdokhlib, both of Ukraine, 85 kg weightlifter Rauli Tsirekidze of Georgia, 94 kg weightlifter Almas Uteshov of Kazakhstan, 94 kg weightlifter Andrey Demanov of Russia and 3000m steeplechaser Yuliya Zaripova of Russia, who had previously been sanctioned in March 2016 by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

On 25 November 2016, the IOC disqualified 4 more athletes for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. They were gold medalist 94 kg weightlifter Ilya Ilin of Kazakhstan, hammer thrower Aksana Miankova and long jumper Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova, both of Belarus, and 58 kg weightlifter Boyanka Kostova of Azerbaijan.[83]

On 29 November 2016 the Court of Arbitration for Sport issued a decision that all results achieved by 2012 Olympic heptathlon bronze medalist Tatyana Chernova of Russia between 15 August 2011 and 22 July 2013 are annulled. It also annulled all of Yekaterina Sharmina's results between 17 June 2011 and 5 August 2015, including her 33rd-place finish in the 2012 women's 1500m.[153] CAS ruled that they "have been found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation ... of the International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) Competition Rules after analysis of their Athlete Biological Passports (ABP) showed evidence of blood doping."[154]

On 12 January 2017, the IOC disqualified three weightlifters for failing drug tests at the 2012 games. Two competed in men's 94 kg weightlifting: Intigam Zairov of Azerbaijan and Norayr Vardanyan of Armenia. Women's 63 kg weightlifter Sibel Simsek of Turkey was disqualified. None was a medalist at these games.[84]

On 1 February 2017, the IOC disqualified three athletes due to failed doping tests, all of whom tested positive for turinabol. Russian women's discus thrower Vera Ganeeva, who finished 23rd, Turkish boxer Adem Kilicci, who ranked 5th in men's 69–75 kg boxing, and Russian 400m runner Antonina Krivoshapka, who finished 6th, were disqualified. Krivoshapka also was part of the Russian silver medal-winning women's 4 × 400 m relay team, which was stripped of the silver medals.[155]

In December 2014, a documentary aired on German TV in which 800m gold medalist Mariya Savinova allegedly admitted to using banned substances on camera.[156] In November 2015, Savinova was one of five Russian runners the World Anti-Doping Agency recommended to receive a lifetime ban for doping during the London Olympics, along with 800m bronze medalist Ekaterina Poistogova. On 10 February 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld a four-year ban that effectively stripped Savinova of her Olympic gold and other medals.[157] On 7 April 2017, CAS refused to decide on disqualification from 2012, and disqualify Ekaterina Poistogova from 2015.[158] Thus, Ekaterina Poistogova retained her Olympic 2012 medal at women's 800 metres athletic event.

In April 2017, the Olympics has had 29 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations. Russia is the leading country with 13 medals stripped.

DisqualifiedEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Hussain Al-Hamdah   Saudi Arabia Athletics
5000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 26 March 2009 onwards.[23][159]
Gamze Bulut   Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities   IAAF sanction imposed in 2017[160]
Mariya Savinova   Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalities   CAS confirmed all results annulled from July 2010 to August 2013[161]
Ghfran Almouhamad   Syria Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Methylhexaneamine IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics[23][162]
Elena Arzhakova   Russia Athletics
800 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 12 July 2011 onwards.[23][163][164]
Sergey Bakulin   Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 24 December 2012.[165][166]
Andrey Krivov   Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2017 w/ results annulled from 20 May 2011 to 6 July 2013[167]
Valeriy Borchin   Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 14 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[165][166]
Abderrahime Bouramdane   Morocco Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 14 April 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Yolanda Caballero   Colombia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 24 October 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Aslı Çakır-Alptekin   Turkey Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities   IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 29 July 2010 onwards.[169][170]
Yekaterina Sharmina   Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/ results annulled from 17 June 2011 to 5 August 2015[171]
Nicholas Delpopolo   United States Judo Cannabis IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[172]
Bahar Doğan   Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Marta Domínguez   Spain Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 5 August 2009 onwards.[165][173]
Hamza Driouch   Qatar Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 2 August 2012 onwards.[23][174][175]
Tyson Gay   United States Athletics
100 metres
4 × 100 meters
Anabolic androgenic steroids   (4 × 100 meters) USADA investigation after positive for anabolic androgenic steroids in 2013; admittance.[23][176][177][178]
Yelizaveta Grechishnikova   Russia Athletics
10,000 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 18 August 2009 onwards.[23][164][179]
Semoy Hackett   Trinidad and Tobago Athletics
100 metres
200 metres
4 × 100 metres relay
Methylhexaneamine Positive from Division I Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June 2012[23][180][181]
Tetyana Hamera-Shmyrko   Ukraine Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 August 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Hassan Hirt   France Athletics
5000 metres
EPO IOC pre-Games testing.[23][182]
Vladimir Kanaikin   Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 to 17 December 2012.[165][166]
Olga Kaniskina   Russia Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities   IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 15 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[165][166]
Natallia Kareiva   Belarus Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 28 July 2010 onwards.[23][164][183][184]
Ümmü Kiraz   Turkey Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 3 June 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Sergey Kirdyapkin   Russia Athletics
50 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities   IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2016 w/results annulled from 20 August 2009 to 15 October 2012.[165][166]
Blaža Klemenčič   Slovenia Cycling
MTB
EPO UCI reanalysis of sample from 27 March 2012 in 2015. All results annulled from 27 March 2012 until 31 December 2012.[185]
Yekaterina Kostetskaya   Russia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 30 August 2011 onwards.[23][186][187]
Zalina Marghieva   Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
2009 WCh retest: Stanozolol, Oral Turinabol IAAF retesting of samples from 2009 IAAF World Championships[23][188]
Karin Melis Mey   Turkey Athletics
Long jump
Testosterone Positive from the 2012 European Athletics Championships in June.[23][188] Provisionally suspended after the qualifying round at the Games.
Andrei Mikhnevich   Belarus Athletics
Shot put
2005 WCh retest: Clenbuterol, Methandienone and Oxandrolone IAAF retest of sample from the 2005 IAAF World Championships. All results from August 2005 onwards annulled.[23][91]
Anna Mishchenko   Ukraine Athletics
1500 m
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.[165][168]
Andriy Semenov   Ukraine Athletics
Shot put
Re-analysis of sample taken in 2011 AIU sanction imposed 2019[189]
Semiha Mutlu   Turkey Athletics
20 km race walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 20 August 2011 onwards.[165][168]
Nadzeya Ostapchuk   Belarus Athletics
Shot put
Methenolone   IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples).[23][190]
Darya Pishchalnikova   Russia Athletics
Discus throw
Oxandrolone   Random out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013.[23][191]
Hysen Pulaku   Albania Weightlifting Stanozolol IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[192]
Meliz Redif   Turkey Athletics
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 26 June 2012 onwards.[165][168]
Pınar Saka   Turkey Athletics
400 metres
4 x 400 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 18 June 2010 onwards.[23][164][193]
Mohammed Shaween   Saudi Arabia Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 12 June 2011 onwards.[23][186][187]
Anzhelika Shevchenko   Ukraine Athletics
1500 metres
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 2 July 2011 onwards.[23][164]
Liliya Shobukhova   Russia Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 9 October 2009 onwards.[194][195]
Svitlana Shmidt   Ukraine Athletics
Steeplechase
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 8 March 2012 onwards.[23][196][197][198]
Soslan Tigiev   Uzbekistan Wrestling Methylhexaneamine   IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[199]
Binnaz Uslu   Turkey Athletics
Steplechase
2011 WCh retest: Stanozolol IAAF retest of sample from 2011 World Championships[23][188][200]
Wang Jiali   China Athletics
Marathon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2014 w/results annulled from 29 May 2012 onwards.[23][201]
Nevin Yanit   Turkey Athletics
100 metres hurdles
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF/CAS sanction imposed 2015 w/results annulled from 28 June 2012 onwards.[23][202][203][204]
Igor Yerokhin   Russia Athletics
50 km walk
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 February 2011 onwards.[23][205]
Lyudmyla Yosypenko   Ukraine Athletics
Heptathlon
Biological passport abnormalities IAAF sanction imposed 2013 w/results annulled from 25 August 2011 onwards.[23][188]
Olga Beresnyeva   Ukraine Swimming
Open water
EPO IOC re-analysis of sample in 2015[206][207]
Yuliya Kalina   Ukraine Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016.[208]
Pavel Kryvitski   Belarus Athletics
Hammer throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Oleksandr Pyatnytsya   Ukraine Athletics
Javelin throw
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[97]
Yuliya Zaripova   Russia Athletics
3000 Metres Steeplechase
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Maiya Maneza   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
63 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Zulfiya Chinshanlo   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
53 kg
Stanozolol & Oxandrolone   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Svetlana Podobedova   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
75 kg
Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Yevgeniya Kolodko   Russia Athletics
Shot Put
Turinabol & Ipamorelin   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[210]
Ekaterina Gnidenko   Russia Cycling
Keirin
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[77]
Tatyana Lysenko   Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[150]
Apti Aukhadov   Russia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Drostanolone   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[140]
Maksym Mazuryk   Ukraine Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[140]
Kirill Ikonnikov   Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Dzina Sazanavets   Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Drostanolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Maryna Shkermankova   Belarus Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Dmitry Starodubtsev   Russia Athletics
Pole Vault
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Yauheni Zharnasek   Belarus Weightlifting
+105 kg
Turinabol, Oxandrolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Besik Kudukhov   Russia Wrestling
Freestyle 60 kg
Turinabol   (medal retained due to athlete's death in December 2013) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[141]
Andrey Demanov   Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Oleksandr Drygol   Ukraine Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Cristina Iovu   Moldova Weightlifting
53 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Aleksandr Ivanov   Russia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Tamoxifen   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Hripsime Khurshudyan   Armenia Weightlifting
+75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Iryna Kulesha   Belarus Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Rauli Tsirekidze   Georgia Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Marharyta Tverdokhlib   Ukraine Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Almas Uteshov   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Natalia Zabolotnaya   Russia Weightlifting
75 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Anatolie Cîrîcu   Moldova Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[209]
Ilya Ilyin   Kazakhstan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Aksana Miankova   Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Nastassia Mironchyk-Ivanova   Belarus Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Boyanka Kostova   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
58 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2016[83]
Sibel Simsek   Turkey Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Intigam Zairov   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Norayr Vardanyan   Armenia Weightlifting
94 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[84]
Vera Ganeeva   Russia Athletics
Discus Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[211]
Adem Kilicci   Turkey Boxing
Middleweight
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[211]
Antonina Krivoshapka   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol   (4 x 400 metres) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[211]
Mariya Bespalova   Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[212]
Khadzhimurat Akkayev   Russia Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[212]
Gulfiya Khanafeyeva   Russia Athletics
Hammer Throw
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[212]
Victoria Valyukevich   Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[212]
Svetlana Tsarukayeva   Russia Weightlifting
63 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[103]
Maksim Dyldin   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[104]
Tatyana Chernova   Russia Athletics
Heptathlon
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[213]
Anna Nazarova   Russia Athletics
Long Jump
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[214]
Yulia Gushchina   Russia Athletics
400 Metres
4 x 400 Metres Relay
Turinabol & Stanozolol   (4 x 400 metres) IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[214]
Davit Modzmanashvili   Georgia Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[215]
Valentin Hristov   Azerbaijan Weightlifting
56 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[216]
Alena Matoshka   Belarus Athletics
Hammer Throw
Oxandrolone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[216]
Anis Ananenka   Belarus Athletics
800 Metres
Turinabol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[216]
Meline Daluzyan   Armenia Weightlifting
69 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[217]
Ineta Radēviča   Latvia Athletics
Long Jump
Oxandrolone IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[217]
Florin Croitoru   Romania Weightlifting
56 kg
Turinabol, Metenolone & Stanozolol IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[218]
Jevgenij Shuklin   Lithuania Canoeing
C-1 200 Metres
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[219]
Artur Taymazov   Uzbekistan Wrestling
Freestyle 120 kg
Turinabol   IOC re-analysis of sample in 2019[220]
Tatyana Firova   Russia Athletics
4 x 400 Metres Relay
  CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Svetlana Shkolina   Russia Athletics
High Jump
  CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Ivan Ukhov   Russia Athletics
High Jump
  CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Lyukman Adams   Russia Athletics
Triple Jump
CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Yekaterina Galitskaya   Russia Athletics
100 Metres Hurdles
CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Yuliya Kondakova   Russia Athletics
100 Metres Hurdles
CAS decision imposed in 2019[221]
Ruslan Nurudinov   Uzbekistan Weightlifting
105 kg
Turinabol CAS decision imposed in 2019[222]
Mikalai Novikau   Belarus Weightlifting
85 kg
Turinabol & Stanozolol CAS decision imposed in 2019[222]

Did not startEdit

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Victoria Baranova   Russia Cycling
Track - sprint
Testosterone IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus[223]
Kissya Cataldo   Brazil Rowing
Single sculls
EPO International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil[120][224]
Luiza Galiulina   Uzbekistan Gymnastics Furosemide IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan.[225]
Amine Laâlou   Morocco Athletics
1500 metres
Furosemide IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo.[226]
Marina Marghieva
(Marina Nichișenco)
  Moldova Athletics
Hammer throw
Stanozolol IOC pre-Games testing.[23][188][227]
Diego Palomeque   Colombia Athletics
400 metres
Exogenous testosterone IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.[228]
Alex Schwazer   Italy Athletics
50 km walk
EPO IOC pre-Games testing in Italy.[229]
Tameka Williams   Saint Kitts and Nevis Athletics
100 metres
"Blast Off Red" Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine".[230]

2016 Rio de JaneiroEdit

Originally, Russia submitted a list of 389 athletes for competition. On 7 August 2016, the IOC cleared 278 athletes, and 111 were removed because of the state-sponsored doping scandal.[231][232]

The Taiwanese weightlifter Lin Tzu-chi was withdrawn from the games hours before her event by her country's delegation for an abnormal drugs test.[233]

Kenyan athletics coach, John Anzrah who travelled to Rio independently of his country's delegation, was sent home after being caught posing as an athlete during a doping test,[234] and was followed by Kenya's track and field manager, Michael Rotich, who was filmed by a newspaper offering to give athletes advanced notice of any pending drugs test in return for a one-off payment.[235]

On 13 October 2016, the IWF reported that weightlifter Gabriel Sincraian of Romania, who won bronze in the men's 85-kg event, tested positive for excess testosterone in a test connected to the Rio Olympics.[236] On 8 December 2016, the CAS affirmed the disqualification of Sincraian and stripped him of the bronze medal.[237] The CAS also disqualified silver medalist 52 kg boxer Misha Aloian of Russia.

DisqualifiedEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Izzat Artykov   Kyrgyzstan Weightlifting
69 kg
Strychnine   (69 kg) Positive test for strychnine and forfeiture of medal announced by CAS.[238]
Chen Xinyi   China Swimming
100 metre butterfly
Hydrochlorothiazide Tested positive for the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide; applied for B sample to be tested and hearing to be held.[239]
Anastassya Kudinova   Kazakhstan Athletics
400 metres
Drostanolone Out-of-competition test in Almaty, Kazakhstan on 13 July 2016[240]
Kléber Ramos   Brazil Cycling
Road race
CERA IOC pre-games test 31 July and out-of-competition test (blood and urine) 4 August.[241] Provisionally suspended by UCI on 12 August.[242]
Serghei Tarnovschi   Moldova Canoeing
C-1 1000 metres
C-2 1000 metres
GHRP-2   (C-1 1000 metres) Result from pre-game test. Provisionally suspended on 18 August.[243][244] On 11 July 2017, the Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld the International Canoe Federation's decision of 30 January 2017 imposing a period of ineligibility of four years and the disqualification of all results from 8 July 2016 onwards.[245]
Chagnaadorj Usukhbayar   Mongolia Weightlifting
56 kg
Exogenous testosterone IOC out-of-competition test on 7. August.[246]
Misha Aloian   Russia (RUS) Boxing
Men's flyweight
  (Men's flyweight) On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia.[247]
Gabriel Sîncrăian   Romania (ROM) Weightlifting
Men's 85 kg
  (Men's 85 kg) On 8 December 2016, the CAS disqualified weightlifter Gabriel Sîncrăian of Romania and boxer Misha Aloian of Russia.[248]

Did not startEdit

Athletes who were selected for the Games, but provisionally suspended before competing.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Details of test
Sergey Fedorovtsev   Russia Rowing
Men's quadruple sculls
Trimetazidine Disqualified from competing at the 2016 Olympics after a positive out-of-competition drug test.[249]
Silvia Danekova   Bulgaria Athletics
Steeplechase
EPO Provisionally suspended after a failed A-sample test given a few days after arriving in Brazil.[250]
Theodora Giareni   Greece Swimming
50 metre freestyle
Sent home from the Olympics on the day of the opening ceremony after failing a pre-games test conducted in July.[251][252]
Antonis Martasidis   Cyprus Weightlifting
85 kg
Sent home from the Olympics after failing a pre-games test conducted on 25 July.[251]
Michael O'Reilly   Ireland Boxing
Middleweight
not disclosed O'Reilly admitted to taking a dietary supplement given to him by someone unrelated to his team or association.[253]
Narsingh Pancham Yadav   India Wrestling
Freestyle 74 kg
Methandienone Originally cleared to compete by the National Anti-doping Agency of India after failed tests on 25 June and 5 July. Appeal by WADA was upheld by CAS on 18 August, with a 4 years suspension handed down.[254]
Adrian Zieliński   Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone [255]
Tomasz Zieliński   Poland Weightlifting
94 kg
Nandrolone Sent home from the Olympics after failing a test conducted at the Polish Championships in July.[255]

Winter Olympic GamesEdit

1968 GrenobleEdit

No athletes were caught doping at these Games.

1972 SapporoEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Alois Schloder   West Germany Ice hockey Ephedrine

1976 InnsbruckEdit

Name Country Sport Anti-doping rule violation Medals Ref.
Galina Kulakova   Soviet Union Cross-country skiing Ephedrine   (5 km) [21]
Frantisek Pospisil   Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Codeine, Morphine [21][256][257]
Dr. Otto Trefny   Czechoslovakia Ice hockey Administration of prohibited substances to Frantisek Pospisil. Banned from the Olympic Games for life. [21][256][257]

1980 Lake PlacidEdit

No athletes tested positive at these Games.

1984 SarajevoEdit

The Finnish cross-country skier Aki Karvonen admitted in 1994 that he'd had blood transfusions for the Sarajevo Games.[258] Blood transfusions weren't formally banned by IOC until 1986. Karvonen won a silver and two bronze at the games.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Pürevjavyn Batsükh   Mongolia Cross-country skiing Methandienone

1988 CalgaryEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Jaroslaw Morawiecki   Poland Ice hockey Testosterone

1992 AlbertvilleEdit

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games. The Russian biathlete Sergei Tarasov admitted in 2015 that the Russian biathlon team had carried out illegal blood transfusions at the Games. Something went very wrong with his transfusion, and he was rushed to the hospital where they saved his life.[259]

1994 LillehammerEdit

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these Games

1998 NaganoEdit

No athletes were caught using performance-enhancing drugs at these games. The Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, winner of the men's giant slalom, was initially disqualified and stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board after testing positive for marijuana.[260] Marijuana was not then on the list of prohibited substances by the IOC, and their decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and Rebagliati's medal reinstated.[260][261][262]

2002 Salt Lake CityEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Natalya Baranova-Masalkina   Russia Cross-country skiing WADA pre-Games test: EPO[263]
Alain Baxter   Great Britain Alpine skiing Methamphetamine   (slalom)
Olga Danilova   Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin   (10 km pursuit),   (10 km)
Larisa Lazutina   Russia Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin   (30 km),   (10 km pursuit),   (15 km freestyle)
Marc Mayer   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[264][265]
Walter Mayer   Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon Austrian cross-country/biathlon team coach, performed blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[264][265]
Johann Mühlegg   Spain Cross-country skiing Darbepoetin   (50 km),   (30 km freestyle),   (20 km pursuit)
Volker Müller   Austria Cross-country skiing/Biathlon German chiropractor working for the Austrian cross-country/biathlon team, involved in the blood transfusions on Marc Mayer and Achim Walcher.[264][265]
Vasily Pankov   Belarus Ice hockey Nandrolone
Achim Walcher   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of blood-transfusion equipment[264][265]

2006 TurinEdit

On 25 April 2007, six Austrian athletes were banned for life from the Olympics for their involvement in a doping scandal at the 2006 Turin Olympics, the first time the IOC punished athletes without a positive or missed doping test. The Austrians were found guilty of possessing doping substances and taking part in a conspiracy, based on materials seized by Italian police during a raid on the athletes' living quarters. The Austrians also had their competition results from Turin annulled.[266] A seventh athlete, cross-country skier Christian Hoffmann, had his case referred to the International Ski Federation for further investigation, but IOC charges were dismissed.[267][268]

The IOC has retested nearly 500 doping samples that were collected at the 2006 Turin Games. In 2014, the Estonian Olympic Committee was notified by the IOC that a retested sample from cross-country skier Kristina Šmigun had tested positive. On 24 October 2016, the World Anti-Doping Agency Athletes' Commission stated that Šmigun, who won two gold medals at the Turin Games, faces a Court of Arbitration for Sport hearing before the end of October. If Šmigun were to be stripped of her gold medals, Kateřina Neumannová of Czech Republic could be elevated to gold in the 7.5 + 7.5 km double pursuit event. Marit Bjørgen of Norway could acquire a seventh gold medal in the 10 km classical event.[269] The case against Šmigun was dropped on 13 December 2017 without any charges being raised.[270]

Did not startEdit

On 13 February 2006, the Brazilian Olympic Committee announced that Armando dos Santos' preventive antidoping test, which had been done in Brazil on 4 January 2006, was positive for the forbidden substance nandrolone. Santos was ejected from the team, being replaced by former sprinter Claudinei Quirino, the team's substitute athlete.[271]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Armando dos Santos   Brazil Bobsleigh nandrolone[271]

Disqualified during the GamesEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Olga Pyleva   Russia Biathlon Carphedon[272]   (15 km)

Disqualified after the GamesEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals
Roland Diethard   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[273]
Johannes Eder   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession and use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method[273]
Wolfgang Perner   Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[266]
Jürgen Pinter   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[274]
Wolfgang Rottmann   Austria Biathlon Possession of a prohibited substance or method[266]
Martin Tauber   Austria Cross-country skiing Possession of a prohibited substance or method[273]

2010 VancouverEdit

On 23 December 2016, the IOC stated that it will re-analyse all samples from Russian athletes at the Olympic Winter Games of Vancouver 2010.[275] In October 2017, the IOC stated that one sole athlete was caught from retests of doping samples from the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. Biathlete Teja Gregorin was confirmed as this athlete by the International Biathlon Union. A total of 1195 samples from Vancouver 2010 (70% of the 1700 available) were reanalyzed. This included all medalists and all of the 170 Russian athletes. The IOC requested all Russian samples from the 2010 Games be retested after the publication of the McLaren Report. Russia's disappointing performance at Vancouver (11th in gold medal table with a total of 3 golds) is cited as the reason behind the implementation of a doping scheme alleged to have been in operation at major events such as the 2014 Games at Sochi.[276]

Did not startEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Albina Akhatova   Russia Biathlon Erythropoietin[277]
Ekaterina Iourieva   Russia Biathlon Erythropoietin[277]
Dmitri Yaroshenko   Russia Biathlon Erythropoietin[277]
Natalya Matveyeva   Russia Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[278]

Disqualified after the GamesEdit

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Kornelia Marek   Poland Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[279]
Teja Gregorin   Slovenia Biathlon
Women's Individual
Women's Sprint
Women's Pursuit
Women's Mass Start
Women's Relay
GHRP-2 & Metabolite IOC re-analysis of sample in 2017[280]

2014 SochiEdit

According to the director of the country's antidoping laboratory at the time, Grigory Rodchenkov, dozens of Russian athletes at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, including at least 15 medal winners, were part of a state-run doping program, meticulously planned for years to ensure dominance at the Games.[281]

In December 2016, following the release of the McLaren report on Russian doping at the Sochi Olympics, the International Olympic Committee announced the initiation of an investigation of 28 Russian athletes (the number later rose to 46) at the Sochi Olympic Games. La Gazzetta dello Sport reported the names of 17 athletes, of whom 15 are among the 28 under investigation.[282][283]

Three female figure skaters were named as being under investigation. They are Adelina Sotnikova, the singles gold medalist, as well as pairs skaters Tatiana Volosozhar and Ksenia Stolbova. Volosozhar and Stolbova won gold and silver medals, respectively, in pairs skating. Both also won gold medals in the team event, which also puts the other eight team medalists at risk of losing their golds.[284] In November 2017 the proceeding against Sotnikova was dropped.[285]

Six cross-country skiers were suspended from competition on the basis of the McLaren Report: Evgeniy Belov, Alexander Legkov, Alexey Petukhov, Maxim Vylegzhanin, Yulia Ivanova and Evgenia Shapovalova. Legkov won a gold and silver medals, and Vylegzhanin won three silver medals.[286] The IOC disqualified all six from Sochi, imposed lifetime bans and, in the process, stripped Legkov and Vylegzhanin of the medals they had won in four events (three individual medals and one team medal). Nikita Kryukov, Alexander Bessmertnykh and Natalya Matveyeva were also disqualified on December 22, 2017.[287]

The International Biathlon Union suspended two Russian biathletes who were in the Sochi games: Olga Vilukhina and Yana Romanova. Vilukhina won silver in sprint, and both women were on a relay team that won the silver medal.[288] They were disqualified and stripped of their medals on 27 November 2017.[289]

The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation suspended four Russian skeleton sliders. They were Alexander Tretyakov, Elena Nikitina, Maria Orlova and Olga Potylitsina. Tretyakov won a gold medal, and Nikitina won a bronze.[290][291] On November 22, 2017, the IOC stripped these medals and imposed lifetime Olympic bans on all four.[292] Skeleton racer Sergei Chudinov was sanctioned on 28 November 2017.[289]

Seven Russian female ice hockey players were to have hearings before the Oswald Commission on November 22, 2017. Two of the seven were accused of submitting samples showing readings that were physically impossible to be held by a woman. The Russian women's ice hockey team finished sixth at Sochi 2014.[293] On December 12, 2017, six of them were disqualified.[294] Tatiana Burina and Anna Shukina were also disqualified ten days later.[287]

On November 24, 2017, the IOC imposed life bans on bobsledder Alexandr Zubkov and speed skater Olga Fatkulina who won a combined 3 medals (2 gold, 1 silver).[295] All their results were disqualified, meaning that Russia lost its first place in the medal standings. Bobsledders Aleksei Negodaylo and Dmitry Trunenkov were disqualified 3 days later.[289] 3 other Russian athletes who didn't win medals were banned on 29 November 2017.[296] Biathlete Olga Zaitseva and 2 other Russian athletes were banned on December 1, 2017.[297] Bobsledder Alexey Voyevoda who had been already stripped of his gold medals due to the anti-doping violations committed by his teammates was sanctioned on December 18, 2017.[298] Speed skaters Ivan Skobrev and Artyom Kuznetsov, lugers Albert Demchenko and Tatiana Ivanova, and bobsledders Liudmila Udobkina and Maxim Belugin were disqualified on December 22, 2017, bringing the total to 43. Demchenko and Ivanova were also stripped of their silver medals.[287]

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Nicklas Bäckström   Sweden Ice hockey Pseudoephedrine[299]   Awarded despite the doping violation.[300]
Johannes Dürr   Austria Cross-country skiing Erythropoietin[301]
Ralfs Freibergs   Latvia Ice hockey Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone[302]
William Frullani   Italy Bobsleigh Methylhexanamine[303][304]
Marina Lisogor   Ukraine Cross-country skiing Trimetazidine[305][306]
Alexandr Loginov   Russia Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 26 November 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[307]
Irina Starykh   Russia Biathlon EPO Tested positive for EPO in an out-of-competition test conducted Dec. 23, 2013. Withdrawn prior to competition. Starykh has been banned for 2 years.[308]
Ekaterina Iourieva   Russia Biathlon EPO In January 2014, she was reported to fail the doping test again. Withdrawn prior to competition. On July 14, 2014 Iourieva was disqualified for eight years, and all her results after December 23, 2013, were made void.[309]
Vitalijs Pavlovs   Latvia Ice hockey Methylhexanamine[310]
Evi Sachenbacher-Stehle   Germany Biathlon Methylhexanamine[303][311]
Serguei Sednev   Ukraine Biathlon EPO Positive after IBU re-tested sample from 22 January 2013. All results from that date onwards annulled.[312]
Daniel Zalewski   Poland Bobsleigh Stimulant [313]
Alexander Legkov   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
50km Freestyle
4 x 10km Cross Country
30km Skiathlon
Disappearing sample   (50km Freestyle)
  (4 x 10km Relay)
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[314]
Evgeniy Belov   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
30km Skiathlon
15km Classical
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[314]
Maxim Vylegzhanin   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
50km Freestyle
30km Skiathlon
4 × 10km Relay
Team Sprint
Disappearing Sample   (50km Freestyle)
  (Team Sprint)
  (4 x 10km Relay)
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[315]
Evgenia Shapovalova   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Sprint
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[315]
Alexei Petukhov   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Sprint
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[315]
Yulia Ivanova   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
10km Classical
Team Sprint
4 x 5km Relay
30km Freestyle
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[315]
Aleksandr Tretyakov   Russia Skeleton
Men's
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[316]
Elena Nikitina   Russia Skeleton
Women's
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[316]
Olga Potylitsina   Russia Skeleton
Women's
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[316]
Maria Orlova   Russia Skeleton
Women's
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[316]
Olga Stulneva   Russia Bobsleigh
Two-woman
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[317]
Alexandr Zubkov   Russia Bobsleigh
Two-man
Four-man
Disappearing Sample  
 
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[317]
Olga Fatkulina   Russia Speed skating
Women's 500 metres
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[317]
Aleksandr Rumyantsev   Russia Speed skating
Men's 5000 metres
Men's team pursuit
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[317]
Aleksei Negodaylo   Russia Bobsleigh
Four-Man
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[318]
Dmitry Trunenkov   Russia Bobsleigh
Four-Man
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[318]
Olga Vilukhina   Russia Biathlon
Women's sprint
Women's pursuit
Women's mass start
Mixed relay
Women's relay
Disappearing Sample  
 
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[318]
Yana Romanova   Russia Biathlon
Women's sprint
Women's pursuit
Women's individual
Women's relay
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[318]
Sergei Chudinov   Russia Skeleton
Men's
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[318]
Alexander Kasjanov   Russia Bobsleigh
Four-man
Two-man
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[296]
Aleksei Pushkarev   Russia Bobsleigh
Four-man
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[296]
Ilvir Huzin   Russia Bobsleigh
Four-man
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[296]
Yuliya Chekalyova   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Women's 15 kilometre skiathlon
Women's 10 kilometre classical
Women's 4 × 5 kilometre relay
Women's 30 kilometre freestyle
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[297]
Anastasia Dotsenko   Russia Cross-Country Skiing
Women's sprint
Women's team sprint
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[297]
Olga Zaitseva   Russia Biathlon
Women's sprint
Women's pursuit
Women's individual
Women's mass start
Women's relay
Mixed relay
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[297]
Inna Dyubanok   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Yekaterina Lebedeva   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Yekaterina Pashkevich   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Anna Shibanova   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Yekaterina Smolentseva   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Galina Skiba   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[319]
Alexey Voyevoda   Russia Bobsleigh
Bobsleigh, Two-Man
Bobsleigh, Four-Man
Disappearing Sample  
 
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[298]
Albert Demchenko   Russia Luge
Luge, Men's singles
Luge, Team relay
Disappearing Sample  
 
IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Tatiana Ivanova   Russia Luge
Luge, Women's singles
Luge, Team relay
Disappearing Sample   IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Ivan Skobrev   Russia Speed skating Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Artyom Kuznetsov   Russia Speed skating Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Liudmila Udobkina   Russia Bobsleigh Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Maxim Belugin   Russia Bobsleigh Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Tatiana Burina   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Anna Shukina   Russia Ice hockey
Women's tournament
Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Nikita Kryukov   Russia Cross-country skiing Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Alexander Bessmertnykh   Russia Cross-country skiing Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]
Natalya Matveyeva   Russia Cross-country skiing Disappearing Sample IOC sanction imposed in 2017[287]

2018 PyeongchangEdit

After the Russian Olympic Committee was barred from competing at the 2018 Winter Olympics, Russian athletes deemed to be clean were allowed to compete under the Olympic flag as an Olympic Athlete from Russia.

Name Country Sport Banned substance Medals Details of test
Žiga Jeglič   Slovenia men's ice hockey tournament fenoterol [320]
Alexander Krushelnitskiy   Olympic Athletes from Russia mixed doubles curling meldonium   [321]
Kei Saito   Japan men's 5000 meter short track speed skating relay acetazolamide [322]
Nadezhda Sergeeva   Olympic Athletes from Russia two-woman bobsleigh trimetazidine [323]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Gibson, Candace. "How the First Olympics Worked". Discovery Communications. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  2. ^ Lovgren, Stefan. "Ancient Olympics mixed Naked Sports, Pagan Partying". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  3. ^ "Tom Hicks". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  4. ^ "A Brief History of Anti-Doping". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
  5. ^ Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-3407-5.
  6. ^ Begley, Sharon (7 January 2008). "The Drug Charade". Newsweek. Retrieved 27 August 2008.
  7. ^ "Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall". 123explore.com. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  8. ^ Brennan, Christine (14 July 2004). "Babashoff had Mettle to Speak out about Steroids". USA Today. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  9. ^ Longman, Jere (22 April 2001). "Just Following Orders, Doctors' Orders". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  10. ^ "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 26 February 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  11. ^ a b Hunt, Thomas M. (2011). Drug Games: The International Olympic Committee and the Politics of Doping. University of Texas Press. p. 66. ISBN 0292739575.
  12. ^ a b Ruiz, Rebecca R. (13 August 2016). "The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to '84 Olympics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  13. ^ Magnay, Jacquelin (18 April 2003). "Carl Lewis's positive test covered up". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  14. ^ Coile, Zachary (27 April 2005). "Bill Seeks to Toughen Drug Testing in Pro Sports". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  15. ^ "Doping: 3667 athletes tested, IOC seeks action against Halkia's coach". Express India Newspapers. 19 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  16. ^ "A Brief History of Anti-Doping". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  17. ^ a b Mottram, David R. (30 March 2011). Drugs in Sport. Taylor & Francis. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-415-55086-4. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  18. ^ Neil Amdur, "Of Gold and Drugs," The New York Times (September 4, 1972). Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference sr was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ a b Associated Press (30 January 2001). "Better late than never". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 7 May 2001.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Dubin, Charles S. (1990). Commission of Inquiry into the Use of Drugs and Banned Practices Intended to Increase Athletic Performance (part 2, page 214-430) (PDF). Ottawa: Government of Canada Publications. ISBN 0-660-13610-4.
  22. ^ Olympics ban settles doping row, New Straits Times, 2 September 1972
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo Butler, Mark (2015). "Doping violations Olympic Athletics". IAAF World Championships Beijing 2015 Statistics Handbook. Monaco: IAAF. pp. 419–420.
  24. ^ a b c d e Thomas Mitchell Hunt (2007). Drug Games: The International Politics of Doping and the Olympic Movement, 1960--2007. ProQuest. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-549-16219-3. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  25. ^ Wilson, Wayne (Ph.D.); Derse, Ed (2001). Doping in Élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7360-0329-2. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  26. ^ Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  27. ^ a b c Steven B. Kayne (2006). Sport And Exercise Medicine For Pharmacists. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-85369-600-1. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  28. ^ a b Doping Cases Involve Two Athletes, philly.com, 16 July 1996
  29. ^ "I feel like I've been in jail" Farmer-Patrick adamant, Lawrence Journal-World, 4 June 1997
  30. ^ Olympic Medalist seeks help, Manila Standard, 21 December 1997
  31. ^ Gold medalist banned, Eugene Register-Guard, 15 October 1997
  32. ^ a b c d e Olympic News, Sports Library
  33. ^ "Corrections". The New York Times. 1 August 2006. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  34. ^ Olympic doping's list of shame, news24.com, 24 August 2004
  35. ^ Stephen Wilson, Associated Press: IOC Official Says Bromantan Produced by Russian Army, AP News Archive, 31 July 1996
  36. ^ Pat Butcher: Bromantan is Russians' 'rocket fuel', The Independent, 3 August 1996
  37. ^ ATLANTA: DAY 12 -- NOTEBOOK;Three Ejected for Drug Use, The New York Times, 31 July 1996
  38. ^ Arbitrators Reinstate Russians and British Swimmer May Sue, LA Times, 5 August 1996
  39. ^ Burnat, P; Payen, A; Le Brumant-Payen, C; Hugon, M; Ceppa, F (1997). "Bromontan, a new doping agent". Lancet. 350 (9082): 963–4. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(05)63310-7. PMID 9314900.
  40. ^ Special Court overturns IOC decisions vs. Russians, Manila Standard, 6 August 1996
  41. ^ Matt Tabbi: Russians Fume as 3rd Olympian Disqualified, The Moscow Times, 31 July 1996
  42. ^ Russians Want a Drug Lifted From Banned List, The New York Times, 1 August 1996
  43. ^ Russian Is Ousted for Banned Drug, LA Times, 2 August 1996
  44. ^ Reprieve for McMahon as IOC take lenient line, The Irish Times, 2 August 1996
  45. ^ rediff.com: Roll of dishonour. Rediff (30 September 2000). Retrieved on 8 September 2015
  46. ^ Associated Press (26 September 2000). "Raducan tests positive for stimulant". ESPN.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w IOC: ANTI-DOPING RULES PROCEDURES & VIOLATIONS AT THE ATHENS 2004 OLYMPIC GAMES
  48. ^ IOC: INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE IOC DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING YURIY BILONOG BORN ON 9 MARCH 1974, ATHLETE, UKRAINE, ATHLETICS
  49. ^ a b c d IOC: IOC disqualifies four medallists from Athens 2004 following further analysis of stored samples , olympic.org, 5 December 2012
  50. ^ a b Tom Wer: Two Greek baseball players barred after doping test, USA Today, 9 August 2004
  51. ^ USADA: U.S. Track Athlete, Crystal Cox, Accepts Four-Year Suspension From USADA, usada.org, 29 January 2010
  52. ^ a b c d e f "Athletes Sanctioned for a Doping Offence Committed During 2004" (PDF). iaaf.org via web.archive.org. IAAF. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  53. ^ INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE IOC EXECUTIVE BOARD DECISION REGARDING MR TYLER HAMILTON BORN ON 1 MARCH 1971, ATHLETE, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CYCLING
  54. ^ INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE IOC DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING SVETLANA KRIVELYOVA BORN ON 13 JUNE 1969, ATHLETE, RUSSIA, ATHLETICS
  55. ^ IOC Executive Board Decision Regarding Svetlana Krivelyova born on 13 June 1969, Athlete, Russia, Athletics
  56. ^ INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE IOC DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING OLEG PEREPETCHENOV BORN ON 6 SEPTEMBER 1975, ATHLETE, RUSSIA, WEIGHTLIFTING
  57. ^ Karolos Grochmann: Russian weightlifter stripped of Athens bronze medal, thestar.com.my, 13 February 2013
  58. ^ a b c "Beijing Faces Big Challenge in Keeping Olympics Drug-Free". Deutsche Welle. 8 March 2008.
  59. ^ a b McGrath, Matt (21 July 2008). "Concerns over Olympic drug test". BBC.
  60. ^ KNA; Reuters (23 August 2008). "Ukrainischer Gewichtheber Razoronov positiv getestet". Der Spiegel.
  61. ^ "Elvan Abeylegesse tests positive". Turkish Athletics. 13 August 2015. Archived from the original on 16 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  62. ^ a b IAAF March 2017 Newsletter
  63. ^ Competitors return positive drugs tests
  64. ^ International Weightlifting Federation (18 June 2016). "PUBLIC DISCLOSURES". Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  65. ^ a b Associated Press (23 November 2016). "Kazakh weightlifter Ilya Ilyin stripped of 2 Olympic gold medals". ESPN.com. Retrieved 24 November 2016. The Kazakhstan Olympic Committee said in a statement that it has received formal notification from the International Olympic Committee stripping Ilyin of the gold medals he won in 2008 and 2012, both in the 94-kilogram class.
  66. ^ IOC sanctions Turkish weightlifter for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008
  67. ^ [1]
  68. ^ [2]
  69. ^ Russia stripped of 4×100 gold medal from 2008 Olympics because of doping
  70. ^ IOC sanctions Yulia Chermoshanskaya for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008
  71. ^ IOC sanctions three athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008
  72. ^ Allen, Scott (19 August 2016). "IOC strips Russia of another 2008 track and field medal for doping violations". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  73. ^ Public disclosures
  74. ^ a b "Wrestling Legends Besik Kudukhov & Artur Taymazov Stripped Of Olympic Medals". FloWrestling.Org. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
  75. ^ a b c d e f g "IOC sanctions six athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". olympic.org. IOC. Archived from the original on 31 August 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  76. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-two-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-tests-at-beijing-2008
  77. ^ a b c https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-four-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-tests-at-beijing-2008-and-london-2012-1
  78. ^ "Another Olympic Medal Stripped, Fedoryshyn Of Ukraine Loses Medal". FloWrestling.Org. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
  79. ^ a b https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-anna-chicherova-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008
  80. ^ a b "Anti-Doping News". International Weightlifting Federation. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "IOC Sanctions Nine Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Test at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "IOC Sanctions 16 Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Tests at Beijing 2008". International Olympic Committee. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "IOC Sanctions Seven Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Tests at Beijing 2008 and London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "IOC Sanctions Eight Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Test at Beijing 2008 and London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  85. ^ a b "IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008". IOC. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  86. ^ Ingle, Sean (25 January 2017). "Usain Bolt stripped of 2008 Olympic relay gold after Nesta Carter fails drug test". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  87. ^ "Usain Bolt loses one Olympic gold medal as Nesta Carter tests positive". BBC Sport. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  88. ^ "IOC SANCTIONS ONE ATHLETE FOR FAILING ANTI-DOPING TEST AT BEIJING 2008". International Olympic Committee. 1 March 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  89. ^ "Blonska stripped of silver medal". BBC Sport. 22 August 2008.
  90. ^ a b IAAF: Athletes currently ineligible to compete in Athletics following an Anti-Doping Rule Violation, iaaf.org, 14 January 2015
  91. ^ a b IAAF: Andrei MIKHNEVICH (BLR) – results annulled from August 2005, iaaf.org, 31 July 2013
  92. ^ IOC: IOC Latest News Olympic Highlights, olympic.org
  93. ^ "Ukrainian lifter fails dope test". BBC Sport. 23 August 2008.
  94. ^ a b c d e Wilson, Stephen (8 July 2009). "Backup samples positive for 5 Olympians". Associated Press.
  95. ^ IOC: IOC sanctions Yulia Chermoshanskaya for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008
  96. ^ a b c "IOC sanctions three athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". olympic.org. IOC. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  97. ^ a b c d "IOC sanctions four athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008 and London 2012". olympic.org. IOC. Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
  98. ^ a b "IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping tests at Beijing 2008". olympic.org. IOC. Archived from the original on 1 September 2016. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  99. ^ IOC: IOC sanctions Turkish weightlifter for failing anti-doping test at Beijing 2008
  100. ^ a b c "IOC Sanctions Four Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Tests at Beijing 2008 and London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  101. ^ a b https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-two-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008
  102. ^ https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-one-athlete-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008
  103. ^ a b c https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-three-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008-and-london-2012
  104. ^ a b https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-two-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-beijing-2008-and-london-2012
  105. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/cycling/7529836.stm
  106. ^ "Greece's Halkia fails test: officials". Reuters. 16 August 2008. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  107. ^ "Greek champion fails drugs test". BBC News. 17 August 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  108. ^ "Greek champion fails drugs test". BBC Sport. 17 August 2008.
  109. ^ "Spanish cyclist Moreno tests positive for EPO". guardian.co.uk. 11 August 2008.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g "Seven Russians handed doping bans". BBC Sport. BBC. 20 October 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  111. ^ a b c "London 2012: All medallists to be drugs tested at Olympics". BBC News Online. 15 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  112. ^ Grohmann, Karolos (24 July 2012). "Testers nab more than 100 athletes - WADA". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  113. ^ "Testing during Games-time". UKAD. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  114. ^ "Olympics shot put: Carl Myerscough out of London 2012". BBC News Online. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  115. ^ Macur, Rebecca R. Ruiz, Juliet; Austen, Ian (15 June 2016). "Even With Confession of Cheating, World's Doping Watchdog Did Nothing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  116. ^ Fyodorov, Gennady (30 April 2013). "Pishchalnikova given 10-year doping ban". Reuters. Retrieved 30 April 2013.
  117. ^ "Road race winner Alexander Vinokourov considers retiring". BBC News Online. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  118. ^ "Women's Discus Throw". London2012.com. 4 August 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  119. ^ Phillips, Mitch (10 July 2012). "Gold medals tainted by time-served dopers". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  120. ^ a b "Doping back in spotlight with new cases, past offenders". Reuters. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  121. ^ "Jamaicans given three-month ban". BBC News Online. 14 September 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  122. ^ "Ángel Mullera habría consumido EPO para lograr la clasificación para los Juegos de Londres". Cadenaser.com. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  123. ^ "Ángel Mullera correrá definitivamente los 3.000 obstáculos". ABC.es. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  124. ^ Debbie Dunn withdraws from Olympics after positive drugs test. The Guardian (14 July 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  125. ^ London 2012: Two more athletes withdrawn over anti-doping tests. The Guardian (26 July 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  126. ^ London 2012: Selsouli to miss Games after failed drugs test. BBC Sport (25 July 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  127. ^ London 2012 Olympics: Sprinter Tameka Williams sent home over drugs . Scotsman (30 July 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  128. ^ Ivan Tsikhan tests positive. ESPN (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  129. ^ London 2012: Amine Laalou, Moroccan 1500m runner, fails doping test. The Guardian (3 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  130. ^ Moldova hammer thrower tossed for doping test. Sports Illustrated (4 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  131. ^ Olympics 400m: Colombian Diego Palomeque fails drugs test. BBC Sport (12 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  132. ^ Anzolin, Elisa (8 August 2012). Athletics - Tearful Schwazer relieved by doping ban. Reuters. Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  133. ^ London 2012: Positive doping test for Syrian athlete Ghfran Almouhamad. The Guardian (11 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  134. ^ Bryant, Tom (13 August 2012). Belarus shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk stripped of gold for doping. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2012-08-13.
  135. ^ Two Olympians banned over doping. Sky News Australia (19 December 2012) Retrieved on 2012-03-03
  136. ^ Ruiz, Rebecca R. (9 November 2015). "Drugs Pervade Sport in Russia, World Anti-Doping Agency Report Finds". The New York Times.
  137. ^ "The Independent Commission Report #1" (PDF). Independent Commission Investigation. 9 November 2015.
  138. ^ London 2012: Four Olympic weightlifting champions test positive
  139. ^ "Eleven London 2012 weightlifters fail doping tests". Reuters. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  140. ^ a b c https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-two-athletes-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  141. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "IOC Sanctions Eight Athletes for Failing Anti-Doping Test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  142. ^ "IOC sanctions Ukrainian weightlifter Yulia Kalina for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 13 July 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  143. ^ a b "Results by Events". IWF. July 2016.
  144. ^ IOC sanctions four athletes for failing anti-doping tests
  145. ^ "IOC strips Ukrainian athlete of 2012 javelin silver". Reuters. 9 August 2016.
  146. ^ IOC sanctions Evgeniia Kolodko for failing anti-doping test at London 2012
  147. ^ "IOC DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION DECISION REGARDING BESIK KUDUKHOV" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  148. ^ "IWF Anti-Doping news". International Weightlifting Federation. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  149. ^ International Weightlifting Federation (6 October 2016). "PUBLIC DISCLOSURE". Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  150. ^ a b https://www.olympic.org/news/ioc-sanctions-tatyana-lysenko-for-failing-anti-doping-test-at-london-2012
  151. ^ "IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  152. ^ "IOC sanctions 12 athletes for failing anti-doping test at London 2012". International Olympic Committee. 21 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  153. ^ "Russian heptathlete Chernova stripped of world title and Olympic bronze for doping". insidethegames. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  154. ^ "The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) issues decisions in the cases of Tatyana Chernova, Ekaterina Sharmina and Kristina Ugarova" (PDF). Court of Arbitration for Sport. 29 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  155. ^ "IOC SANCTIONS THREE ATHLETES FOR FAILING ANTI-DOPING TEST AT LONDON 2012". International Olympic Committee. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  156. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/athletics/11272052/Russias-London-2012-800m-champion-caught-in-doping-storm.html
  157. ^ "THE COURT OF ARBITRATION FOR SPORT (CAS) IMPOSES FOUR-YEAR PERIOD OF INELIGIBILITY ON RUSSIAN ATHLETE MARIYA SAVINOVA-FARNOSOVA" (PDF). Court of Arbitration for Sport. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
  158. ^ http://www.tas-cas.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Media_Release_4480_4486_4487_4655.pdf CAS Media Release. April 7, 2017.
  159. ^ 2 Saudi athletes banned for doping offenses, Yahoo Sports, 22 November 2013
  160. ^ http://www.athleticsweekly.com/news/elvan-abeylegesse-gamze-bulut-sanctions-announced-by-iaaf-59374
  161. ^ http://www.tas-cas.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Media_Release_4481.pdf
  162. ^ "London 2012: Positive doping test for Syrian athlete Ghfran Almouhamad". Guardian. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  163. ^ IAAF News Edition 143 - 28 May 2013 - Athletes Sanctioned for a Doping Offence since the last Newsletter, According to information received by the IAAF as of 22 May 2013
  164. ^ a b c d e "Athletes currently suspended from all competitions in athletics following an Anti-Doping Rule Violation as at: 26.06.14". iaaf.org. IAAF. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  165. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "IAAF ATHLETICS STATISTICS BOOK Games of the XXXI Olympiad Rio de Janeiro 2016". IAAF. pp. 32–33. Archived from the original on 24 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  166. ^ a b c d e "MEDIA RELEASE ATHLETICS THE COURT OF ARBITRATION FOR SPORT (CAS) UPHOLDS SIX APPEALS FILED BY THE IAAF AGAINST RUSSIAN ATHLETES" (PDF). The Court of Arbitration for Sport. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  167. ^ http://www.sportsintegrityinitiative.com/cas-confirms-sanctions-russias-evdokimova-krivov/
  168. ^ a b c d e f g h "Athletes currently suspended from all competitions in athletics following an Anti-Doping Rule Violation as at: 20.07.16". iaaf.org. IAAF. Archived from the original on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  169. ^ CAS: MEDIA RELEASE ATHLETICS SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT IN THE CASE OF IAAF V. TURKISH ATHLETIC FEDERATION AND ASLI CAKIR-ALPTEKIN, tas-cas.org
  170. ^ Asli Cakir Alptekin banned: Eight-year suspension for London 2012 gold medallist, The Independent, 17 August 2015
  171. ^ https://www.insidethegames.biz/articles/1044208/russian-heptathlete-chernova-stripped-of-world-title-and-olympic-bronze-for-doping
  172. ^ Associated Press (6 August 2012). "U.S. judoka expelled from Olympics for cannabis". CBCSports.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  173. ^ "Tribunal Arbitral du Sport Court of Arbitration for Sport MEDIA RELEASE ATHLETICS – ANTI-DOPING MARTA DOMINGUEZ BANNED FOR 3 YEARS BY THE COURT OF ARBITRATION FOR SPORT (CAS)" (PDF). tas-cas.org. Court of Arbitration for Sport. 19 November 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  174. ^ Associated Press: Qatari middle-distance runner given two-year doping ban, Washington Post, 24 February 2015
  175. ^ IAAF: Positive cases in athletics Sanctioned according to information received by the IAAF as of 20 February 2015
  176. ^ USADA: US Track & Field Athlete, Gay, Accepts Sanction For Anti-Doping Rule Violation, usada.org, 2 May 2014
  177. ^ USADA: AAA Panel Imposes Eight-Year Ban For US Track & Field Coach, Drummond, For Multiple Anti-Doping Rule Violations, usada.org, 14 Dec