Carleton (Ontario federal electoral district)

Carleton is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1968 and since 2015. It was represented in the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada from 1821 to 1840 and in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada from 1841 until 1866. It has been represented by Pierre Poilievre, the current Leader of the Opposition, since its creation in 2015.

Carleton
Ontario electoral district
Carleton in relation to other electoral districts in Ottawa
Federal electoral district
LegislatureHouse of Commons
MP
 
 
 
Pierre Poilievre
Conservative
District created1867
First contested1867
Last contested2021
District webpageprofile, map
Demographics
Population (2016)[1]102,918
Electors (2015)71,947
Area (km²)[1]1,229
Pop. density (per km²)83.7
Census division(s)Ottawa
Census subdivision(s)Ottawa

The original riding was created by the British North America Act of 1867. However, the riding had existed since 1821 in the Parliament of Upper Canada and the Parliament of the Province of Canada. It originally consisted of Carleton County. In 1966, it was redistributed into the new electoral districts of Grenville—Carleton, Lanark and Renfrew, Ottawa Centre, Ottawa West and Ottawa—Carleton.

Religion in Carleton (2021, Based on 2013 Representation Order)[2]

  Christian (57.2%)
  Muslim (8.1%)
  Hindu (2.0%)
  Buddhist (1.0%)
  Sikh (0.9%)
  Other (0.9%)
  Irreligion (29.9%)

This riding was re-created by the 2012 electoral redistribution from parts of Nepean—Carleton (59%), Carleton—Mississippi Mills (41%) and a small portion of Ottawa South. It was contested in the 2015 federal election.

Demographics

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According to the 2021 Canadian census[3]

Languages: 68.6% English, 7.0% French, 3.8% Arabic, 2.1% Mandarin, 1.0% Spanish
Religions: 57.2% Christian (31.3% Catholic, 5.5% Anglican, 5.1% United Church, 2.0% Christian Orthodox, 1.3% Presbyterian, 1.0% Pentecostal, 11.0% Other), 8.1% Muslim, 2.0% Hindu, 1.0% Buddhist, 0.9% Sikh, 0.9% Other, 29.9% None
Median income: $58,400 (2020)
Average income: $72,300 (2020)

Panethnic groups in Carleton (2011−2021)
Panethnic group 2021[4] 2016[5] 2011[6]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
European[a] 95,190 72.85% 84,600 83% 77,900 87.75%
Middle Eastern[b] 7,965 6.1% 3,720 3.65% 1,785 2.01%
South Asian 7,750 5.93% 2,735 2.68% 1,745 1.97%
East Asian[c] 6,105 4.67% 3,220 3.16% 2,090 2.35%
African 4,980 3.81% 2,615 2.57% 1,395 1.57%
Indigenous 3,315 2.54% 2,320 2.28% 1,570 1.77%
Southeast Asian[d] 2,685 2.05% 1,425 1.4% 1,210 1.36%
Latin American 1,295 0.99% 655 0.64% 675 0.76%
Other/multiracial[e] 1,390 1.06% 640 0.63% 420 0.47%
Total responses 130,660 99.46% 101,930 99.04% 88,775 99.17%
Total population 131,375 100% 102,918 100% 89,522 100%
Notes: Totals greater than 100% due to multiple origin responses.
Demographics based on 2012 Canadian federal electoral redistribution riding boundaries.

Riding history

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The federal riding consisted initially of Carleton County. In 1882, it was redefined to consist of the townships of Nepean, North Gower, Marlboro, March, Torbolton and Goulbourn, and the village of Richmond. In 1903, it was redefined to consist of the county of Carleton, excluding the city of Ottawa and the townships of Gloucester and Osgoode.

In 1914, it was redefined to include parts of the city of Ottawa not included in either the electoral district of Ottawa or Rideau Ward of Ottawa.

In 1924, it was redefined as consisting of the county of Carleton, excluding the townships of Gloucester and Osgoode and that part of the city of Ottawa lying east of a line drawn from south to north along the Canadian Pacific Railway line, Somerset Street, Bayswater Avenue, Bayview Road, and Mason Street to the Ottawa River.

In 1933, it was redefined as consisting of the county of Carleton, excluding the township of Gloucester, the town of Eastview, the village of Rockcliffe Park and the part of the city of Ottawa lying east of Parkdale Avenue.

In 1947, it was redefined as consisting of the county of Carleton, excluding the township of Gloucester, the town of Eastview and the village of Rockcliffe Park, and including the parts of Victoria and Elmdale wards in the city of Ottawa west of Parkdale Avenue, the part of Dalhousie ward south of Carling Avenue, the part of Capital ward south of Carling Avenue and Linden Terrace, and the part of Riverdale ward south of Riverdale Avenue and west of Main Street.

In 1952, it was redefined as consisting of the county of Carleton (excluding the township of Gloucester, the town of Eastview and the village of Rockcliffe Park), and the part of the city of Ottawa west of a line drawn from north to south along Parkdale Avenue, east along Carling Avenue, north along O'Connor Street, east along Linden Terrace to the Rideau Canal, south along the canal, east along Echo Drive, northeast along Riverdale Avenue, south along Main Street, southwest along the Rideau River.

The electoral district was abolished in 1966 when it was redistributed between Grenville—Carleton, Lanark and Renfrew, Ottawa Centre, Ottawa West and Ottawa—Carleton ridings.

Riding Revival

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The riding was recreated in 2015 by the 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution and was legally defined in the 2013 representation order. Initially, the riding was known as Rideau—Carleton. 40.58% of the riding came from the riding of Carleton—Mississippi Mills, 59.37% from Nepean—Carleton and 0.04% from Ottawa South. It came into effect upon the call of the next federal election in October 2015.

2022 Federal Redistribution

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The 2022 Canadian federal electoral redistribution resulted in much of the riding's few urban polls being swapped for other rural areas within the City of Ottawa.[7]

The area north of Hazeldean Road has been reassigned to the new Kanata riding.

The largely rural portions west of the 417 and north of Craig's Side Road / Murphy Side Road / Constance Lake Road / Berry Side Road has been reassigned from the old Kanata—Carleton riding to Carleton. This includes several rural commmunities: Fitzroy Harbour, Dunrobin, Kinburn and Constance Bay.

Another rural area (south of Bells Corners, west of the 416 and south of Barnsdale Road) was allocated to the riding from the Nepean riding.

In the east, parts of Orléans and Glengarry—Prescott—Russell south of Highway 417 and within the city of Ottawa, and that part of Ottawa South south of the 417 and Hunt Club Road and east of Hawthorne Road, were moved into the riding.

The Findlay Creek area was reallocated to Ottawa South.

Members of Parliament of Upper Canada

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(returned two members from 1831 to 1840)
  1. William Morris (1821–1825)
  2. George Thew Burke (1825–1829)
  3. Thomas Mabon Radenhurst (1829–1831)
  4. Hamnett Kirkes Pinhey (1831) and John Bower Lewis (1831–1840)
  5. George Lyon (1831–1835)
  6. Edward Malloch (1835–1840)

Members of Parliament of the Province of Canada

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  1. James Johnston, Reformer (1841–1846)
  2. George Lyon, Conservative (1846–1848)
  3. Edward Malloch (1848–1854)
  4. William F. Powell, Conservative (1854–1866)

Members of Parliament

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This riding has elected the following members of Parliament:

Carleton
Parliament Years Member Party
1st  1867–1872     John Holmes Liberal–Conservative
2nd  1872–1874     John Rochester Conservative
3rd  1874–1878
4th  1878–1882
5th  1882–1887     John A. Macdonald Liberal–Conservative
6th  1887–1888
 1888–1891     George Lemuel Dickinson Conservative
7th  1891–1896 William Thomas Hodgins
8th  1896–1900
9th  1900–1904 Edward Kidd
10th  1904–1905
 1905–1908 Robert Borden
11th  1908–1909
 1909–1911 Edward Kidd
12th  1911–1912
 1912–1917 William Foster Garland
13th  1917–1921     George Boyce Government (Unionist)
14th  1921–1925     William Foster Garland Conservative
15th  1925–1926
16th  1926–1930
17th  1930–1935
18th  1935–1940 Alonzo Hyndman
19th  1940–1940     National Government
 1940–1945     George Russell Boucher Conservative
20th  1945–1948     Progressive Conservative
 1948–1949 George A. Drew
21st  1949–1953
22nd  1953–1957
23rd  1957–1958 Dick Bell
24th  1958–1962
25th  1962–1963
26th  1963–1965     Lloyd Francis Liberal
27th  1965–1968     Dick Bell Progressive Conservative
Riding dissolved into Grenville—Carleton, Lanark and Renfrew,
Ottawa Centre, Ottawa West, and Ottawa—Carleton
Riding re-created from Carleton—Mississippi Mills,
Nepean—Carleton, and Ottawa South
42nd  2015–2019     Pierre Poilievre Conservative
43rd  2019–2021
44th  2021–present

Election results

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Carleton, 2015–present

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Graph of election results in Carleton since 2011


2021 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Pierre Poilievre 35,356 49.9 +3.55 $108,590.73
Liberal Gustave Roy 24,298 34.3 −3.93 $91,061.91
New Democratic Kevin Hua 8,164 11.5 +2.16 $3,138.40
People's Peter Crawley 1,728 2.4 +1.26 $1,053.55
Green Nira Dookeran 1,327 1.9 −3.04 $2,403.07
Total valid votes/expense limit 70,873 99.37 $122,996.20
Total rejected ballots 447 0.63 +0.03
Turnout 71,320 74.57 −2.61
Eligible voters 95,639
Conservative hold Swing +3.74
Source: Elections Canada[8][9][10]
2021 federal election redistributed results[11]
Party Vote %
  Conservative 36,534 51.86
  Liberal 22,448 31.86
  New Democratic 8,012 11.37
  People's 1,939 2.75
  Green 1,512 2.15
  Others 7 0.01
2019 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Pierre Poilievre 32,147 46.35 −0.51 $95,365.47
Liberal Chris Rodgers 26,518 38.23 −5.51 $106,000.32
New Democratic Kevin Hua 6,479 9.34 +3.21 $2,169.60
Green Gordon Kubanek 3,423 4.94 +1.68 $5,330.23
People's Alain Musende 792 1.14 none listed
Total valid votes/expense limit 69,359 100
Total rejected ballots 408 0.60 +0.27
Turnout 67,767 77.18 −3.77
Eligible voters 87,807
Conservative hold Swing +2.50
Source: Elections Canada[12][13]
2015 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Conservative Pierre Poilievre 27,762 46.86 −14.81 $166,805.35
Liberal Chris Rodgers 25,913 43.74 +22.88 $101,336.54
New Democratic KC Larocque 3,632 6.13 −7.22 $17,692.44
Green Deborah Coyne 1,932 3.26 −0.86 $15,632.31
Total valid votes/expense limit 59,239 100.00   $206,141.87
Total rejected ballots 196 0.33
Turnout 59,435 80.95
Eligible voters 73,418
Conservative hold Swing −18.84
2011 federal election redistributed results[14]
Party Vote %
  Conservative 28,928 61.67
  Liberal 9,786 20.86
  New Democratic 6,262 13.35
  Green 1,932 4.11

Carleton, 1867–1968

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Graph of election results in Carleton (1896–1968, minor parties that never got 2% of the vote or didn't run consistently are omitted)
1965 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Dick Bell 32,456 43.90 –2.39
Liberal Lloyd Francis 31,523 42.64 –5.37
New Democratic Donald V. Stirling 9,953 13.46 +8.79
Total valid votes 73,932 100.0  
Progressive Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +1.49
1963 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Lloyd Francis 32,325 48.01 +6.02
Progressive Conservative Dick Bell 31,168 46.29 –5.40
New Democratic Lewis Hanley 3,144 4.67 –0.19
Social Credit Harold Herbert Splett 699 1.04 –0.44
Total valid votes 67,336 100.0  
Liberal gain from Progressive Conservative Swing +5.71
1962 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Dick Bell 32,125 51.66 –15.81
Liberal Lloyd Francis 26,109 41.99 +13.86
New Democratic Lewis Hanley 3,024 4.86 +1.20
Social Credit Harold Herbert Splett 922 1.48 +0.75
Total valid votes 62,180 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing –14.84
1958 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Dick Bell 32,741 67.47 +5.69
Liberal George Humble 13,652 28.13 –5.79
Co-operative Commonwealth Stewart I. Crawford 1,777 3.66 +0.70
Social Credit Grace Gough 355 0.73 –0.62
Total valid votes 48,525 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing +5.74
1957 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative Dick Bell 27,865 61.78 +6.53
Liberal Frank Egan Dunlap 15,298 33.92 –6.34
Co-operative Commonwealth Stewart I. Crawford 1,334 2.96 +0.01
Social Credit Eric Kingsley Fallis 607 1.35 –0.19
Total valid votes 45,104 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing +6.44
1953 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative George Drew 20,137 55.25 +2.26
Liberal John H. McDonald 14,676 40.26 –0.45
Co-operative Commonwealth Stewart I. Crawford 1,075 2.95 –3.35
Social Credit Eric Kingsley Fallis 562 1.54
Total valid votes 36,450 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing +1.36
1949 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative George Drew 18,141 52.99 –23.28
Liberal John H. McDonald 13,937 40.71
Co-operative Commonwealth Eugene Forsey 2,155 6.30 –14.63
Total valid votes 34,233 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing –32.00
Canadian federal by-election, 20 December 1948
On the resignation of G. Russell Boucher, 1 November 1948
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative George Drew 12,284 76.27 +14.01
Co-operative Commonwealth Eugene Forsey 3,371 20.93 +13.46
Social Credit J. Nelson McCracken 451 2.80
Total valid votes 16,106 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing +0.28
1945 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Progressive Conservative G. Russell Boucher 10,916 62.26 –18.04
Liberal Leonard Anthony Davis 5,309 30.28
Co-operative Commonwealth Douglas D. Irwin 1,309 7.47
Total valid votes 17,534 100.0  
Progressive Conservative hold Swing –24.16
Canadian federal by-election, 19 August 1940
On the death of Alonzo Hyndman, 9 April 1940
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative George Russell Boucher 6,045 80.30 +26.40
New Democracy John Nelson McCracken 1,483 19.70
Total valid votes 7,528 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing  
1940 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Government Alonzo Hyndman 7,736 53.90 +11.54
Liberal Herbert Samuel Arkell 6,617 46.10 +9.61
Total valid votes 14,353 100.0  
National Government hold Swing +0.96
1935 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Alonzo Hyndman 6,872 42.36 –1.42
Liberal Herbert Samuel Arkell 5,919 36.49 –5.56
Reconstruction Herman Ralph James 3,431 21.15
Total valid votes 16,222 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing +2.07
1930 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Foster Garland 7,317 43.78 –12.57
Liberal Mortimer Newton Cummings 7,027 42.05 –1.60
Independent Conservative Robert Ormond Morris 2,369 14.17
Total valid votes 16,713 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing –5.48


1926 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Foster Garland 7,415 56.35 –1.09
Liberal Mortimer Newton Cummings 5,744 43.65 +1.09
Total valid votes 13,159 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing –1.09
1925 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Foster Garland 7,757 57.44 +16.15
Liberal Mortimer Newton Cummings 5,748 42.56 +11.67
Total valid votes 13,505 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing +2.24
1921 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Foster Garland 5,537 41.29 –25.18
Liberal William Lochead Gourlay 4,142 30.89 –2.64
Progressive Bower Henry 3,474 25.91
Independent Edward Hill Good 257 1.92
Total valid votes 13,410 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing –11.27
1917 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Government (Unionist) George Boyce 5,290 66.47 +0.33
Opposition (Laurier Liberals) Frederick Henry Honeywell 2,669 33.53 –0.33
Total valid votes 7,959 100.0  
Government (Unionist) hold Swing +0.33
Canadian federal by-election, 30 October 1912
On the death of Edward Kidd, 16 September 1912
Party Candidate Votes
Conservative William Foster Garland acclaimed
1911 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Kidd 2,616 66.14 –1.14
Liberal Donald Hector MacLean 1,339 33.86 +1.14
Total valid votes 3,955 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing –1.14
Canadian federal by-election, 22 February 1909
On the election of Robert Borden to Halifax and Carleton, and his choosing to sit for Halifax, 25 January 1909
Party Candidate Votes
Conservative Edward Kidd acclaimed
1908 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Elected
Conservative Robert Borden 2,667 67.28 +3.72  Y
Liberal James Ernest Caldwell 1,297 32.72 –3.72
Total valid votes 3,964 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing +3.72
Source(s)
"Carleton, Ontario (1867-08-06 - 1968-04-22)". History of Federal Ridings Since 1867. Library of Parliament. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
Canadian federal by-election, February 4, 1905
On the resignation of Edward Kidd, January 19, 1905
Party Candidate Votes Elected
Conservative Robert Borden acclaimed  Y
Total valid votes
Source(s)
"Carleton, Ontario (1867-08-06 - 1968-04-22)". History of Federal Ridings Since 1867. Library of Parliament. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
1904 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Kidd 2,055 63.56 –1.01
Liberal James E. Caldwell 1,178 36.44 +1.01
Total valid votes 3,233 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing –1.01
1900 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Kidd 1,611 64.57 +17.06
Liberal John McKellar 884 35.43 –4.66
Total valid votes 2,495 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing +10.86
1896 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Thomas Hodgins 1,337 47.51 –3.22
Liberal John McKellar 1,128 40.09
Independent J.S. Hendricks 299 10.63
McCarthyite Thomas Butler 50 1.78
Total valid votes 2,814 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing  
1891 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William Thomas Hodgins 1,494 50.73
Conservative George Lemuel Dickinson 1,451 49.27 –12.30
Total valid votes 2,945 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing  
Canadian federal by-election, 1 February 1888
On the election of John A. Macdonald to sit for Kingston
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative George Lemuel Dickinson 1,524 61.57
Unknown W. F. Powell 951 38.42
Total valid votes 2,475 100.0  
Conservative gain from Liberal–Conservative Swing  
1887 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal–Conservative John A. Macdonald (incumbent) 1,691 73.62
Liberal John K. Stewart 606 26.38
Total valid votes 2,297
1882 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal–Conservative John A. Macdonald 1,185 48.75
Independent Conservative John May[15] 629 25.87
Liberal Erskine Henry Bronson[15] 617 25.38
Total valid votes 2,431
1878 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Rochester 1,282 49.73 +2.65
Unknown John May 1,196 46.39
Unknown J. A. Grant 86 3.34
Unknown Nicholas Sparks Jr. 14 0.54
Total valid votes 2,578 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing  
1874 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Rochester 870 47.08 –5.89
Unknown John Holmes 631 34.15 –12.46
Unknown J. Wallace 347 18.78
Total valid votes 1,848 100.0  
Conservative hold Swing +3.28
Source: Canadian Elections Database[16]


1872 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Rochester 1,024 52.97 +4.91
Unknown John Holmes 901 46.61 –5.33
Unknown William Montgomery 6 0.31
Unknown J. Mills 2 0.10
Total valid votes 1,933 100.0  
Conservative gain from Liberal–Conservative Swing +5.12
Source: Canadian Elections Database[17]
1867 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal–Conservative John Holmes 1,087 51.94
Conservative John Rochester 1,006 48.06
Total valid votes 2,093 100.0  
Source: Canadian Elections Database[18]
Result by municipality[19]
Municipality Holmes Rochester Total vote Eligible voters
Nepean Township 198 320 518 627
March Township 72 31 103 120
Richmond 14 16 30 79
Fitzroy Township 134 157 291 334
Torbolton Township 19 16 35 45
Huntley Township 259 26 285 331
Marlborough Township 105 130 235 261
North Gower Township 152 113 265 287
Goulbourn Township 134 197 331 373
Total 1,087 1,006 2,093 2,457

See also

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Notes

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  1. ^ Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an indigenous identity.
  2. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "West Asian" and "Arab" under visible minority section on census.
  3. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Chinese", "Korean", and "Japanese" under visible minority section on census.
  4. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Filipino" and "Southeast Asian" under visible minority section on census.
  5. ^ Statistic includes total responses of "Visible minority, n.i.e." and "Multiple visible minorities" under visible minority section on census.

References

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  1. ^ a b Statistics Canada: 2011
  2. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Carleton, Ontario Federal electoral district (2013 Representation Order)". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved May 16, 2024.
  3. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 9, 2022). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Carleton [Federal electoral district (2013 Representation Order)], Ontario". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved March 8, 2023.
  4. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 6, 2024.
  5. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 27, 2021). "Census Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 6, 2024.
  6. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (November 27, 2015). "NHS Profile". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved January 6, 2024.
  7. ^ "Federal electoral districts redistribution 2022". Retrieved March 9, 2024.
  8. ^ "List of confirmed candidates – September 20, 2021 Federal Election". Elections Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  9. ^ "Election Night Results – Electoral Districts". Elections Canada. Retrieved September 24, 2021.
  10. ^ "Candidate Campaign Returns". Elections Canada. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  11. ^ "Transposition of Votes from the 44th General Election to the 2023 Representation Orders". Elections Canada. Retrieved April 9, 2024.
  12. ^ "List of confirmed candidates". Elections Canada. Retrieved October 3, 2019.
  13. ^ "Election Night Results". Elections Canada. Retrieved October 26, 2019.
  14. ^ Pundits' Guide to Canadian Elections
  15. ^ a b "The Political Campaign". Montreal Gazette. June 14, 1882. p. 5. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  16. ^ Sayers, Anthony M. "1874 Federal Election". Canadian Elections Database. Archived from the original on January 22, 2024.
  17. ^ Sayers, Anthony M. "1872 Federal Election". Canadian Elections Database. Archived from the original on February 3, 2024.
  18. ^ Sayers, Anthony M. "1867 Federal Election". Canadian Elections Database. Archived from the original on January 22, 2024.
  19. ^ Langevin, Edouard J. (1868), Return of the Elections to House of Commons, Ottawa: Hunter, Rose & Company
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45°10′08″N 75°38′13″W / 45.169°N 75.637°W / 45.169; -75.637