Canadian federal electoral redistribution, 2012
The federal electoral redistribution of 2012 was a redistribution of electoral districts ("ridings") in Canada following the results of the 2011 Canadian Census. As a result of changes to the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act, the number of seats in the House of Commons of Canada increased from 308 to 338. The previous electoral redistribution was in 2003.
Background and previous attempts at reformEdit
Prior to 2012, the redistribution rules for increasing the number of seats in the House of Commons of Canada was governed by section 51 of the Constitution Act, 1867, as last amended in 1985. As early as 2007, attempts were made to reform the calculation of how that number was determined, as the 1985 formula did not fully take into account the rapid population growth being experienced in the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Ontario.
The revised formula, as originally presented, was estimated to have the following impact:
|Province/ Territory||Current seats||Projected seats after the 2011 census|
|Under the 1985 formula||Under the new formula|
|Prince Edward Island||4||4||4|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||7||7||7|
Passage of the Fair Representation Act (2011)Edit
The expansion of the House from 308 seats to 338 seats is pursuant to the Fair Representation Act, which came into force on December 16, 2011. In introducing the bill, the government's stated aims were:
- allocating more seats to better reflect population grown in Ontario, British Columbia, and Alberta;
- maintaining the number of seats for slower-growing provinces; and
- maintaining the proportional representation of Quebec according to population.
- Divide the estimated population of a province by a determined electoral quotient (initially set at 111,166).
- If the number of members determined is less than what a province had in 1985, increase its seat count to that number (the "grandfather clause").
- If a province's population was overrepresented in the House of Commons at the completion of the last redistribution process, and would now be under-represented based on the calculations above, it will be given extra seats so that its share of House of Commons seats is proportional to its share of the population (the "representation rule").
- Add one seat for each of the territories.
The 1985 minimum has two components:
- No province can have fewer MPs than it has Senators (the "senatorial clause").
- Otherwise, the calculation determined in 1985 under the Constitution Act, 1985 (Representation) will govern the amount.
|Province/ Territory||Population estimate||Initial seat allocation||Senatorial clause||Grandfather clause||Representation rule||Total seats|
|Prince Edward Island||145,855||2||2||–||–||4|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||510,578||5||1||1||–||7|
The addition of three seats in Quebec marked the first time since the adoption of Canada's current electoral redistribution formula in 1985 that any province besides Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia has gained new seats.
Process of redistributionEdit
The allocation of seats to the provinces and territories was based on rules in the Constitution of Canada as well as population estimates made by Statistics Canada based on the 2006 Census (in particular, the allocation is based on an estimate for the population as of July 1, 2011, "based on 2006 Census population counts adjusted for census net undercoverage and incompletely enumerated Indian reserves").
A final report was tabled October 2013, with the changes proclaimed to take effect as of the first dissolution of Parliament occurring after May 1, 2014. The names of some ridings were changed the Riding Name Change Act, 2014 came into force on June 19, 2014.
In a report issued in 2014 Elections Canada noted: "While some administrative tasks remained to be done after that point, Elections Canada's role of supporting the federal electoral boundaries commissions, which had worked for up to 18 months in their respective provinces, was complete." The report concluded that "the process for the 2012 redistribution of federal electoral boundaries was a success."
Effect of 2013 Representation OrdersEdit
|Province||Seats||±||Initial report||Final report|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||
|Northwest Territories||1||A commission was not required for the Northwest Territories since the territory is a single electoral district and under an amendment to the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act it is using the name Northwest Territories again, instead of Western Arctic.|
|Nunavut||1||A commission was not required for Nunavut since the territory is a single electoral district.|
|Prince Edward Island||4||
|Yukon||1||A commission was not required for Yukon since the territory is a single electoral district.|
- Official site of the 2012 Federal Electoral Districts Redistribution commissions
- "Redistribution of Federal Electoral Districts". Elections Canada.
- Barnes, André (16 August 2007). "Bill C-56: An Act to amend the Constitution Act, 1867 (Democratic representation) (LS-561E)". Library of Parliament, Law and Government Division.
- "Canada's Government Restores Fair Representation in the House of Commons". democraticreform.gc.ca. April 1, 2010.
- Barnes, Andre; Bédard, Michel (7 November 2011). "Legislative Summary of Bill C-20: An Act to amend the Constitution Act, 1867, the Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act and the Canada Elections Act (Publication No. 41-1-C20E)". Library of Parliament, Legal and Legislative Affairs Division.
- Fair Representation Act, S.C. 2011, c. 26
- "Fair Representation Act Moves Every Province Towards Rep-By-Pop" (Press release). 2011-10-27. Archived from the original on 2013-12-10.
- Fair Representation Act, s. 2
- Constitution Act, 1867, , c. , s. 51A
- "House of Commons Seat Allocation by Province". Elections Canada.
- "Table 2: Annual population estimates". The Daily. Statistics Canada. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- Proclamation declaring the Representation Order to be in Force effective on the First dissolution of Parliament that Occurs after May 1, 2014, SI/2013-102 , reported in the Canada Gazette, Part II, Vol. 147, Extra, October 5, 2013
- Riding Name Change Act, 2014, S.C. 2014, c. 19
- "2012 Redistribution of Federal Electoral Districts: Process Assessment Report (SE3-93/2014E-PDF)" (PDF). Elections Canada. 2014. pp. 7, 25.
- "Transposition of Votes – 2013 Representation Order". Elections Canada.
- Proposed Boundaries – Alberta
- Proposed Boundaries – British Columbia
- Proposed Boundaries – Manitoba
- Proposed Boundaries – New Brunswick
- Proposed Boundaries – Newfoundland and Labrador
- Proposed Boundaries – Northwest Territories
- Proposed Boundaries – Nova Scotia
- Proposed Boundaries – Nunavut
- Proposed Boundaries – Ontario
- Proposed Boundaries – Prince Edward Island
- Proposed Boundaries – Quebec
- Proposed Boundaries – Saskatchewan
- Proposed Boundaries – Yukon