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The 42nd Canadian Parliament is the current Parliament of Canada, with the membership of its Lower House, the House of Commons of Canada, having been determined by the results of the 2015 federal election held on October 19, 2015, and with at least seven new appointees to its Upper House, the Senate of Canada, on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to Governor General David Johnston.[1] Parliament officially resumed on December 3, 2015 with the election of a new Speaker, Geoff Regan, followed by a Speech from the Throne the following day. The current Speaker of the Senate of Canada is George Furey, who was appointed Speaker of the Canadian Senate on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, to replace Leo Housakos, on December 3, 2015.[2]

42nd Parliament of Canada
Majority parliament
December 3, 2015 – present
Parliament leaders
Prime
Minister

(cabinet)
Rt. Hon. Justin Trudeau
(29th Canadian Ministry)
4 November 2015 – present
Leader of the
Opposition
Hon. Rona Ambrose
5 November 2015 – 27 May 2017
Hon. Andrew Scheer
27 May 2017 – present
Party caucuses
Government Liberal Party*
Opposition Conservative Party
Third party New Democratic Party
Unrecognized Groupe parlementaire québécois
Bloc Québécois
Green Party
* House members and Senators sit in separate caucuses.
House of Commons
Parliament Of Canada Seating Plan 2015 (With Speaker Included).svg
Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Commons
Hon. Geoff Regan
3 December 2015 – present
Government
House Leader
Hon. Dominic LeBlanc
4 November 2015 – 19 August 2016
Hon. Bardish Chagger
19 August 2016 – present
Opposition
House Leader
Hon. Andrew Scheer
18 November 2015 – 15 September 2016
Hon. Candice Bergen
15 September 2016 – present
Members 338 MP seats
List of members
Senate
Senate of Canada - Seating Plan (42nd Parliament).svg
Seating arrangements of the Senate
Speaker of the
Senate
Hon. George Furey
3 December 2015 – present
Government
Senate Representative
Hon. Peter Harder
18 March 2016 – present
Opposition
Senate Leader
Hon. Claude Carignan
4 November 2015 – 31 March 2017
Hon. Larry Smith
1 April 2017 – present
Senators 105 senator seats
List of senators
Sovereign
Monarch HM Elizabeth II
6 February 1952 – present
Governor
General
HE Rt. Hon. David Johnston
1 October 2010 – 2 October 2017
HE Rt. Hon. Julie Payette
2 October 2017 - present
Sessions
<41st 43rd>
1st Session
3 December 2015 – Present

Contents

Party standingsEdit

Standings in the 42nd Canadian Parliament
Affiliation House Members Senate Members
2015 Election Results As of 28 March 2018 On Election Day 2015 As of 28 March 2018
Liberal 184 183
Conservative 99 97 47 33
New Democratic 44 44
Groupe parlementaire québécois 7
Bloc Québécois 10 3
Green 1 1
Senate Liberal Caucus 29 11
Independent 2 6[a] 5
Ind. Senators 44
Total members 338 337 83 93
Vacant 1 22 12
Total seats 338 105


LegislationEdit

Among the more significant pieces of legislation adopted in the first session was the government's response to Carter v Canada (Attorney General). Bill C-14 inserted the term "medical assistance in dying" into the Criminal Code, and made provisions for adult Canadians to engage in the practice.[3] Introduced by the Minister of Justice, Bill C-14 was passed with a free vote for both Liberal and Conservative party members. The Minister of Justice also introduced Bill C-16 which added "gender identity or expression" to the list of prohibited grounds of discrimination in the Canadian Human Rights Act and the list of characteristics of identifiable groups protected from hate propaganda in the Criminal Code - only 40 members opposed the bill, all from the Conservative Party who were granted a free vote. Both the Liberal and Conservative parties supported the adoption of Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Bill C-30) and all parties voted in favour of the Canada-Ukraine Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (Bill C-31).

Responding to legislation adopted during the previous parliament, Bill C-37, sponsored by the Minister of Health and opposed only by the Conservative Party, removed some of the obstacles to supervised injection sites that the previous parliament's Respect for Communities Act had put in place and the bill adopted provisions, mostly centered on the opioid epidemic, to begin implementing the new Canadian Drugs and Substances Strategy, which replaced the previous government's National Anti-Drug Strategy.[4] The Minister of Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship's Bill C-6 amended or repealed parts of the previous parliament's Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act including the ability to revoke citizenship based on national security, the requirement that applicants for citizenship aged 14 to 18 and 55 to 64 to prove adequate knowledge Canada and of an official language, the residency requirement increase from 3 years to 4 years, the disallowance of time spent as temporary resident as contributing to the residency requirement, and the condition of citizenship that the applicant must intend to reside in Canada. Bill C-6 kept, but modified or expanded, Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act's prohibition that time spent imprisoned does not contribute to the residency requirement, that an imprisoned applicant may not be granted citizenship, and that citizenship applicants must file tax returns during their residency requirement. Preparing for the 2016 Census, and in response to the previous government's involvement in the 2011 Census, Bill C-36 amended the Statistics Act to provide more independence to the Chief Statistician, remove imprisonment as a penalty for not responding to a census, and replacing the National Statistics Council with the Canadian Statistics Advisory Council. Bill C-17 made amendments to the Yukon Environmental and Socio-economic Assessment Act to address the previous parliament's Yukon and Nunavut Regulatory Improvement Act and the subsequent court case that ensued.

Regarding financial measures, Bill C-2 lowered federal tax paid on income between $45,283 and $90,563 from 22% to 20.5% and introduced a new top tax bracket that applies a rate of 33% to a person's income in excess of $200,000.[5] The bill also re-instated the $5,500 annual limit to Tax-Free Savings Account contributions which the previous parliament had raised to $10,000. Bill C-26 amended the Canada Pension Plan to create the Additional Canada Pension Plan Account and to increase the maximum level of pensionable earnings.

The 2016 budget (Bill C-15) repealed the Family Tax Cut (income splitting) Credit, Education Tax Credit, Textbook Tax Credit, Children's Arts Tax Credit, Child Fitness Tax Credit, and replaced the Canada Child Tax Benefit and Universal Child Care Benefit with the Canada Child Benefit. Eligibility for the Old Age Security pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement was rolled back to 65 years old; the previous parliament had increased it to 67. The rates for Northern Residents Deduction were increased, the Mineral Exploration Tax Credit was extended by one year, and employment insurance benefits were temporarily extended for high unemployment areas.

Both Bill C-11, which implemented the Marrakesh Treaty to allow reproductions of copyrighted material for the benefit of individuals who are blind or visually impaired,[6] and Bill C-13, which implemented the WTO's Bali Package, were adopted with unanimous consent. With only Liberal Party support, Bill C-7 was adopted as the government's response to the Supreme Court's ruling in Mounted Police Association of Ontario v. Canada (Attorney General), allowing RCMP members to have certain collective bargaining rights. The Minister of Transport introduced Bill C-10 which amended the Air Canada Public Participation Act to expand where Air Canada's maintenance centres may be located to the general provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, rather than the specific cities of Winnipeg, Mississauga and Montreal, as well as clarifying what constitutes 'maintenance'.

Among the senate bills that were adopted, the National Seal Products Day Act (Bill S-208) made May 20 of each year National Seal Products Day, the National Sickle Cell Awareness Day Act (Bill S-211) made June 19 of each year National Sickle Cell Awareness Day, and the Recognition of Charlottetown as the Birthplace of Confederation Act (Bill S-236) declared Charlottetown to be the birthplace of Confederation. Bill S-3 amended the Indian Act as the government's response to a Quebec Superior Court ruling finding sex-based inequities in the Indian Register to be contrary to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (Bill S-201) was adopted with the Conservative Party, NDP and Green Party in favour; Liberal Party members were granted a free vote though the prime-minister urged members to oppose the bill, as presented, based on concerns of inconsistency with the constitution.[7] The act makes it a criminal offence to require an individual to undergo a genetic test, or to disclose the results of such a test, as a condition of providing goods or services, with exceptions for health care practitioners and researchers. The Justice for Victims of Corrupt Foreign Officials Act (Sergei Magnitsky Law) (Bill S-226) allows the Governor-in-Council to seize property situated in Canada of a foreign national believed to be involved in extrajudicial killings or violations of internationally recognized human rights. The Strengthening Motor Vehicle Safety for Canadians Act (Bill S-2) amended the Motor Vehicle Safety Act' to allow the Minister of Transport to order a motor vehicle company to issue a recall, rather than allow the process to be at the manufacturer's discretion.

Six private member bills had received royal assent with all party support:

  • Ron McKinnon's Good Samaritan Drug Overdose Act (Bil C-224) amended the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act to provide immunity from drug possession charges when seeking help to address an overdose,
  • Rob Nicholson's National Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias Act (Bill C-233) requires the implementation of a national strategy for the health care of persons afflicted with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia,
  • Darren Fisher's National Strategy for Safe and Environmentally Sound Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury Act (Bill C-238) requires implementation of a national strategy for the disposal tube and compact fluorescent light bulbs,
  • Marilyn Gladu's Framework on Palliative Care in Canada Act (Bil C-277) requires the Minister of Health develop a framework designed to support improved access for Canadians to palliative care ,
  • Chandra Arya's An Act to amend the Criminal Code (mischief) (Bil C-305) expands the scope of the Criminal Code provisions relating to acts of mischief motivated by hate on religious property to also cover educational institutions, community centres, sports or recreational facilities and a residence for seniors,
  • Colin Fraser's An Act to amend the Holidays Act (Remembrance Day) (Bil C-311) added the word legal to act.

Canadian MinistryEdit

The 29th Canadian Ministry began with the 42nd Parliament and was sworn in by Gov. Gen. David Johnston on November 4, 2015. It was the first Cabinet of Canada to have an equal number of men and women. Prime Minister Trudeau appointed Bill Morneau to be Minister of Finance, Jody Wilson-Raybould as Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, Jane Philpott as Minister of Health, Catherine McKenna as Minister of Environment and Climate Change, Harjit Sajjan as Minister of National Defence, and Ralph Goodale as Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness

The first change to the membership of the 29th Ministry occurred with the May 31, 2016, resignation of Hunter Tootoo as Minister of Fisheries, Oceans, and the Canadian Coast Guard so that he can sit as an independent MP; he was replaced by Dominic LeBlanc. The second change in membership came with the January 10, 2017, retirements of Foreign Affairs Minister Stéphane Dion and Immigration Minister John McCallum. The Prime Minister promoted Ahmed Hussen to replace McCallum at Immigration, and moved Chrystia Freeland from Minister of International Trade to Foreign Affairs, with François-Philippe Champagne being promoted to replace Freeland at International Trade. In that same cabinet shuffle MaryAnn Mihychuk was removed from cabinet and Karina Gould promoted to cabinet, with Patty Hajdu replacing Mihychuk as Minister of Employment, Workforce, and Labour, Maryam Monsef replacing Hajdu as Minister of Status of Women, and Gould taking over Monsef's role as Minister of Democratic Institutions.

An August 28, 2017, cabinet shuffle instigated by Judy Foote, Minister of Public Services and Procurement, resigning as an MP due to health concerns, saw Foote replaced by Minister of Sport and Persons with Disabilities Carla Qualtrough, with Kent Hehr becoming Sports minister and Seamus O'Regan being promoted to take over Hehr's role as Minister of Veterans Affairs. In that same cabinet shuffle Philpott moved to the newly created Minister of Indigenous Services with Ginette Petitpas Taylor being promoted to replace Philpott as Health minister.

MembersEdit

For full lists of members of the 42nd Parliament of Canada, see List of House members of the 42nd Parliament of Canada and List of senators in the 42nd Parliament of Canada.

OfficeholdersEdit

The current officers of Parliament during the 42nd Parliament are set out below.

SpeakersEdit

Other Chair occupantsEdit

Senate

House of Commons

Party LeadersEdit

Floor leadersEdit

Senate

House of Commons

WhipsEdit

Senate

House of Commons

Caucus ChairsEdit

Shadow cabinetsEdit

CommitteesEdit

Changes to party standingsEdit

House of CommonsEdit

Membership ChangesEdit

Membership changes in the House of Commons of the 42nd Parliament
Party Date Name District Reason
  October 19, 2015 See list of members Election day of the 2015 Canadian federal election
Independent May 31, 2016 Hon. Hunter Tootoo Nunavut Resigned from Liberal caucus[14]
Independent August 31, 2017 Darshan Kang Calgary Skyview Resigned from Liberal caucus[15]
Groupe parlementaire québécois February 28, 2018 Michel Boudrias Terrebonne Resigned from Bloc Québécois caucus and formed the Groupe parlementaire québécois.[16]
Groupe parlementaire québécois Rhéal Fortin Rivière-du-Nord
Groupe parlementaire québécois Simon Marcil Mirabel
Groupe parlementaire québécois Monique Pauzé Repentigny
Groupe parlementaire québécois Louis Plamondon Bécancour—Nicolet—Saurel
Groupe parlementaire québécois Gabriel Ste-Marie Joliette
Groupe parlementaire québécois Luc Thériault Montcalm

The party standings in the House of Commons have changed as follows:

October 19, 2015 – present
Number of members
per party by date
2015 2016 2017 2018
Oct 19 Mar 23 May 31 Aug 16 Aug 26 Sep 23 Oct 24 Jan 31 Apr 3 Jul 4 Aug 9 Aug 31 Sep 14 Sep 30 Oct 2 Oct 23 Dec 1 Dec 11 Feb 28
Liberal 184 183 182 180 183 182 181 180 181 180 183
Conservative 99 98 97 96 97 99 98 97 96 95 96 97
New Democratic 44
Groupe parlementaire québécois 7
Bloc Québécois 10 3
Green 1
Independent 0 1 2
  Total members 338 337 336 335 334 335 333 338 337 336 335 333 332 334 333 337
Government Majority 30 31 29 28 29 30 29 27 28 29 30 29 28 28 29 30 27 30
Vacant 0 1 2 3 4 3 5 0 1 2 3 5 6 4 5 1

By-electionsEdit

The following by-elections have been held during the 42nd Canadian Parliament:

By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Outremont TBA Tom Mulcair      New Democratic Resigning in June 2018 to accept an academic appointment.
Chicoutimi—
Le Fjord
by June 2, 2018 Denis Lemieux      Liberal Resigned
Battlefords—
Lloydminster
December 11, 2017 Gerry Ritz      Conservative Rosemarie Falk      Conservative Resigned Yes
South Surrey—
White Rock
December 11, 2017 Dianne Watts      Conservative Gordon Hogg      Liberal Resigned to seek the leadership of the British Columbia Liberal Party No
Bonavista—
Burin—Trinity
December 11, 2017 Judy Foote      Liberal Churence Rogers      Liberal Resigned due to illness in her family Yes
Scarborough—
Agincourt
December 11, 2017 Arnold Chan      Liberal Jean Yip      Liberal Death (nasopharyngeal cancer) Yes
Lac-Saint-Jean October 23, 2017 Denis Lebel      Conservative Richard Hébert      Liberal Resigned to accept a position in the private sector No
Sturgeon River—
Parkland
October 23, 2017 Rona Ambrose      Conservative Dane Lloyd      Conservative Resigned to accept an academic appointment Yes
Saint-Laurent April 3, 2017 Stéphane Dion      Liberal Emmanuella Lambropoulos      Liberal Resigned to accept appointment as Canadian Ambassador to Germany Yes
Markham—
Thornhill
April 3, 2017 John McCallum      Liberal Mary Ng      Liberal Resigned to accept appointment as Canadian Ambassador to China Yes
Calgary Midnapore April 3, 2017 Jason Kenney      Conservative Stephanie Kusie      Conservative Resigned to seek the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta Yes
Calgary Heritage April 3, 2017 Stephen Harper      Conservative Bob Benzen      Conservative Resigned Yes
Ottawa—Vanier April 3, 2017 Mauril Bélanger      Liberal Mona Fortier      Liberal Death (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) Yes
Medicine Hat—
Cardston—
Warner
October 24, 2016 Jim Hillyer      Conservative Glen Motz      Conservative Death (heart attack) Yes


SenateEdit

Affiliation changesEdit

Political affiliation changes in the Senate of the 42nd Parliament
Party Date Name Province Reason
Non-affiliated November 19, 2015 John Wallace New Brunswick Resigned from Conservative caucus
Non-affiliated December 3, 2015 Jacques Demers Quebec Resigned from Conservative caucus
Non-affiliated December 7, 2015 George Furey Newfoundland and Labrador Resigned from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated February 2, 2016 Pierrette Ringuette New Brunswick Resigned from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated February 17, 2016 Elaine McCoy Alberta Redesignated from Independent Progressive Conservative
Non-affiliated March 7, 2016 Michel Rivard Quebec Resigned from Conservative caucus
Non-affiliated March 8, 2016 Diane Bellemare Quebec Resigned from Conservative caucus
Non-affiliated April 6, 2016 Larry Campbell British Columbia Resigned from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated May 2, 2016 Grant Mitchell Alberta Resigned from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated May 5, 2016 Nick Sibbeston Northwest Territories Resigned from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated July 14, 2016 Doug Black Alberta Resigned from Conservative caucus
Conservative November 22, 2016 Pierre-Hugues Boisvenu Quebec Rejoined Conservative caucus
Independent Senators Group December 2, 2016 33 Non-affiliated senators Various Formation of Independent Senators Group
Non-affiliated January 31, 2017 Josée Verner Quebec Resigned from Conservative caucus
Non-affiliated March 10, 2017 Don Meredith Ontario Resigned from Independent Senators Group
Independent Senators Group Anne Cools Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group March 30, 2017 Wanda Bernard Nova Scotia Redesignated from non-affiliated
Non-affiliated May 16, 2017 Stephen Greene Nova Scotia Removed from Conservative caucus
Independent Senators Group September 28, 2017 David Adams Richards New Brunswick Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group October 17, 2017 Josée Verner Quebec Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group October 24, 2017 Stephen Greene Nova Scotia Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group October 30, 2017 Paul Massicotte Quebec Redesignated from Senate Liberal caucus
Non-affiliated January 4, 2018 Lynn Beyak Ontario Removed from Conservative caucus
Independent Senators Group February 7, 2018 Mary Coyle Nova Scotia Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group Mary Jane McCallum Manitoba
Independent Senators Group February 28, 2018 Robert Black Ontario Redesignated from non-affiliated
Independent Senators Group Martha Deacon Ontario
Independent Senators Group March 28, 2018 Yvonne Boyer Ontario Redesignated from non-affiliated

The party standings in the Senate have changed during the 42nd Canadian Parliament as follows:

Number of members
per party by date
2015 2016
Oct 19 Nov 19 Dec 3 Dec 7 Feb 2 Feb 10 Feb 17 Mar 1 Mar 7 Mar 8 Mar 23 Apr 1 Apr 2 Apr 6 Apr 22 May 2 May 5 May 16 Jul 14 Aug 7 Sep 27
Conservative 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40
Non-affiliated 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 19 20 21 22 23 24 23
Senate Liberal Caucus 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
Independent PC 1 0
Vacant 22 23 24 23 18 17 18 19 20 21
Number of members
per party by date
2016 2017
Nov 10 Nov 21 Nov 22 Nov 25 Dec 2 Dec 6 Jan 6 Jan 14 Jan 22 Jan 31 Feb 1 Mar 30 Mar 31 May 10 May 16 Aug 10 Aug 15 Aug 30 Sep 4 Sep 8
Conservative 40 41 40 39 38 37 36
Independent Senators Group - 33 35 34 35
Senate Liberal Caucus 21 20 19 18 17 16
Non-affiliated 37 38 37 40 7 8 7 6 7 8
Vacant 7 6 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10
Number of members
per party by date
2017 2018
Sep 28 Oct 17 Oct 24 Oct 30 Nov 6 Nov 16 Nov 21 Dec 4 Jan 4 Feb 2 Feb 7 Feb 15 Feb 28 Mar 15 Mar 16 Mar 28
Independent Senators Group 36 37 38 39 41 43 44
Conservative 36 35 34 33
Senate Liberal Caucus 16 15 12 11
Non-affiliated 7 6 5 4 6 7 5 7 5 6 5
Vacant 10 11 12 13 11 14 12 11 12

Vacancies and pending appointmentsEdit

Name Party Province (Division) Nominated by Seat Last Held By Party Reason for Vacancy Vacant since
  Vacant Nova Scotia Jim Cowan Senate Liberal Caucus Mandatory Retirement January 22, 2017
  Vacant Saskatchewan Pana Merchant Senate Liberal Caucus Resignation March 31, 2017
  Vacant Yukon Daniel Lang Conservative Resignation August 15, 2017
  Vacant Newfoundland and Labrador George Baker Senate Liberal Caucus Mandatory Retirement September 4, 2017
  Vacant Prince Edward Island Elizabeth Hubley Senate Liberal Caucus Mandatory Retirement September 8, 2017
  Vacant Nova Scotia Kelvin Ogilvie Conservative Mandatory retirement November 6, 2017
  Vacant Ontario Tobias Enverga Conservative Death November 16, 2017
  Vacant Northwest Territories Nick Sibbeston Non-affiliated Resignation November 21, 2017
  Vacant Ontario Colin Kenny Senate Liberal Caucus Resignation February 2, 2018
  Vacant Alberta Claudette Tardif Senate Liberal Caucus Resignation February 2, 2018
  Vacant Quebec (De Lorimier) Joan Fraser Senate Liberal Caucus Resignation February 2, 2018
  Vacant Quebec (Inkerman) Charlie Watt Senate Liberal Caucus Resignation March 16, 2018

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Includes Elaine McCoy, who was designated as Independent Progressive Conservative.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Joanna Smith (18 March 2016). "Justin Trudeau names seven new senators". Toronto Star. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
  2. ^ Leslie Young (3 December 2015). "George Furey named new Speaker of the Senate". Global Television Network. Retrieved 30 April 2016. 
  3. ^ Picard, Andre (September 13, 2016). "We can't debate the new law without data". The Globe and Mail. p. A13. 
  4. ^ Woo, Andrea (May 18, 2017). "Streamlined injection-site conditions become law". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 19, 2017. 
  5. ^ Curry, Bill (November 22, 2016). "Conservative senators move to rewrite the tax code". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 18, 2017. 
  6. ^ "CNIB applauds Government of Canada's push to ratify Marrakesh Treaty". CNIB. March 24, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2017. 
  7. ^ Kondro, Wayne (March 10, 2017). "Canada's new genetic privacy law is causing huge headaches for Justin Trudeau". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved June 14, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  9. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  10. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  11. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  12. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  13. ^ "Officers and Officials of Parliament". Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  14. ^ "Hunter Tootoo resigns as Fisheries minister, leaves Liberal caucus". CBC News. Retrieved 23 September 2016. 
  15. ^ Ballingall, Alex (August 31, 2017). "Calgary MP Darshan Kang resigns from Liberal caucus amid sexual harassment allegations". Toronto Star. Retrieved September 1, 2017. 
  16. ^ Allard, Clement (February 28, 2018). "Seven of 10 Bloc Quebecois MPs quit over Martine Ouellet's leadership". The Globe and Mail. The Canadian Press. Retrieved February 28, 2018.