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A Christmas Carol, the popular 1843 novella by Charles Dickens (1812–1870), is one of the British author's best-known works. It is the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, a greedy miser who hates Christmas, but is transformed into a caring, kindly person through the visitations of four ghosts. The classic work has been dramatised and adapted countless times for virtually every medium and performance genre, and new versions appear regularly.



Public readingsEdit

The novel was the subject of Dickens' first public reading, given in Birmingham Town Hall to the Industrial and Literary Institute on 27 December 1852. This was repeated three days later to an audience of 'working people', and was a great success by his own account and that of newspapers of the time.[1] Over the years, Dickens edited and adapted the piece for a listening, rather than reading, audience. Excerpts from A Christmas Carol remained part of Dickens' public readings until his death.

Several performers tour shows in which they perform the public readings in character as Dickens.


  • Throughout the late nineteenth century, and into the early years of the twentieth, British actor Seymour Hicks toured England with his own non-musical adaptation of the story, in which he played Scrooge.[citation needed]
  • A Christmas Carol (1964 to present), an original musical stage adaptation written and directed by Tim Dietlein, celebrated its 50th anniversary of consecutive shows in 2015 at the Glendale Centre Theatre. GCT's A Christmas Carol is the longest running adaptation in theatre history. The live performance was filmed and released in 2015 starring Tom Killam as Scrooge and Bradley Bundlie as Tiny Tim.[2][3]
  • A Christmas Carol (1972, 1974 and 1978), an adaptation by Keith Fowler in "Story Theater" style, was presented in Richmond, Virginia. This version premiered in 1972 at the Virginia Museum Theater and was revived in 1974 at the larger Mosque Theater. In 1978, the American Revels Company at the Empire Theater also performed this version.
  • A Christmas Carol (1974 to present), a theatrical adaptation that has been performed annually at The Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, MN, celebrating 40 years of production. The Guthrie Theater changed to a new adaptation by Crispin Whittell in 2010.[4]
  • A Christmas Carol (1974 to present), original musical-comedy stage adaptation written and directed by, and starring (as Scrooge) Ira David Wood III, which has been performed for the last 39 years on stage at Raleigh's Memorial Auditorium. Wood's A Christmas Carol is the longest running indoor show in North Carolina theatre history.[citation needed]
  • A Christmas Carol (1975 to present), a theatrical adaptation by Barbara Field produced by the Guthrie in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
  • A Christmas Carol (1976 to present), a musical adaptation by Charles Jones performed annually at the Omaha Community Playhouse in Omaha, Nebraska, as well as two touring companies with the Nebraska Theatre Caravan.
  • A Christmas Carol (1977 to present), a theatrical adaptation performed annually at Theatre Memphis in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • A Christmas Carol (1980 to present), adapted by Jerry Patch, has been presented annually by the Tony-winning South Coast Repertory Company in Costa mesa, California. John-David Keller is the director of the show, and Hal Landon, Jr. is Scrooge.
  • A Christmas Carol (198? to present) has been staged annually in Atlanta, Georgia, since the 1980s, first at the Academy Theatre, and then at the Alliance Theatre.[5]
  • A Christmas Carol (1981), a musical adaptation which premiered in 1982 at the Hartman Theatre, Stamford, Connecticut. The show was workshopped as a tour in 1981.
  • The Gospel According to Scrooge (1982), a stage musical emphasizing the religious elements of the story began at Jesus People Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1980; in 1981 it debuted at the Historic State Theater and was later made into a television special featuring actor Dean Jones as the host.
  • A Christmas Carol (1982 to present), a theatrical adaptation by Neal Radice performed annually by Alleyway Theatre, Buffalo, NY.
  • A Christmas Carol (1983), a theatrical adaptation by Jeffrey Sanzel has been performed annually at Theatre Three in Port Jefferson, New York, for 28 years.
  • A Christmas Carol (1985), an adaptation by Bille Brown with music and staged by W. Stuart McDowell, was performed at the Symphony Space in New York City as a fundraiser for the Riverside Shakespeare Company, with narration by Helen Hayes, featuring Len Cariou as Scrooge, and MacIntyre Dixon, Celeste Holm, Raul Julia, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio, Harold Scott, Carole Shelley, and Fritz Weaver, and the children's choir of the Anglo-American School. This script was restaged the following year at the Marriott Theatre on Broadway, produced by McDowell and directed by Robert Small, narrated by Ms. Hayes, featuring F. Murray Abraham as Scrooge, and Ossie Davis as Marley's Ghost, June Havoc, and Rex Smith as Bob Cratchit.
  • A Christmas Carol (1988), is an original musical adaptation which was written for The Chatham Players in Chatham, New Jersey, by Phillip Wm. McKinley. The ensemble production features Charles Dickens as narrator. In 2008, the production celebrated its 20th anniversary; actor Alan Semok has portrayed Scrooge in the Chatham Production every production year to date since 1994.
  • A Christmas Carol (1988), Patrick Stewart's one-man reading/acting of the story, made its first appearance in London and later on Broadway. On stage he would use a table, chair, stool, lectern and a book with an oversized print cover to enact the entire story. The production has been revived in London and New York several times. It has also been released on compact disc.[6]
  • The Scrooge Diary (Canada) (1990 to the present) (In the USA: Scrooge Tells All). Adaptation by Avril Kelly, performed by Welsh actor Phil Arnold, in a solo staged performance. Later performed on license only (two performances) by John Gray, late of RSC.
  • A Christmas Carol -- A Ghost Story of Christmas (1990), a theatrical adaptation by Michael Wilson (director), with original music by John Gromada, performed at the Alley Theatre for 19 years (1990–1998; 2005–present); Hartford Stage for 17 years (1998–present); and at Washington D.C.'s Ford's Theater for 11 years; published by Dramatists Play Service.
  • Scrooge!: A Dickens of a One-Man Show (1991), a theatrical adaptation one person show written by and starring Kevin Norberg portraying all 40-plus characters in a solo performance.
  • Scrooge: The Musical (1992), a British stage musical adapted from the 1970 film and starring Anthony Newley.
  • A Christmas Carol (1993 to the present), a one-man show of the work performed by Gerald Charles Dickens, great-great-grandson of Charles Dickens, in which he plays 26 characters.
  • A Christmas Carol (1993 to the present), a theatrical adaptation at the Public Theatre in Lewiston, Maine adapted by Christopher Schario, Executive and Artistic Director of the Public Theatre. The adaptation features only 6 actors and a fiddler. Each actor portrays multiple characters except for the actor portraying Scrooge. Michael Bradshaw originated the role of Scrooge in this adaptation.
  • A Christmas Carol: The Musical (1994), a Broadway musical adaptation with music by Alan Menken and lyrics by Lynn Ahrens, ran at The Theatre at Madison Square Garden, New York City yearly until 2003. Starring as "Scrooge" were Walter Charles (1994), Terrence Mann (1995), Tony Randall (1996), Hal Linden and Roddy McDowell (alternating) (1997), Roger Daltrey (1998), Tony Roberts (1999), Frank Langella (2000), Tim Curry (2001), F. Murray Abraham (2002) and Jim Dale (2003). The 2004 television version of the musical starred Kelsey Grammer as "Scrooge".
  • A Christmas Carol (1996), an adaptation for a "[cast of] eight actors and a lightbulb" by British director and playwright Neil Bartlett OBE. Currently performing (December/January 2014) at the Old Red Lion Theatre in Islington, London, a well-known fringe theatre.
  • A Christmas Carol (1997), a musical adaptation with music by Steve Parsons and book/lyrics by John Popa was performed from 1997 to 2000 at The Players Guild Theatre in Canton, Ohio and was subsequently revived in 2009, continuing to play each holiday season to the present day. This version spawned three cast recordings, one featuring the original cast, a 10th anniversary recording in 2008, and the 2015 cast recording. In 2016 the musical was published for domestic and international licensing by Steel Spring Stage Rights in Los Angeles.
  • A Christmas Carol, written and performed by Greg Oliver Bodine, is a one-man stage adaptation enacted by Charles Dickens himself based on a condensed version of the novel that he used while on the second of his reading tours of the United States. First performed in 2003.
  • Steve Nallon's Christmas Carol (2003), theatrical adaptation starring impressionist Nallon as a number of famous people.
  • A Christmas Carol (2003), theatrical adaptation by Karen Louise Hebden produced by and performed at Derby Playhouse in 2003 and revived in 2006. On both occasions, Scrooge was played by Ben Roberts.
  • A Dickens' Christmas Carol (2003 to present), theatrical adaptation created specifically for Silver Dollar City in Branson, MO. Performed yearly, the 60-minute Broadway-style show is expected to be viewed by more than 1,000,000 people during the 2013 Christmas season.
  • A Christmas Carol: the Musical (2005), musical adaptation by Stephen DeCesare. Follows 99% of the original book and has had over 300 performances around the world. It starred Carl DeSimone as Scrooge, Scott Morency as "Marley" and Kim Kalunian as "Belle" from the Academy Players in East Greenwich, Rhode Island.
  • A Christmas Carol (2007), theatrical adaptation by Jacqueline Goldfinger produced by and performed at North Coast Repertory Theatre in San Diego. This adaptation has become North Coast Rep's annual Christmas show.
  • A Christmas Carol, adapted by Tom Haas, has been performed each year at the Indiana Repertory Theatre for more than 25 years. Set on a minimalist stage covered in snow, this adaptation features the characters narrating their own actions to the audience and intersperses carols and dance along with the visits of the ghosts.
  • A Christmas Carol, an adaptation by Adam Graham, first performed on 6 December 2007 by Performing Arts Winchester, part of Winchester Student Union. A one-hour version, it was performed twice a night for the holiday season.
  • A Christmas Carol, an adaptation by Ron Severdia, premiered on 6 December 2006 at the Barn Theatre in Ross, CA. In 2007, he toured Europe with a new adaptation of the show.[7]
  • A Christmas Carol (2003) a new stage adaptation by Scott Harrison which has been produced in both the UK and the US. Originally performed by The Dreaming Theatre Company in the Kirkgate Victorian street exhibition inside the York Castle Museum, it has also recently been performed across the United States by three separate theatre companies.[citation needed]
  • Fellow Passengers (2004), a three-actor narrative theatre adaptation using nearly every word of the novel, first presented at Strawberry Theatre Workshop in Seattle.
  • A Christmas Carol: The Traditional Story with Modern Music (2005), a musical adaptation with music and lyrics by Matt Corriel and book by Erica Lipez, premiered at the Foothills Theatre in Worcester, MA in 2005 and is published by Dramatic Publishing Company.
  • A Christmas Carol (2006), a stage adaptation by Jeannette Jaquish for the Firehouse Theater in Fort Wayne, Indiana, was performed Decembers of 2006, 2007 & 2009.
  • Scrooge! (2006), a musical adaptation by Ken Skrzesz and Doug Yetter performed annually at the Clear Space Theatre Company in Rehoboth Beach, Delaware.
  • A Christmas Carol – As told by Jacob Marley (deceased) (2009/10); adapted and performed as a one-man show by James Hyland.
  • A Christmas Carol (2008), a stage adaptation by Bryony Lavery with songs by Jason Carr, was written for the Chichester Youth Theatre and performed at Chichester Festival Theatre for Christmas 2008 and 2015. This adaptation was also performed by Birmingham Repertory Theatre for Christmas 2009 (with Peter Polycarpou as Scrooge, Hadley Fraser as Bob Cratchit and Rosalie Craig as Mrs Cratchit) and 2013 and the West Yorkshire Playhouse for Christmas 2010 (with Phillip Whitchurch as Scrooge).
  • A Christmas Carol (2009), a stage adaptation written by Alexandria Haber and produced by Geordie Productions, premiering in December 2009 at the D.B. Clarke Theatre in Montreal, Quebec (Canada).
  • A Christmas Carol (2010), a new stage adaptation written by Jim Cook Jr. and produced by the Off Broad Street Players Theater Company in Bridgeton, New Jersey. Follows much of the original text of the novella with some character relationships explored. Premiered in November 2010.[8]
  • A Christmas Carol (2010), a stage adaptation by The Pantaloons theatre company, touring England in Winter 2010.[9]
  • A Christmas Carol (2010–present), a new stage adaptation by Preston Lane, produced by Triad Stage in Greensboro, North Carolina. Premiered November 2010, starring Gordon Joseph Weiss as Ebenezer Scrooge.[10]
  • A Christmas Carol (2010), a musical stage adaptation by Bruce Greer and Keith Ferguson that premiered in Carrollton, Texas, in December 2010.[11]
  • A Christmas Carol (2011), a National Theatre of Scotland production adapted, designed and directed by Graham McLaren, premiered at Film City Glasgow. The production was awarded Best Production and Best Ensemble by the Critics' Awards for Theatre in Scotland.[12]
  • Ebenezer (2011), a prequel musical by Maurice Walters and Christopher Sparkhall performed at the Canford School.[13][14]
  • 3 Ghosts (2011), a steampunk inspired stage adaptation by PiPE DREAM Theatre, written by Collin Simon and Liz Muller. Premiered in December 2011 at the Beckett Theatre on Theatre Row.[15][16]
  • A Christmas Carol (2012), a musical adaptation with book and lyrics by Ben Horslen and John Risebero and music by Christopher Peake and Nick Barstow, first performed by Antic Disposition in Middle Temple Hall, London, in December 2012 and revived in 2014, 2015 and 2017.
  • Scrooge's Long Night (2014), a comedic, family-friendly take on the story with audience participation and 4 actors playing 12 roles.[17]
  • A Christmas Carol (2015), an adaptation by Patrick Barlow, starring Jim Broadbent as "Scrooge" at Noël Coward Theatre in London.[18]
  • Charles Dickens Writes A Christmas Carol (2015), an adaptation by Richard Quesnel, by Lost and Found Theater inc, at The Conrad Center for the Performing Arts in Kitchener, Canada. This adaptation tells the story of how A Christmas Carol came to be written, as well as the story of A Christmas Carol. [1]
  • A Christmas Carol (2017), a new adaptation by Jack Thorne, directed by Matthew Warchus for The Old Vic. Cast includes Rhys Ifans as Scrooge. This production was revived for Christmas 2018 with Stephen Tompkinson as Scrooge. The production will premiere on Broadway in November 2019 at the Lyceum Theatre with Campbell Scott as Scrooge.
  • A Christmas Carol (2017), a new adaptation by David Edgar, directed by Rachel Kavanaugh for the Royal Shakespeare Company. Cast included Phil Davis as Scrooge.[19] This production was revived for Christmas 2018 with Aden Gillet as Scrooge.
  • A Christmas Carol (2017), a new adaptation by Deborah McAndrew, directed by Amy Leach for Hull Truck Theatre. This production is due to transfer to the West Yorkshire Playhouse's Pop Up Theatre for Christmas 2018. This version relocates the story to the North of Victorian, England.
  • Humbug (2017), a new adaption by Chuck Puckett, directed by Carol Puckett, performed by The Bank Street Players at the Princess Theater in Decatur, AL.
  • An Evening With Charles Dickens Reading A Christmas Carol (2018), a new adaptation by Ronald Rand, directed and performed by Ronald Rand at the Tuscumbia Roundhouse in Tuscumbia, AL.



Replica tombstone from the 1984 adaptation, still in situ at St Chad's Church, Shrewsbury, 2008

Between 1944 and 1956, most television versions of the story were staged live.

None of the later versions were done live, but were either shot on videotape or filmed. They include:

Direct to DVDEdit


  • On 19 December 1923 BBC radio broadcast an adaptation of the story by R. E. Jeffrey.[40]
  • Lionel Barrymore starred as Scrooge in a dramatisation on the CBS Radio Network on 25 December 1934, beginning a tradition he would repeat on various network programs every Christmas through 1953. Only twice did he not play the role: in 1936, when his brother John Barrymore filled in because of the death of Lionel's wife, and again in 1938, when Orson Welles took over the role because Barrymore had fallen ill.[41][42][43][44]
  • A 1940s adaptation starring Basil Rathbone as Scrooge was subsequently issued as a three-record set by Columbia Records.[45]
  • On 24 December 1949, Favorite Story broadcast an adaptation with Ronald Colman both hosting and starring as Scrooge. This version used a script nearly identical to the one used in Ronald Colman's famous 1941 record album of the story, but a different supporting cast.
  • Alec Guinness starred as Scrooge in a BBC production from 1951, also broadcast in America, and repeated for several years afterward.
  • On 24 December 1953, Theatre Royal, also from the BBC, starred Laurence Olivier in his only recorded performance as Scrooge. This one was issued on CD in 1992.
  • On 25 December 1965, the BBC aired an hour-long radio version adapted by Charles Lefeaux with music composed and conducted by Christopher Whelen, and starring Ralph Richardson as The Storyteller and Scrooge.[46]
  • On 24 December 1973 and every year until 1987 WNBC-AM in New York City broadcast an adaption featuring prominent on-air staff Don Imus as Ebeneezer Scrooge, Big Wilson as the Ghost of Christmas Past, Wolfman Jack as the Ghost of Christmas Present, Pat Whitley as the Ghost of Christmas Future, Murray The K as Bob Cratchit, Gordon Hammet as Jacob Marley and Donna Patrone as Tiny Tim.[47]
  • In 1975, CBS Radio Mystery Theatre ran A Christmas Carol starring E. G. Marshall as Scrooge. This is the only episode in which Marshal appeared in a rôle other than host.[20]
  • Beginning in the 1980s, NPR periodically broadcasts a straightforward, faithful version read by comedian Jonathan Winters, in which he plays all the roles.
  • Another BBC Radio production, broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on 22 December 1990, starred Michael Gough as Scrooge and Freddie Jones as The Narrator. This production was subsequently re-broadcast on BBC Radio 7 and later on BBC Radio 4 Extra.[48]
  • In 1995, Quicksilver Radio Theater broadcast a dramatization directed by Jay Stern and starring Craig Wichman as "Scrooge", Anthony Cinelli, John Prave, Ghislaine Nichols, Deborah Barta, Joseph Franchini, Jodi Botelho, Elizabeth Stull and Tony Scheinman.[49] The production was originally aired on Max Schmid's Radio Theater on WBAI, New York, NY on Christmas Eve 1995 and repeated Christmas Day 1995, and is currently syndicated on National Public Radio.[50] The program is currently part of the Theater Collection at the Paley Center for Media in New York.[51]
  • Focus on the Family Radio Theatre adapted the story in a 1996 production hosted by David Suchet, narrated by Timothy Bateson, and with Tenniel Evans as Scrooge. This production credits Noel Langley's screenplay for the 1951 film as well as Dickens' original book.
  • Paul Oakenfold's Urban Soundtracks (1999) included a remixed celebrity reading of the book, including sound effects and dance music in a version for UK dance radio stations
  • WBZ Newsradio 1030 in Boston adapted the play for its radio listeners in 1999.[citation needed] It starred now-retired morning news anchor Gary LaPierre as Ebeneezer Scrooge with members of the WBZ Newsradio staff (renamed the WBZ Radio Holiday Players) in various roles, including Carl Stevens as Scrooge's nephew Fred, Deb Lawlor as the Ghost of Christmas Past and New England Patriots play-by-play announcer Gil Santos as Marley's Ghost. WBZ radio producer Michael Coleman gave the prologue and played various characters in the play. It has been broadcast on WBZ every Christmas Eve since.
  • A Christmas Carol (2007), a theatrical audio version, written and directed by Arthur Yorinks from Night Kitchen Radio Theater, starring Peter Gerety, noted stage and film actor, as Scrooge. This faithful adaptation features a score by Edward Barnes and carols sung by members of the Frank Sinatra School of the Arts Concert Choir.
  • The Colonial Radio Theatre of Boston produced A Christmas Carol in 2004, and it has been broadcast yearly on Sirius XM Radio. It was released by Blackstone Audio in 2007. Brilliance Audio released the production on CD in 2010.
  • In 2008, David Jason recorded a 10 part abridged reading of A Christmas Carol for BBC Radio 4's Book at Bedtime.[52]
  • On 20 December 2014, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a new production of A Christmas Carol adapted by Neil Brand for actors, the BBC Singers and the BBC Symphony Orchestra, recorded before an audience in the BBC Maida Vale Studios and directed by David Hunter. The cast included Robert Powell as Scrooge, Ron Cook as Marley and Tracy-Ann Oberman as Mrs. Fezziwig.[53]
  • On 18 December 2015, Kathleen Turner starred as "Scrooge" in a live performance of A Christmas Carol presented as a radio drama at the Greene Space in New York City; a recording of the performance was broadcast on WNYC on 24 December and 25 December 2015.[54]


  • In 1941, Ronald Colman portrayed Scrooge in a famous American Decca four-record 78-RPM album of A Christmas Carol with a full supporting cast of radio actors and a score by Victor Young.[55] This version proved extremely popular and was eventually transferred to LP, where it sold well into the 1960s. In 2005, it appeared on a Deutsche Grammophon compact disc, along with its companion piece on LP, Mr. Pickwick's Christmas, narrated by Charles Laughton. (The Pickwick recording had originally been made in 1944.) The Ronald Colman A Christmas Carol is slightly abbreviated on both the LP and the CD versions. On the LP, this was done to fit the entire production onto one side of a 12-inch 33 RPM record. With the greater time available it was hoped that the CD would have the complete recording, but Deutsche Grammophon used the shorter LP version.
  • Also in 1941, Ernest Chappell narrated A Christmas Carol, "dramatized to a musical background," on an album of four 12-inch records for RCA Victor.[56]
  • Peter Pan Records published "Charles Dickens: A Christmas Carol" which features a studio recording.
  • In 1960, Dan O'Herlihy recorded the complete Dickens novel on a set of 4 16-RPM LP's, one of the few instances that this speed was used for a professional recording. This version was one of the first audiobooks ever made, and is now available on CD.[57] It was originally released on LP by a company called Audio Book Records, perhaps the first use of that term ever coined.[58]
  • Ralph Richardson and Paul Scofield were featured on a Caedmon Records adaptation of the story. While the Colman version took up only one side of an LP, the Caedmon Records version took up an entire one.[59] It was released on CD in 2010.[60]
  • Patrick Stewart has recorded his one-man dramatic reading of the story.[61]
  • The actor Gerald Charles Dickens, the great-great-grandson of Charles Dickens, has recorded a CD of A Christmas Carol which is unabridged and in which he plays twenty-six characters. His performance is based on Charles Dickens' original reading tour script.
  • Actor Jim Dale, heard on the unabridged recordings for the U.S. release of the Harry Potter books (for which he won two Grammy awards),[citation needed] in 2003 released an unabridged reading of A Christmas Carol with full characterizations of all the roles as part of the Random House Listening Library series.[62]
  • Former Doctor Who Tom Baker recorded an unabridged reading released in 2012 for the BBC's AudioGo Ltd..[63]
  • Nottingham broadcaster Steve Oliver recorded an audio book in four 'staves' based on the original public reading script.
  • Tim Curry narrated an unabridged "Signature Performance" recording for[64]


  • Mister Scrooge (1958–1959); alternative name: Shadows (Tiene), an opera by Slovak composer Ján Cikker.
  • A Christmas Carol (1978–1979), an opera by Thea Musgrave.[65]
  • The Passion of Scrooge (or A Christmas Carol) (1998), a chamber opera by Jon Deak for one baritone and chamber orchestra.[66]
  • A Christmas Carol (2014), by Iain Bell, libretto by Simon Callow, which premiered at Houston Grand Opera on 5 December 2014, with Heldentenor Jay Hunter Morris and former Houston Grand Opera Studio member Kevin Ray alternating in the single role of the Narrator.

Bilingual editionsEdit

  • Weihnachten unter Geistern/ Christmas Among Ghosts (2011) Calambac Verlag (ISBN 9783943117714), bilingual(German/English)edition, script by Elena Moreno Sobrino and drawn by Ando Ueno

Weihnachten unter Geistern: nach der Erzählung "A Christmas carol" von Charles Dickens = Christmas among ghosts

Graphic novelEdit

Comic stripsEdit

  • A story arc in the comic strip FoxTrot has Jason dreaming that he is Ebeneezer Scrooge, with his friends and family members playing the other roles.[67]


  • Blackadder's Christmas Carol (1988), in which the central character, Ebenezer Blackadder (Rowan Atkinson), is initially kind and generous, but after being visited by the Spirit of Christmas (Robbie Coltrane), becomes greedy, insulting and mean.
  • The Haunted Tea-Cosy: A Dispirited and Distasteful Diversion for Christmas by Edward Gorey (1998), in his typical surreal style.
  • I'm Sorry I Haven't a Christmas Carol (2003), a Christmas special for the BBC Radio 4 panel game I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue, with central character Ebenezer Scrumph (Humphrey Lyttelton) and assistant Colin Crotchet (Colin Sell).
  • Karroll's Christmas (2004), The Scrooge character, Zebidiah Rosecog (Wallace Shawn) is the neighbor of Allen Karroll (Tom Everett Scott), who is visited by the three ghosts instead due to a mistake in address.
  • A Christmas Chuckle (2009), a family comedy show written by and starring The Chuckle Brothers which toured Britain in November and December 2009.
  • Conor Lastowka published A Christmas Boner in 2013, a rewrite of A Christmas Carol in which Scrooge has priapism throughout.[68][69] This was in the vein of other parody mashups like Pride and Prejudice and Zombies.
  • Canadian comedy actor Don Harron recorded a version as "Charlie Farquharson" using malaprops.
  • "Huh-Huh-Humbug", an episode of Beavis and Butt-head, with Beavis as Scrooge.
  • Turn of the Scrooge, a parody sequel wherein Marley faked his death and conspired with Bob Cratchit and Tim, himself a child-faced gangster, to steal Scrooge's fortune on Christmas Eve, and attempt to successfully repeat their performance the following year.[70]
  • Epic Rap Battles of History episode "Donald Trump vs. Ebenezer Scrooge" features Ebenezer Scrooge rap battling Jacob Marley (represented by Donald Trump) The Ghost of Christmas Past (represented by J.P. Morgan), The Ghost of Christmas Present (represented by Kanye West), and The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come.
  • Soylent Scrooge, a radio parody inspired by A Modest Proposal and the film Soylent Green in which Scrooge and Marley own a factory that converts the poor into foodstuffs. Other Dickens characters also appear in the story and fake commercials.[71]

Derivative worksEdit

The basic plot of A Christmas Carol has been put to a variety of different literary and dramatic uses since Dickens' death, alongside sequels, prequels, and stories focusing on minor characters.

  • On 24 December 1949, Richard Diamond, Private Detective adapted the story with characters from the series playing the Dickens characters in the style of the radio series and transplanting the story to New York City, with Dick Powell in character as "Richard Diamond" narrating the story.
  • On 20 December 1953, The Six Shooter broadcast "Britt Ponset's Christmas Carol", in which the title character Britt Ponset tells a young boy who's running away from home a western version of A Christmas Carol, with Howard McNear playing the role of "Eben" (the Scrooge character).
  • It's Never Too Late (1953), Italian adaptation of Dickens's novel, featuring Paolo Stoppa and Marcello Mastroianni.
  • Rod Serling's A Carol for Another Christmas (1964) was a United Nations special sponsored by Xerox.
  • The Odd Couple (1970): In the episode "Scrooge Gets an Oscar", Felix and the other poker players become Dickens characters in a dream after Oscar refuses to be Scrooge in a children's play.
  • Disney's A Christmas Carol (1972) is an audio musical recording with six original musical numbers, featuring various Disney characters playing the Dickens roles. It was adapted (without the songs) into the animated short Mickey's Christmas Carol in 1983.
  • An American Christmas Carol (1979), an adaptation starring Henry Winkler at the height of his fame from the television series Happy Days. The story is set in Depression era New England, and the Scrooge character is named Benedict Slade.[72]
  • Skinflint: A Country Christmas Carol (1979), an American country music inspired TV film starring Hoyt Axton as Cyrus Flint.[73]
  • "X-Mas Marks the Spot" (1986), an episode of The Real Ghostbusters, where, on Christmas Eve, Peter Venkman, Ray Stanz, Egon Spangler, and Winston Zeddmore end up traveling back in time to England in 1837. There they unknowingly meet Scrooge and end up "busting" the Three Christmas Ghosts by accident. It is revealed that Peter's childhood was very similar to Scrooge's.
  • "A Jetson Christmas Carol" (1985) Episode sixty-five of The Jetsons animated television series. Spacely orders George to work overtime on Christmas Eve while Astro causes himself to be sick. Three spirits visit Spacely to convince him that Christmas is a time of giving.[74]
  • "Ebenezer Sanford", an episode of Sanford and Son in which Fred is a Scrooge-like miser. His family and friends try to get him to join into the Christmas spirit, but he rejects the attempts. Fred falls asleep and dreams he's in A Christmas Carol.[75]
  • WKRP in Cincinnati: In the episode "Bah Humbug", Mr. Carlson plans to give the staffers no Christmas bonuses. But after eating one of Johnny Fever's "special" brownies, the ghosts of Christmas Past (Jennifer), Present (Venus), and Future (Johnny) visit him to show him the error of his ways.
  • Fame: In the episode "Ebenezer Morloch", Mr. Morloch falls asleep and is visited by three ghosts.
  • Family Ties: In the episode "A Keaton Christmas Carol", Alex finds the spirit of Christmas in a dream when he is shown visions of the past and future by ghosts of Mallory and Jennifer.
  • A Different World: In the episode "For Whom the Jingle Bell Tolls", Whitley plays the Scrooge role over her mother's plans to visit the French Riviera for Christmas. She receives visits from the ghosts of Christmas Past (Mr. Gaines), Present (Walter) and Future (Jaleesa).
  • The Six Million Dollar Man: In the episode "A Bionic Christmas Carol", Steve Austin is sent to investigate problems with an OSI project contracted out to Budge Corp. He discovers the problem is that the corporation's owner is a cheap miser. Steve uses his bionic powers to emulate the Dickens classic and convince Budge to change his mind.
  • Alice: In the episode "Mel's Christmas Carol", Mel is haunted by a former partner after he fires the waitresses on Christmas Eve.
  • "A Christmas Carol II" (1985), an episode of the TV series George Burns Comedy Week in which Scrooge is good-natured to a fault, and all of Camden Town takes advantage of his generosity. Scrooge is so giving of his fortune that the townspeople end up taking all his money. This prompts the spirits to return and make sure Scrooge achieves a balance between his past and current behavior.
  • God Bless Us Every One (Methuen, 1985) by Andrew Angus Dalrymple. Subtitled Being An Imagined Sequel to "A Christmas Carol" and featuring all the major characters of the original in 1843, the year of the original's publication (the original is dated as having occurred seven years earlier here), expanding upon the Cratchit children Tim and Belinda.
  • Tiny Tim Strikes Back, short story (by 'Chuck Dickens') in The Utterly Utterly Merry Comic Relief Christmas Book; Tiny Tim takes exception to his nickname.
  • Scrooged (1988), a modernized comedy adaptation in a contemporary setting with Bill Murray as a misanthropic TV producer who is haunted by the ghosts of Christmas. Directed by Richard Donner.
  • "A Little Miracle" (1990) is an episode of the series Quantum Leap; the protagonist, Sam Beckett, who travels through time by leaping into the lives of others, becomes the valet of a Scrooge-like industrialist, showing the industrialist the error of his ways.
  • The Marley Carol (1993) A Christmas Play in Two Acts by Dennis Drake taking place on the Christmas Eve that Jacob Marley gives up the ghost.
  • Northern Exposure: In the episode "Shofar, So Good", Joel Fleischman learns the meaning of Yom Kippur from the ghosts of Yom Kippur past, present and future.
  • "Sonic's Christmas Carol" (1993) A backup story featured in Archie Comics' Sonic the Hedgehog #6. It casts Dr. Robotnik as Scrooge, Rotor Walrus as Bob Cratchit, Snively as Jacob Marley and Sonic as all three ghosts.
  • Jacob Marley's Christmas Carol (1994), a play and book by Tom Mula focusing on Jacob Marley and his attempts to redeem Scrooge lest he face eternal torment.[76]
  • Ebbie (1995), a TV movie that brought the first portrayal of Scrooge as a female, with Susan Lucci as Elizabeth "Ebbie" Scrooge, owner of a huge department store, and some of her own employees doubling as the three Christmas Spirits.
  • Martin (1996): In the episode "Scrooge", Martin was visited by three Christmas spirits, to encourage Christmas spirit and the joy of giving to Martin.
  • Ms. Scrooge (1997), a TV movie with a modernized setting starring Cicely Tyson as "Ebenita Scrooge", the managing director of a loan company, and Katherine Helmond as her deceased business partner Maude Marley.
  • Ebenezer (1997), a Western version produced for Canadian TV, starring Jack Palance as Ebenezer Scrooge, a land baron.
  • An All Dogs Christmas Carol (1998), animated TV movie based on All Dogs Go to Heaven and featuring the villainous Carface as this version's Scrooge analog.
  • "Whatever Happened to Tiny Tim?" by John Mortimer (New York Times Book Review, 1992). In this short story, Tim grew up to be a successful businessman and gained a knighthood, but became even more heartless than Scrooge (beginning his career by embezzling funds from Scrooge's Christmas turkey fund, then buying Scrooge out and pensioning off his own father). On Christmas night 1894, he is visited by both the ghosts of Scrooge and Christmas Yet-to-Come who force him to see a horrible vision of the world in 1992.
  • Tiny Tim is Dead (1998), a play by Barbara Lebow that uses A Christmas Carol as a theme within the work. A group of homeless people attempt to re-enact the story but find themselves torn apart, leaving no hope for the future.[77]
  • Timothy Cratchit's Christmas Carol, 1917: A sequel to the Charles Dickens classic (Dickens World, 1998) by Dale Powell. In this version, an elderly Tiny Tim is a wealthy immigrant living in America who experiences his own spiritual visitations on Christmas Eve.
  • The Spirit of the Season, 1998, by Don Flowers; Paralleling the visitations of the three "spirits" 20 years before, Scrooge prevails on a grown-up Tim Cratchit to help to him try to reconnect with and win freedom for Marley's Ghost. Later adapted by Flowers and Fred Walton as a musical (Ebenezer Ever After) that premiered in Portland, Oregon, in 2010.
  • A Christmas Carol (2000), A TV-movie that takes place in the present where Ross Kemp plays Eddie Scrooge, a London loan shark. Jacob Marley (Ray Fearon) not only warns Scrooge of the three impending spirits, but doubles as the Ghost of Christmas Present.
  • In 2000, Adventures from the Book of Virtues did an adaptation of A Christmas Carol with Annie in the role of Scrooge, Zack in the role of Bob Cratchit, Plato in the role of Jacob Marley, Aristotle in the role of the Ghost of Christmas Past, Socrates in the role of the Ghost of Christmas Present, Aurora in the role of the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come, and an unnamed blond orphan boy in the role of Tiny Tim.
  • A Diva's Christmas Carol (2000), TV movie that premiered on VH1, now on Lifetime, portraying Vanessa Williams in the Scrooge role as "Ebony" Scrooge, one third of a late-'80's pop trio called "Desire" and now an egotistical, arrogant, grouchy solo diva.
  • Marley's Ghost, (2000), by Mark Hazard Osmun: The prequel to A Christmas Carol. A novel imagining the life and afterlife of Scrooge's partner, Jacob Marley and how Marley came to arrange Scrooge's chance at redemption.
  • Scrooge & Marley (2001), a Christian-themed television film adaptation set in a fictional New England town called Winterset, Connecticut.[78] It was directed by Fred Holmes and produced by the Coral Ridge Ministries, starring Dean Jones as Ebenezer Scrooge, who in this adaptation starts out as an atheist and a personal injury lawyer. Also adapted from the book What If Jesus Had Never Been Born?[79] In the United States, the film aired on Trinity Broadcasting Network on 21 December 2001 and then 25 December; it also aired on syndicated stations on 24–25 December and then as part of The Coral Ridge Hour on 29–30 December.[80]
  • The Trial of Ebenezer Scrooge (Ohio State University Press, 2001) by Bruce Bueno de Mesquita. A uniquely philosophical take on the Scrooge mythology set in the afterlife with Scrooge on trial to determine if he merits entry into Paradise.
  • Scrooge & Cratchit (2002) by Matt McHugh. Bob Cratchit is now Scrooge's partner in business as they both face the wrath of bankers as ruthless as Scrooge in his prime. Reprinted in 2007 as The Index-Journal holiday edition insert. In print and Kindle/iPhone/ebook formats.
  • Scrooge Blues was written by Nicholas McInerny and broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in December 2002[81] and re-broadcast on BBC Radio 7 on 28 December 2010.[82] This continuation, starring David Hargreaves, takes place one year after the events of A Christmas Carol after the transformation of Ebenezer Scrooge.
  • A Carol Christmas (2003), another TV movie portraying Scrooge as an arrogant female celebrity, this time as a TV star named "Carol Cartman", played by Tori Spelling, with her own talk show. Also featured were Dinah Manoff as Marla, Carol's stage-mother type aunt, and two of the three Christmas Spirits portrayed by Gary Coleman (Christmas Past) and William Shatner (Christmas Present).
  • The Last Christmas of Ebenezer Scrooge: The Sequel to A Christmas Carol (Wildside Press, 2003) by Marvin Kaye. This sequel picks up where the original left off, with Scrooge trying to right an unresolved wrong. This version was also adapted for the stage.
  • Marley's Ghost (2003) by Jeff Goode is a stage play which is a prequel to A Christmas Carol along similar lines to the novel by Osmun.
  • Mr. Timothy (HarperCollins, 2003) by Louis Bayard. Here again is an adult Tiny Tim, only this time as a 23-year-old resident of a London brothel who becomes embroiled in a murder mystery. Mr. Timothy was included in The New York Times's list of Notable Fiction for 2003.
  • The Haunting Refrain to Charles Dickens' "A Christmas Carol" (2004, revised 2007) This short novel details the lives of the original characters, plus a few new introductions, 21 years later. It is posted exclusively to the web at his time and is out of print from its original printing run.
  • An Easter Carol (2004), a direct to video adaption from VeggieTales which is similar, but with an Easter twist.
  • Surviving Christmas (2004), a romantic comedy about a wealthy advertising executive who hires a suburban family to be his pretend family. The film ends with the main characters seeing a community theatre production of A Christmas Carol. Earlier in the film, the executive also hires the actor who plays Scrooge in the production to be his pretend grandfather.
  • Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas (2006) the second Looney Tunes adaptation; this time, it features Daffy Duck as Scrooge.
  • A Christmas Carol: Scrooge's Ghostly Tale (2006), animated.
  • The Trial of Ebenezer Scrooge (2007), a comedic play where, one year after the events of the original story, Scrooge sues Marley and the Spirits for kidnapping and emotional distress.[83]
  • Barbie in a Christmas Carol (2008), Barbie stars as the female version of Ebenezer Scrooge.
  • An American Carol (2008), theatrical film in which an Americal political liberal boycotts the 4th of July and is visited by three ghosts who remind him of the supremacy of conservatism.
  • Of Christmas Past is a short comic strip by Johnny Lowe and Seaward Tuthill in the literary trade paperback Iconic released in 2009 by members of the Comicbook Artists Guild. It deals with Scrooge's nephew Fred facing the decision of what to do about a criminal who murdered his wife, with the ghost of Scrooge playing the role of the three spirits to try to save him from a path of darkness.
  • Ghosts of Girlfriends Past (2009) A romantic comedy film starring Matthew McConaughey as the Scrooge-like character Connor Mead.
  • Nan's Christmas Carol (2009)
  • I am Scrooge: A Zombie Story for Christmas is a novel by Adam Roberts (Gollancz, 2009). It deals with the aftermath of Tiny Tim's parlous health. It turns out that the child was a harbinger of an infectious virus that threatens a zombie apocalypse, and it is left to Scrooge and the Ghosts of Christmas Past, Present and Future to rectify the matter.
  • A Klingon Christmas Carol (written c. 2006) is an adaptation set on the Klingon homeworld of Qo'noS in the Star Trek fictional universe.[84] The play was co-written and directed by Christopher O. Kidder, and was performed from 2007–2010 by Commedia Beauregard (a Saint Paul, Minnesota, theatre company),[84] and also presented in Chicago for 2010.[85]
  • Doctor Who: A Christmas Carol (2010) - the 2010 Christmas special episode of Doctor Who is a science fiction story that borrows elements from the original, as the Eleventh Doctor attempts to make a miserly man who controls equipment that could save his companions from a crashing ship change his ways by influencing the man's past, culminating in him bringing the man's child-self into the future. Dialogue acknowledges the source, and Dickens himself has appeared as a character in two unrelated episodes.
  • An American Country Christmas Carol (2010) a new stage country musical adaptation with a book and lyrics by Scott Logsdon and music by Rand Bishop, Kent Blazy, Roxie Dean, Tim Finn, Billy Kirsch, J. Fred Knobloch, and Pam Rose. It was presented as a staged reading at the Boiler Room Theatre in Franklin, Tennessee, on December 5, 6 and 13 of 2010.[86]
  • Christmas Cupid (2010), made-for-TV movie starring Christina Milian as the Scrooge-inspired character Sloane Spencer.
  • Mega Man Christmas Carol (2010) - In this Mega Man fangame, Mega Man gets his Christmas presents stolen by an evil Santa Claus. To get the presents back, Mega Man must fight four Robot Masters based on the four ghosts from A Christmas Carol.
  • Batman: Noël (2011) A graphic novel written and illustrated by Lee Bermejo, featuring a tale with the caped crusader inspired by A Christmas Carol. (ISBN 9781401232139)
  • Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight, Halloween Special #3: Ghosts (1995), written by Jeph Loeb and drawn by Tim Sale. The setting was changed to Halloween.[87]
  • Zombies Christmas Carol (2011), an adaptation of the original story by Marvel Comics with zombies as a metaphor for the hungry and needy, the source of the plague being Scrooge's own hatred and bitterness towards man.[88]
  • Mega Man Christmas Carol 2 (2011) - The sequel to Mega Man Christmas Carol. Mega Man, Proto Man and Bass fight against five more Robot Masters based on A Christmas Carol characters.
  • It's Christmas, Carol! (2012) made-for-TV movie starring Emmanuelle Vaugier as an arrogant Chicago-based book publisher whose staff hates her so much they plan a revolt against her; her former boss, Eve (Carrie Fisher) approaches her on Christmas Eve night and functions as all three spirits, Past, Present and Yet To Come.
  • Scrooge & Marley (2012), a gay film adaptation featuring David Pevsner as Ebenezer "Ben" Scrooge
  • "Orange Carol" (2012), an episode of The High Fructose Adventures of Annoying Orange where Orange's annoying antics are spoiling everyone's holiday cheer, then a visit from three ghosts appeared and try to make Orange learn about the holiday spirit.
  • "A Christmas Carol" (2012), an episode of The Looney Tunes Show, features a stage adaptation of the tale.
  • Scrooge: The Year After (2012) is a sequel written by Judy La Salle taking place one year after the events of the original novel, following Scrooge's attempt to investigate the cause of his sister Fan's death. It is broken into volumes, and thus far, only the first volume of the sequel has been released.
  • An Amish Christmas Carol (Amish Christian Classic Series Book 1) (2012) by Sarah Price
  • Kelly Clarkson's Cautionary Christmas Music Tale (2013), a NBC television special loosely based on A Christmas Carol featuring Kelly Clarkson playing a Scrooge-like role.[89]
  • A Kindle short story collection A Christmas Carol: The Death of Tiny Tim and Other Dark Stories by Joseph L. Calvarese was published in 2014. The title story is a murder mystery that suggests that Scrooge sent the prize turkey to the Cratchit family with ill intent.
  • Zach Sherwin in the 2013 Donald Trump vs. Ebenezer Scrooge Epic Rap Battles of History video.[90]
  • My Dad Is Scrooge, a 2014 Christmas fantasy film about talking animals using the novella to help a Scrooge-like father (played by Brian Cook) see the error of his ways.
  • Jacob T. Marley, a 2014 novel by William R. Bennett focusing on Jacob Marley, how he influenced Scrooge into becoming worse than he was, and his attempts to make amends posthumously.[91]
  • "Scroogical" (2014), a modern retelling of the tale that begins with Jacob Marley making a bet with the Ghost of Christmas Present, who doubles as a broker for souls.
  • Classic Alice, a 2014-2015 webseries re-imagining with Alice playing Scrooge as she leads herself through the ghosts of past, present, and future to discover what she really wants.
  • Thomas & Friends: Diesel's Ghostly Christmas a special double-length episode from Series 19 is a loose adaptation of the story with Diesel playing the role of Scrooge.
  • Dickensian, a 2015 BBC drama, brings characters from many Charles Dickens novels together in one Victorian London neighbourhood, as Inspector Bucket investigates the murder of Ebenezer Scrooge's partner Jacob Marley.
  • The Life and Times of Bob Cratchit: A Background Story to Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol (2015), a novel detailing how Bob Cratchit grew up and came to work at Scrooge and Marley's, how he got married, and other events before the story began.[92]
  • My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic includes a 2016 episode, A Hearth's Warming Tail featuring an in-universe adaption. In the episode, during the annual celebration of Hearth's Warming (the Equestrian version of Christmas), Twilight Sparkle tells Starlight Glimmer a story to get her into the spirit of the season. The story features Snowfall Frost (portrayed by Starlight Glimmer) as the story's version of Scrooge.
  • "Twelve Hundred Ghosts - A Christmas Carol in Supercut (400 versions, plus extras)" (2016) by Heath Waterman. A compilation of hundreds of versions of A Christmas Carol into a single understandable version.
  • Scrooge in Love! (2016), a musical written by Duane Poole (music by Larry Grossman and lyrics by Kellan Blair) in which Ebenezer Scrooge, rather than being miserly, sees money as a cure-all and takes generosity overboard.[93]
  • Hanukkah, Shmanukkah!, a 2005 book written by Esme Raji Codell and illustrated by LeUyen Pham, re-imagines the 'Carol' story as a Chanukkah tale, with a miserly factory owner ("Scroogemacher") being visited by the spirits of three rabbis, each representing a different era of Jewish history.[94]
  • The Man Who Invented Christmas (2017), a film about Charles Dickens' struggle to write the book while dealing with his personal life with his characters, especially Ebenezer Scrooge (played by Christopher Plummer), seeming to haunt him with their opinions.
  • Roger L. Jackson as Mojo Jojo in Powerpuff Girls "You're A Good Man, Mojo Jojo!" (2017)
  • Seth MacFarlane as Peter Griffin in Family Guy, "Don't Be A Dickens at Christmas" (2017)
  • Kate Micucci as Velma Dinkley in Be Cool, Scooby-Doo! episode "Scroogey Doo" (2017)
  • A Christmas Carol Goes Wrong (2017), a BBC One television special written by and starring Henry Lewis, Jonathan Sayer, Henry Shields and Mischief Theatre Company in which the fictional Cornley Polytechnic Drama Society disastrously attempt to perform a TV adaptation of the story, following the stage plays The Play That Goes Wrong and Peter Pan Goes Wrong (the latter being filmed for BBC One in 2016). Guest starring Derek Jacobi and Diana Rigg.
  • Jacob - A Denouement in One Act (2017), a story set roughly 80 years after the original where Jacob Marley, having played all three ghosts with no idea if his visit was successful, learns of the positive effects he had on Scrooge and London as a whole that may free him of his chains.[95]
  • Marley (2017), a serialized web novella focusing on Jacob Marley in the days before A Christmas Carol, primarily his life and backstory and how he came to redeem Ebenezer. It also shows the backstory of the three Ghosts and features action sequences as someone Marley knew in life, and spurned, steals the Ghost of Christmas Present's torch in an effort to permanently stop the dead visiting the living.[96]
  • A Christmas Carol (2018), a contemporary retelling of the story set in Scotland, featuring Stuart Brennan as Scrooge[97].
  • David Tennant as Scrooge McDuck in the Ducktales episode ""Last Christmas!" (2018)
  • In January 2019 Winchester (UK) based theatre company Blue Apple Theatre staged a re-working of the story with an actress with Down Syndrome, Katy Francis, in the leading part of 'Emilina' Scrooge. The show was performed at Theatre Royal Winchester.[98]


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Further readingEdit

  • Fred Guida, A Christmas Carol and Its Adaptations: Dickens's Story on Screen and Television, McFarland & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-7864-0738-7.