A golem (/ˈɡləm/ GOH-ləm; Hebrew: גּוֹלֶם, romanizedgōlem) is an animated, anthropomorphic being in Jewish folklore, which is entirely created from inanimate matter, usually clay or mud. The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late 16th-century rabbi of Prague. According to Moment magazine, "the golem is a highly mutable metaphor with seemingly limitless symbolism. It can be a victim or villain, man or woman—or sometimes both. Over the centuries, it has been used to connote war, community, isolation, hope, and despair."[1]

A Prague reproduction of the Golem

EtymologyEdit

The word golem occurs once in the Bible in Psalm 139:16,[2] which uses the word גלמי (golmi; my golem),[3] that means "my light form", "raw" material,[4] connoting the unfinished human being before God's eyes.[3] The Mishnah uses the term for an uncultivated person: "Seven characteristics are in an uncultivated person, and seven in a learned one", (שבעה דברים בגולם) (Avot 5:7 in the Hebrew text; English translations vary).

In Modern Hebrew, golem is used to mean "dumb" or "helpless" and also to describe an insect in its inactive immature form between larva and adult. Similarly, it is often used today as a metaphor for a mindless lunk or entity that serves a man under controlled conditions, but is hostile to him under other conditions.[1] "Golem" passed into Yiddish as goylem to mean someone who is lethargic or beneath a stupor.[5]

HistoryEdit

Earliest storiesEdit

The oldest stories of golems date to early Judaism. In the Talmud (Tractate Sanhedrin 38b), Adam was initially created as a golem (גולם) when his dust was "kneaded into a shapeless husk". Like Adam, all golems are created from mud by those close to divinity, but no anthropogenic golem is fully human. Early on, the main disability of the golem was its inability to speak. Sanhedrin 65b describes Rava creating a man (gavra). He sent the man to Rav Zeira. Rav Zeira spoke to him, but he did not answer. Rav Zeira said, "You were created by the sages; return to your dust" (Imperial Aramaic: הוה קא משתעי בהדיה ולא הוה קא מהדר ליה אמר ליה מן חבריא את הדר לעפריך).

During the Middle Ages, passages from the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Formation) were studied as a means to create and animate a golem, although little in the writings of Jewish mysticism supports this belief. It was believed that golems could be activated by an ecstatic experience induced by the ritualistic use of various letters of the Hebrew alphabet[6] forming a "shem" (any one of the Names of God), wherein the shem was written on a piece of paper and inserted in the mouth or in the forehead of the golem.[7]

A golem is inscribed with Hebrew words in some tales (for example, some versions of Chełm and Prague, as well as in Polish tales and versions of the Brothers Grimm), such as the word emét (אמת, "truth" in Hebrew) written on its forehead. The golem could then be deactivated by removing the aleph (א) in emét,[8] thus changing the inscription from "truth" to "death" (mét מת, meaning "dead").

The earliest known written account of how to create a golem can be found in Sodei Razayya by Eleazar ben Judah of Worms of the late 12th and early 13th centuries.[9]

Samuel of Speyer (12th century) was said to have created a golem.

One source credits 11th-century Solomon ibn Gabirol with creating a golem,[10] possibly female, for household chores.[11]

In 1625, Joseph Delmedigo wrote that "many legends of this sort are current, particularly in Germany."[12]

The Golem of ChełmEdit

The oldest description of the creation of a golem by a historical figure is included in a tradition connected to Rabbi Eliyahu of Chełm (1550–1583).[6][3][12][13]

A Polish Kabbalist, writing in about 1630–1650, reported the creation of a golem by Rabbi Eliyahu thusly: "And I have heard, in a certain and explicit way, from several respectable persons that one man [living] close to our time, whose name is R. Eliyahu, the master of the name, who made a creature out of matter [Heb. Golem] and form [Heb. tzurah] and it performed hard work for him, for a long period, and the name of emet was hanging upon his neck until he finally removed it for a certain reason, the name from his neck and it turned to dust."[6] A similar account was reported by a Christian author, Christoph Arnold, in 1674.[6]

Rabbi Jacob Emden (d. 1776) elaborated on the story in a book published in 1748: "As an aside, I'll mention here what I heard from my father's holy mouth regarding the Golem created by his ancestor, the Gaon R. Eliyahu Ba'al Shem of blessed memory. When the Gaon saw that the Golem was growing larger and larger, he feared that the Golem would destroy the universe. He then removed the Holy Name that was embedded on his forehead, thus causing him to disintegrate and return to dust. Nonetheless, while he was engaged in extracting the Holy Name from him, the Golem injured him, scarring him on the face."[14]

According to the Polish Kabbalist, "the legend was known to several persons, thus allowing us to speculate that the legend had indeed circulated for some time before it was committed to writing and, consequently, we may assume that its origins are to be traced to the generation immediately following the death of R. Eliyahu, if not earlier."[6][15]

The classic narrative: The Golem of PragueEdit

 
Rabbi Loew statue at the New City Hall of Prague
 
Rabbi Loew and Golem by Mikoláš Aleš, 1899
 
Old New Synagogue of Prague with the rungs of the ladder to the attic on the wall. In the legend, the Golem was in the loft
 
The Úštěk Synagogue with a statue of a Golem in Úštěk

The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late 16th-century rabbi of Prague, also known as the Maharal, who reportedly "created a golem out of clay from the banks of the Vltava River and brought it to life through rituals and Hebrew incantations to defend the Prague ghetto from anti-Semitic attacks and pogroms".[16][17] Depending on the version of the legend, the Jews in Prague were to be either expelled or killed under the rule of Rudolf II, the Holy Roman Emperor. The Golem was called Josef and was known as Yossele. He was said to be able to make himself invisible and summon spirits from the dead.[17] Rabbi Loew deactivated the Golem on Friday evenings by removing the shem before the Sabbath (Saturday) began,[7] so as to let it rest on Sabbath.[7]

One Friday evening, Rabbi Loew forgot to remove the shem, and feared that the Golem would desecrate the Sabbath.[7] A different story tells of a golem that fell in love, and when rejected, became the violent monster seen in most accounts. Some versions have the golem eventually going on a murderous rampage.[17] The rabbi then managed to pull the shem from his mouth and immobilize him[7] in front of the synagogue, whereupon the golem fell in pieces.[7] The Golem's body was stored in the attic genizah of the Old New Synagogue,[17] where it would be restored to life again if needed.[18]

Rabbi Loew then forbade anyone except his successors from going into the attic. Rabbi Yechezkel Landau, a successor of Rabbi Loew, reportedly wanted to go up the steps to the attic when he was Chief Rabbi of Prague to verify the tradition. Rabbi Landau fasted and immersed himself in a mikveh, wrapped himself in phylacteries and a prayer-shawl and started ascending the steps. At the top of the steps, he hesitated and then came immediately back down, trembling and frightened. He then re-enacted Rabbi Loew's original warning.[19]

According to legend, the body of Rabbi Loew's Golem still lies in the synagogue's attic.[7][17] When the attic was renovated in 1883, no evidence of the Golem was found.[20] Some versions of the tale state that the Golem was stolen from the genizah and entombed in a graveyard in Prague's Žižkov district, where the Žižkov Television Tower now stands. A recent legend tells of a Nazi agent ascending to the synagogue attic, dying under suspicious circumstances thereafter.[21] The attic is not open to the general public.[22]

Some Orthodox Jews believe that the Maharal did actually create a golem. The evidence for this belief has been analyzed from an Orthodox Jewish perspective by Shnayer Z. Leiman.[23][24]

Sources of the Prague narrativeEdit

The general view of historians and critics is that the story of the Golem of Prague was a German literary invention of the early 19th century. According to John Neubauer, the first writers on the Prague Golem were:

  • 1837: Berthold Auerbach, Spinoza
  • 1841: Gustav Philippson, Der Golam, eine Legende
  • 1841: Franz Klutschak, Der Golam des Rabbi Löw
  • 1842: Adam Tendlau Der Golem des Hoch-Rabbi-Löw
  • 1847: Leopold Weisel, Der Golem[25]

A few slightly earlier examples are known, in 1834[26][27] and 1836.[28][29]

All of these early accounts of the Golem of Prague are in German by Jewish writers. They are suggested to have emerged as part of a Jewish folklore movement parallel with the contemporary German folklore movement.[13]

The origins of the story have been obscured by attempts to exaggerate its age and to pretend that it dates from the time of the Maharal. Rabbi Yudel Rosenberg (1859–1935)[30] of Tarłów, before moving to Canada where he became one of its most prominent rabbis, is said to have originated the idea that the narrative dates from the time of the Maharal. Rosenberg published Nifl'os Maharal (Wonders of Maharal) (Piotrków, 1909),[30] which purported to be an eyewitness account by the Maharal's son-in-law, who had helped to create the Golem.

Rosenberg claimed that the book was based upon a manuscript that he found in the main library in Metz. Wonders of Maharal "is generally recognized in academic circles to be a literary hoax".[6][24][31] Gershom Sholem observed that the manuscript "contains not ancient legends, but modern fiction".[32] Rosenberg's claim was further disseminated in Chayim Bloch's (1881–1973) The Golem: Legends of the Ghetto of Prague, English edition 1925.

The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906 cites the historical work Zemach David by David Gans, a disciple of the Maharal, published in 1592.[7][33] In it, Gans writes of an audience between the Maharal and Rudolph II: "Our lord the emperor ... Rudolph ... sent for and called upon our master Rabbi Low ben Bezalel and received him with a welcome and merry expression, and spoke to him face to face, as one would to a friend. The nature and quality of their words are mysterious, sealed, and hidden."[34][better source needed]

But it has been said of this passage, "Even when [the Maharal is] eulogized, whether in David Gans' Zemach David or on his epitaph ..., not a word is said about the creation of a golem. No Hebrew work published in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries (even in Prague) is aware that the Maharal created a golem."[25] Furthermore, the Maharal himself did not refer to the Golem in his writings.[23] Rabbi Yedidiah Tiah Weil (1721–1805), a Prague resident, who described the creation of golems, including those created by Rabbis Avigdor Kara of Prague (died 1439) and Eliyahu of Chelm, did not mention the Maharal. Rabbi Meir Perils' biography of the Maharal[35] published in 1718 does not mention a golem.[13][23]

The Golem of VilnaEdit

A similar tradition relates to the Vilna Gaon or "the saintly genius from Vilnius" (1720–1797). Rabbi Chaim Volozhin (Lithuania 1749–1821) reported in an introduction to Sifra de Tzeniuta that he once presented to his teacher, the Vilna Gaon, ten different versions of a certain passage in the Sefer Yetzira and asked the Gaon to determine the correct text.[36] The Gaon immediately identified one version as the accurate rendition of the passage.[36]

The amazed student then commented to his teacher that, with such clarity, he should easily be able to create a live human. The Gaon affirmed Rabbi Chaim's assertion and said that he once began to create a person when he was a child, under the age of 13, but during the process, he received a sign from Heaven ordering him to desist because of his tender age.[36]

Theme of hubrisEdit

 
A statue of the Prague Golem created for the film The Emperor and the Golem

The existence of a golem is sometimes a mixed blessing. Golems are not intelligent, and if commanded to perform a task, they will perform the instructions literally. In many depictions, golems are inherently perfectly obedient. In its earliest known modern form, the Golem of Chełm became enormous and uncooperative. In one version of this story, the rabbi had to resort to trickery to deactivate it, whereupon it crumbled upon its creator and crushed him.[3]

A similar theme of hubris is seen in Frankenstein, The Sorcerer's Apprentice, and some other stories in popular culture, such as The Terminator. The theme manifests itself in R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), Karel Čapek's 1921 play that coined the term robot. The play was written in Prague, and while Čapek denied that he modeled the robot after the golem, many similarities are seen in the plot.[37]

Culture of the Czech RepublicEdit

The golem is a popular figure in the Czech Republic. The 1915 novel by Gustav Meyrink (The Golem) was briefly popular and did much to keep the imagination about the golem going. Several restaurants and other businesses have names that make reference to the creature. A Czech strongman, René Richter goes by the nickname "Golem",[17] and a Czech monster truck outfit calls itself the "Golem Team".[38]

Abraham Akkerman preceded his article on human automatism in the contemporary city with a short satirical poem on a pair of golems turning human.[39]

Clay Boy variationEdit

A Yiddish and Slavic folktale is the Clay Boy, which combines elements of the golem and The Gingerbread Man, in which a lonely couple makes a child out of clay, with disastrous or comical consequences.[40]

In one common Russian version, an older couple, whose children have left home, make a boy out of clay and dry him by their hearth. The Clay Boy (Russian: Гли́няный па́рень, Glínyanyĭ párenʹ) comes to life; at first, the couple is delighted and treats him like a real child, but the Clay Boy does not stop growing and eats all their food, then all their livestock, and then the Clay Boy eats his parents. The Clay Boy rampages through the village until he is smashed by a quick-thinking goat.[41]

Golem in popular cultureEdit

Film and televisionEdit

Golems are frequently depicted in movies and television shows. Programs with them in the title include:

Other references to golems in popular culture include:

  • The Golem (German: Der Golem), the first novel by Gustav Meyrink and adapted for television in 1967, for film in 1980, and for the stage in 2013.
  • Daimajin, a 1966 Japanese kaiju film directed by Kimiyoshi Yasuda.[46]
  • It!, a 1967 British horror film directed by Herbert J. Leder.[47]
  • "Kaddish", a 1997 episode of The X-Files.[48]
  • The 1995 Gargoyles episode "Golem" featured a golem made in the image of a stone statue that was created by Rabbi Loew (voiced by Victor Brandt) to defend the Jewish inhabitants of Prague from raiders and had been passed down to his ancestor Max Loew (voiced by Scott Weil). The golem was stolen by Tomas Brod (voiced by Clancy Brown) and his men so that Halycon Renard can transfer his soul into its body. Renard briefly caused havoc in his body before Goliath persuaded him to undo the transfer. Once that was done, Max used the golem to defeat Brod.
  • You Gotta Know When to Golem is a short story during Treehouse of Horror XVII, part of the long-running series of The Simpsons Halloween specials. The Golem, voiced by Richard Lewis, is controlled via paper notes by Bart and used to wreak havoc on the citizens of Springfield.
  • "Denial, Anger, Acceptance", a 1999 episode of The Sopranos.[49] Tony Soprano is approached by a Hasidic business owner with a troublesome son-in-law he wants intimidated into giving up his claim on the business he's helped build up. When confronted by members of Tony's crew, the enraged man tells his father-in-law he's created a Golem, and later, when Tony insists on claiming the 25% of the business that was offered in exchange, the businessman realizes the metaphoric truth of this, calling Tony a monster of his own creation, made of mud, a Golem—when Tony asks what's that, he says a Frankenstein (since many believe the Golem legend partly inspired Mary Shelley to write her novel).
  • In the 4th episode of season 4 of Grimm (TV series) (episode Dyin' on a Prayer), a golem plays an important role.
  • The 2013 Supernatural episode "Everybody Hates Hitler" features a golem (portrayed by John DeSantis) who had been used to fight the Nazis in Belarus during World War II. In the present, the golem has been passed down from Rabbi Bass (portrayed by Hal Linden) to his grandson Aaron Bass (portrayed by Adam Rose). While Aaron had a hard time controlling the golem at first, they did help Sam Winchester and Dean Winchester fight against a group of Nazi necromancers led by Commandant Eckhart (portrayed by Bernhard Forcher).
  • In the SyFy series The Magicians there is a golem made of a main character. It appears in the episodes “Homecoming” and “Be The Penny.”
  • The 2019 Netflix series The Order features a recurring character (portrayed by Dylan Playfair) who is revealed to be a golem in season 1.
  • The majority of the CW series Legacies (a spin-off of The Vampire Diaries) centers around defeating a golem.
  • "The Golem", a 2018 Israeli horror film features a golem in the form of a dead child.

LiteratureEdit

  • Marge Piercy's 1991 science fiction novel, He,She,and It, features intertwined narratives, one of which is a retelling of the story of Rabbi Loew and his creation of a golem in medieval Prague.
  • Sir Terry Pratchett's 1996 Discworld novel Feet Of Clay feature a number of Golems who reside in the city of Ankh-Morpork. Golems also appear in Making Money and make cameos throughout the remainder of the series.
  • The 2004 book The Golem's Eye by Jonathan Stroud features a magically rendered golem as the main threat.
  • The Marvel Comics superhero, Captain America, as the character's creators, Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, originally conceived of him, has been described as a variant of the Golem concept: a protector of the Jewish community created by one of its elders (Dr. Abraham Erskine)[50]
  • The Golem and the Jinni (published as The Golem and the Djinni in the United Kingdom) is a debut novel written by Helene Wecker, published by Harper in April 2013. It combines the genre of historical fiction with elements of fantasy, telling the story of two displaced magical creatures in 19th century New York City. A sequel, The Hidden Palace, was published in June 2021[citation needed]

Tabletop and video gamesEdit

  • Golems appear in the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (first published in the 1970s), and the influence of Dungeons & Dragons has led to the inclusion of golems in other tabletop role-playing games, as well as in video games.[51] There are many varieties of golems in the game.[52] The clay golem is based on the golem of Medieval Jewish folklore, though changed from "a cherished defender to an unthinking hulk".[53][54] The flesh golem is related to Frankenstein's monster as Universal's 1931 film, seen in e.g. being empowered by electricity,[55] though again with the difference of being essentially an unthinking machine in the game.[56] D&D's golems are also rooted in Gothic fiction more generally, and are typical denizens of the Ravenloft setting.[57] The flesh golem was ranked ninth among the ten best mid-level monsters by the authors of Dungeons & Dragons For Dummies for both 3rd[56] and 4th edition.[58]

MusicEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Cooper, Marilyn. Jewish Word | Golem". Archived 25 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Moment. 17 July 2017. 24 August 2017.
  2. ^ Bible: Psalm 139:16
  3. ^ a b c d Introduction to "The Golem Returns" Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  4. ^ J. Simpson; E. Weiner, eds. (1989). "golem". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
  5. ^ Bluestein, Gene (1998). Anglish/Yinglish: Yiddish in American Life and Literature. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803219148. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Idel, Moshe (1990). Golem: Jewish Magical and Mystical Traditions on the Artificial Anthropoid. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0160-X. page 296
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h GOLEM Archived 25 January 2022 at the Wayback Machine. Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 23 September 2011.
  8. ^ Kerstein, Benjamin. Jewish Ideas Daily. 14 September 2010. 24 August 2017.
  9. ^ Kressel, Matthew (1 October 2015). "36 Days of Judaic Myth: Day 24, The Golem of Prague". Matthew Kressel. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  10. ^ Bokser, Ben Zion (2006). From the World of the Cabbalah. Kessinger. p. 57.
  11. ^ Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.
  12. ^ a b Trachtenberg, Joshua (2004) [Originally published 1939]. Jewish Magic and Superstition. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780812218626.
  13. ^ a b c Gelbin, C . S., The Golem Returns – From German Romantic Literature to Global Jewish Culture, 1808–2008 Archived 14 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, University of Michigan, 2011
  14. ^ שו"ת שאילת יעב"ץ, ח"ב, סי' פ"ב Archived 2013-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. Cf. his בירת מגדל עוז, Altona, 1748, p. 259a; מטפחת ספרים, Altona, 1768, p. 45a Archived 2013-05-09 at the Wayback Machine; and מגילת ספר, ed. Kahana, Warsaw, 1896, p. 4 Archived 2013-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. See also שו"ת חכם צבי, סי' צ"ג Archived 2013-05-09 at the Wayback Machine, and the references cited in שו"ת חכם צבי עם ליקוטי הערות, Jerusalem, 1998, vol. 1, p. 421 and in the periodical כפר חב"ד, number 351 (1988), p. 51. Cited by Leiman, S.Z., "Did a Disciple of the Maharal Create a Golem?" Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ The tradition is also recorded in ה לחורבנה /תל-אביב: ארגון יוצאי חלם בישראל ובארה"ב, תשמ"א
  16. ^ Green, Kayla. "The Golem in the Attic". Archived 25 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Moment. 1 February 2011. 25 August 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Bilefsky, Dan (10 May 2009). "Hard Times Give New Life to Prague's Golem". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013. According to Czech legend, the Golem was fashioned from clay and brought to life by a rabbi to protect Prague's 16th-century ghetto from persecution, and is said to be called forth in times of crisis. True to form, he is once again experiencing a revival, and in this commercial age, has spawned a one-monster industry.
  18. ^ "The Golem Legend". applet-magic.com. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013.
  19. ^ Winkler, Gershon (1980). The Golem of Prague. New York: Judaica Press. pp. 60–63. ISBN 0-910818-24-X.
  20. ^ Mysteries of the Unknown: Inside the World of the Strange and Unexplained. Time-Life. 16 September 2014. ISBN 978-1618933522.
  21. ^ Lee-Parritz, Oren. "The Golem Lives On". jewishpost.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  22. ^ Old New Synagogue located in Praha, Czech Republic|Atlas Obscura|Curious and Wondrous Travel Destinations Archived 29 August 2011 at Wikiwix. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved on 23 September 2011.
  23. ^ a b c Leiman, S. Z., The Golem of Prague in Recent Rabbinic Literature Archived 24 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ a b Leiman, S.Z., " The Adventure of the Maharal of Prague in London: R. Yudl Rosenberg and The Golem of Prague", Archived 17 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine Tradition, 36:1, 2002
  25. ^ a b Neubauer, J., "How did the Golem get to Prague?" Archived 14 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine, in Cornis-Pope, M., and Neubauer, J. History of The Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, John Benjamins, 2010, see also: Dekel E., Gurley D.E., "How Did Golem \came to Prague", JQR, Vol. 103, No. 2 (Spring 2013), pp. 241–258 [1] Archived 9 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Glasenapp, Gabriele von (2 June 2009). Haug, Christine; Mayer, Franziska; Podewski, Madleen (eds.). Populäres Judentum: Medien, Debatten, Lesestoffe (in German). Walter de Gruyter. p. 31. ISBN 9783484971042. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  27. ^ "Der jüdische Gil Blas" (in German). Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2018. der Golam... des Rabbi Liwa, vom Volke der hohe Rabbi Löw genannt
  28. ^ Frankl, L. A. (1836). Kaltenbaeck, Johann Paul (ed.). Oesterreichische Zeitschrift für Geschichts- und Staatskunde (in German). Beck. p. 368. Archived from the original on 16 September 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  29. ^ Frankl, L. A. (1836). Bahrgang, Bweiter (ed.). Defterreichilche Beitfchrift (in German). Oxford University. p. 368. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  30. ^ a b Kieval, Hillel J. "Golem Legend". Archived 25 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine The YIVO Encyclopedia. 24 August 2017.
  31. ^ Sherwin, Byron L. (1985) The Golem Legend: Origins and Implications. New York: University Press of America
  32. ^ Sholem, G., Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, Schocken, 1961
  33. ^ HUNGARIAN STUDIES 2. No. 2. Nemzetközi Magyar Filológiai Társaság. Akadémiai Kiadó Budapest [1986] Archived 10 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF). Retrieved on 23 September 2011.
  34. ^ Gans, D., Zemach David, ed. M.Breuer, Jerusalem, 1983, p.145, cited Rabbi Yehudah Yudel Rosenberg and the Maharal's Golem Archived 23 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Meir Perels (1718). Megilas Yuchsin. Prague. OCLC 122864700.
  36. ^ a b c Chaim of Volozhin. "Sifra de Tzeniuta, Introduction". Archived 4 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine The Kabbalistic Tradition: An Anthology of Jewish Mysticism, edited by Alan Unterman. Google Books. 24 August 2017.
  37. ^ Koreis, Voyen. Introduction. "Two Plays by Karel Capek: R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) & The Robber". Archived 4 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine Google Books. 25 August 2017.
  38. ^ B, Veronika (25 January 2020). "VIDEO: René Richter, the Czech Man With the Strongest Jaws in the World". Prague Morning. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  39. ^ Akkerman, Abraham (2003–2004). "Philosophical Urbanism and Deconstruction in City-Form: An Environmental Ethos for the Twenty-First Century". 43/44: 48–61. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help) Published also as Paper CTS-04-06 by the Center for Theoretical Study, Prague.
  40. ^ Cronan, Mary W. (1917). "Lutoschenka". The Story Teller's Magazine. Vol. 5, no. 1. pp. 7–9.
  41. ^ Ginsburg, Mirra (1997). Clay Boy. New York: Greenwillow. ISBN 9780688144098.
  42. ^ "Der Golem (1915)". IMDb. 8 April 1915. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  43. ^ "Der Golem und die Tänzerin (1917)". IMDb. 9 April 1917. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  44. ^ "Der Golem, wie er in die Welt kam (1920)". IMDb. 19 June 1921. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  45. ^ "Le Golem (1936)". IMDb. 21 March 1937. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  46. ^ Ishii et al., 1997, 日本特撮・幻想映画全集, p.170, Keibunsha, ISBN 4766927060
  47. ^ "It! (1967): The Golem Movie That Time Forgot – Ryan Harvey". 10 October 2020. Archived from the original on 5 January 2022. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  48. ^ "Kaddish (The X-Files)". IMDb. 16 February 1997. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  49. ^ "Denial, Anger, Acceptance (The Sopranos)". IMDb. 24 January 1999. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  50. ^ Isaak, Joshua (3 December 2021). "Captain America Is A Jewish Golem - Theory Explained". Screenrant. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit