A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse.

Modern hospital hematology laboratory

Extraction Edit

A venipuncture performed using a vacutainer

A venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid (plasma) from the body for analysis. Blood flows throughout the body, acting as a medium that provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and carries waste products back to the excretory systems for disposal. Consequently, the state of the bloodstream affects or is affected by, many medical conditions. For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests.[1]

If only a few drops of blood are needed, a fingerstick is performed instead of a venipuncture.[2]

In dwelling arterial, central venous and peripheral venous lines can also be used to draw blood.[3]

Phlebotomists, laboratory practitioners and nurses are those in charge of extracting blood from a patient. However, in special circumstances, and/or emergency situations, paramedics and physicians extract the blood. Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases.[4][5]

Types of tests Edit

Vacutainer tubes used in the collection of blood. During venipuncture, pressure differences between the vein and the vacuum in the Vacutainer forces blood into the tube.

Biochemical analysis Edit

A basic metabolic panel measures sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), magnesium, creatinine, glucose, and sometimes calcium. Tests that focus on cholesterol levels can determine LDL and HDL cholesterol levels, as well as triglyceride levels.[6]

Some tests, such as those that measure glucose or a lipid profile, require fasting (or no food consumption) eight to twelve hours prior to the drawing of the blood sample.[7]

For the majority of tests, blood is usually obtained from the patient's vein. Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery. Blood gas analysis of arterial blood is primarily used to monitor carbon dioxide and oxygen levels related to pulmonary function, but is also used to measure blood pH and bicarbonate levels for certain metabolic conditions.[8]

While the regular glucose test is taken at a certain point in time, the glucose tolerance test involves repeated testing to determine the rate at which glucose is processed by the body.[9]

Blood tests are also used to identify autoimmune diseases and Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies (see also Radioallergosorbent test).[10]: 1118 

Normal ranges Edit

Blood tests results should always be interpreted using the ranges provided by the laboratory that performed the test. Example ranges are shown below.

Test[11][12] Low High Unit Comments
Sodium (Na) 134 145 mmol/L
Potassium (K) 3.5 5.0 mmol/L
Urea 2.5 6.4 mmol/L Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Urea 15 40 mg/dL
Creatinine - male 62 115 μmol/L
Creatinine - female 53 97 μmol/L
Creatinine - male 0.7 1.3 mg/dL
Creatinine - female 0.6 1.2 mg/dL
Glucose (fasting) 3.9 5.8 mmol/L See also glycated hemoglobin
Glucose (fasting) 70 120 mg/dL

Common abbreviations Edit

Upon completion of a blood test analysis, patients may receive a report with blood test abbreviations. Examples of common blood test abbreviations are shown below.

Abbreviation[13][14] Stands for Description
HDL High Density Lipoprotein Level of "good cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values)
LDL Low Density Lipoprotein Level of "bad cholesterol" in the blood (ratio of HDL:LDL is usually more significant than actual values)
PV Plasma Viscosity Plasma Viscometry (PV) is the measurement of the viscosity of blood plasma. The result is a number given in milliPascal seconds (m.Pas.s) – known as the PV, or plasma viscosity.
CRP C-Reactive Protein Level of inflammation with the body. If the immune system is fighting an infection or illness, CRP will be higher.


Complete Blood Count

(UK: Full Blood Count)

Analysis of 15 different blood test readings to provide information about overall health.
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone Thyroid regulates the function of metabolism. Low levels can lead to weight loss, while high levels lead to weight gain.
PTH Parathyroid hormone Regulates serum calcium
ESR Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Indicates the time it takes for red blood cells to move down a tube. This shows signs of inflammation within a body.
INR International Normalized Ratio This is a blood clotting test.
LFT Liver Function Test This test reveals the levels of waste products, enzymes and proteins that are processed by the liver.
U+E Urea and Electrolytes This test is performed to measure the function of kidney.
CMP Comprehensive Metabolic Panel This analysis provides an overall picture of the metabolism and chemical balance of the body.
WBC White Blood Cell Count The level of white blood cells.
RBC Red Blood Cell Count The level of red blood cells.
HBC Hemoglobin Level of hemoglobin molecules.
HCT Hematocrit Similar to RBC but in percentage.
PLT Platelets Platelets levels in the blood.

Molecular profiles Edit

Cellular evaluation Edit

Future alternatives Edit

Saliva tests Edit

In 2008, scientists announced that the more cost effective saliva testing could eventually replace some blood tests, as saliva contains 20% of the proteins found in blood.[15] Saliva testing may not be appropriate or available for all markers. For example, lipid levels cannot be measured with saliva testing.

Microemulsion Edit

In February 2011, Canadian researchers at the University of Calgary's Schulich School of Engineering announced a microchip for blood tests. Dubbed a microemulsion, a droplet of blood captured inside a layer of another substance. It can control the exact size and spacing of the droplets. The new test could improve the efficiency, accuracy, and speed of laboratory tests while also doing it cheaply.[16] The microchip costs $25, whereas the robotic dispensers currently in use cost around $10,000.[citation needed]


In March 2011, a team of researchers from UC Berkeley, DCU and University of Valparaíso have developed lab-on-a-chip that can diagnose diseases within 10 minutes without the use of external tubing and extra components. It is called Self-powered Integrated Microfluidic Blood Analysis System (SIMBAS). It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma (99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments). Researchers used plastic components, to reduce manufacturing costs.[17][18]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "Venipuncture - the extraction of blood using a needle and syringe". Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  2. ^ MacLennan CA, van Oosterhout JJ, White SA, Drayson MT, Zijlstra EE, Molyneux ME (July 2007). "Finger-prick blood samples can be used interchangeably with venous samples for CD4 cell counting indicating their potential for use in CD4 rapid tests". AIDS. 21 (12): 1643–5. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32823bcb03. PMC 2408852. PMID 17630562.
  3. ^ Lesser, Finnian D; Lanham, David A; Davis, Daniel (6 May 2020). "Blood sampled from existing peripheral IV cannulae yields results equivalent to venepuncture: a systematic review". JRSM Open. 11 (5): 205427041989481. doi:10.1177/2054270419894817. PMC 7236571. PMID 32523703.
  4. ^ Aaron SD, Vandemheen KL, Naftel SA, Lewis MJ, Rodger MA (2003). "Topical tetracaine prior to arterial puncture: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Respir. Med. 97 (11): 1195–1199. doi:10.1016/S0954-6111(03)00226-9. PMID 14635973.
  5. ^ "Michigan careers". Michigan.gov. 2010-01-05. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
  6. ^ Belargo, Kevin. "Cholesterol Levels". Manic EP. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
  7. ^ "Fasting blood samples". NHS UK. Archived from the original on June 21, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  8. ^ "Blood gases". NHS UK. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  9. ^ "Glucose tolerance test". Medline. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  10. ^ Handbook of nutrition and food. Carolyn D. Berdanier, Johanna T. Dwyer, Elaine B. Feldman (2 ed.). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8493-9218-4. OCLC 77830546.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  11. ^ C. A. Burtis and E. R. Ashwood, Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry (1994) 2nd edition, ISBN 0-7216-4472-4
  12. ^ "Blood tests normal ranges". Monthly Prescribing Reference. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
  13. ^ "Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25. Retrieved 2016-04-16.
  14. ^ "Understanding Blood Tests Online". Lab Tests Portal. Archived from the original on 2016-04-09. Retrieved 2016-04-16.
  15. ^ Denny P, Hagen FK, Hardt M, et al. (May 2008). "The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions". J. Proteome Res. 7 (5): 1994–2006. doi:10.1021/pr700764j. PMC 2839126. PMID 18361515.
  16. ^ "Microchip offers faster and cheaper way to test blood". CTV News. Bell Media. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  17. ^ Taylor, Kate (2011-03-18). "Blood analysis chip detects diseases in minutes". Archived from the original on 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
  18. ^ Dailey, Jessica (2011-03-22). "New SIMBAS Blood Analysis Biochip Can Diagnose Diseases In Minutes". Inhabitat.com. Archived from the original on 2011-03-26. Retrieved 2011-03-26.