Pinocchio

Pinocchio (/pɪˈnki/ pih-NOH-kee-oh,[1] Italian: [piˈnɔkkjo]) is a fictional character and the protagonist of the children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883) by Italian writer Carlo Collodi of Florence, Tuscany.[2][3] Pinocchio was carved by a woodcarver named Geppetto in a Tuscan village. He was created as a wooden puppet but he dreams of becoming a real boy. He is notably characterized for his frequent tendency to lie, which causes his nose to grow.[4]

Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio character
Pinocchio.jpg
Original art by Enrico Mazzanti
First appearanceThe Adventures of Pinocchio (1883)
Created byCarlo Collodi
In-universe information
SpeciesWooden marionette (later human)
GenderMale
FamilyMister Geppetto (father)
NationalityItalian

Pinocchio is a cultural icon. He is one of the most re-imagined characters in children's literature. His story has been adapted into many other media, notably the 1940 Disney film Pinocchio.[5] Collodi often used the Italian Tuscan dialect in his book. The name Pinocchio is a combination of the Italian words pino (pine), and occhio (eye); Pino is also an abbreviation of Giuseppino, the diminutive for Giuseppe (the Italian form of Joseph); one of the men who greatly influenced Collodi in his youth was Giuseppe Aiazzi, a prominent Italian manuscript specialist who supervised Collodi at the Libreria Piatti bookshop in Florence. Geppetto, the name of Pinocchio's creator and “father,” is the diminutive for Geppo, the Tuscan pronunciation of ceppo, meaning a log, stump, block, stock or stub.

Fictional character biographyEdit

 
Pinocchio, by Carlo Chiostri (1901)

Pinocchio's characterization varies across interpretations, but several aspects are consistent across all adaptations: Pinocchio is a puppet, Pinocchio's maker is Geppetto and Pinocchio's nose grows when he lies.[6]

Pinocchio is known for having a short nose that becomes longer when he is under stress (chapter 3), especially while lying. In the original tale, Collodi describes him as a "rascal," "imp," "scapegrace," "disgrace," "ragamuffin," and "confirmed rogue," with even his father, carpenter Geppetto, referring to him as a "wretched boy." Upon being born, Pinocchio immediately laughs derisively in his creator's face, whereupon he steals the old man's wig.

Pinocchio's bad behavior, rather than being charming or endearing, is meant to serve as a warning. Collodi originally intended the story, which was first published in 1881, to be a tragedy. It concluded with the puppet’s execution. Pinocchio’s enemies, the Fox and the Cat, bind his arms, pass a noose around his throat, and hang him from the branch of an oak tree.[7]

A tempestuous northerly wind began to blow and roar angrily, and it beat the poor puppet from side to side, making him swing violently, like the clatter of a bell ringing for a wedding. And the swinging gave him atrocious spasms...His breath failed him and he could say no more. He shut his eyes, opened his mouth, stretched his legs, gave a long shudder, and hung stiff and insensible.

CharacteristicsEdit

Clothing and characterEdit

Pinocchio is a wooden marionette (a puppet that is manipulated with wires) and not a hand puppet (directly controlled from inside by the puppeteer's hand). However, the piece of wood from which he is derived is animated, and so Pinocchio moves independently. Basically good, he often gets carried away by bad company and is prone to lying. His nose will become longer and longer once he starts lying to others.[3] Because of these characteristics, he often finds himself in trouble. Pinocchio undergoes transformations during the novel: he promises The Fairy with Turquoise Hair to become a real boy, flees with Candlewick to the Land of Toys, becomes a donkey, joins a circus, and becomes a puppet again. In the last chapter, out of the mouth of The Terrible Dogfish with Geppetto, Pinocchio finally stops being a puppet and becomes a real boy (thanks to the intervention of the Fairy in a dream).

In the novel, Pinocchio is often depicted with a pointy hat, a jacket and a pair of colored, knee-length pants. In the Disney version, the appearance is different; the character is dressed in Tyrolean style, with Lederhosen and a hat with a feather.

NoseEdit

Pinocchio's nose is his best-known characteristic. It grows in length when he tells a lie; this appears in chapter XVI. Collodi himself, in Note gaie claims how "to hide the truth of a speculum animae (mirror of the soul) face [ ... ] is added to the true nose another papier-mache nose." There is an inconsistency, however, because his nose grows when it is first carved by Geppetto, without Pinocchio ever lying.

The nose appears only a couple of times in the story, but it reveals the Blue Fairy's power over Pinocchio when he acts disobediently. After the boy's struggling and weeping over his deformed nose, the Blue Fairy summons woodpeckers to peck it back to normal.

Literary analysisEdit

Some literary analysts have described Pinocchio as an epic hero. Like many Western literary heroes, such as Odysseus, Pinocchio descends into hell; he also experiences rebirth through metamorphosis, a common motif in fantasy literature.[8]

Before writing Pinocchio, Collodi wrote a number of didactic children's stories for the then-recently unified Italy, including a series about an unruly boy who undergoes humiliating experiences while traveling the country, titled Viaggio per l'Italia di Giannettino ('Little Johnny's voyage through Italy').[9] Throughout Pinocchio, Collodi chastises Pinocchio for his lack of moral fiber and his persistent rejection of responsibility and desire for fun.

The structure of the story of Pinocchio follows that of the folktales of peasants who venture out into the world but are naïvely unprepared for what they find, and get into ridiculous situations.[10] At the time of the writing of the book, this was a serious problem, arising partly from the industrialization of Italy, which led to a growing need for reliable labour in the cities; the problem was exacerbated by similar, more or less simultaneous, demands for labour in the industrialization of other countries. One major effect was the emigration of much of the Italian peasantry to cities and to foreign countries such as the United States.

The main imperatives demanded of Pinocchio are to work, be good, and study. And in the end Pinocchio's willingness to provide for his father and devote himself to these things transforms him into a real boy with modern comforts.[8]

Media portrayalsEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • Il Segreto di Pinocchio (1984) by Gemma Mongiardini-Rembadi, published in the United States in 1913 as Pinocchio under the Sea.
  • Pinocchio in Africa (1903) by Eugenio Cherubini.
  • The Heart of Pinocchio (1917) by Paolo Lorenzini.
  • Pinocchio in America (1928) by Angelo Patri.
  • Puppet Parade (1932) by Carol Della Chiesa.
  • The children's novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) is a free retelling of the story of Pinocchio by Russian writer Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. Some of the adventures are derived from Collodi, but many are either omitted or added. Pinocchio (Buratino) does not reform himself nor becomes a real human. For Tolstoy, Pinocchio as a puppet is a positive model of creative and non-conformist behavior.
  • Hi! Ho! Pinocchio! (1940) by Josef Marino.
  • Astro Boy (鉄腕アトム, Tetsuwan Atomu) (1952), a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Osamu Tezuka, recasts loosely the Pinocchio theme.[11]
  • Pinocchio in Venice (1991) by Robert Coover.
  • Wooden Bones (2012) by Scott William Carter describes a fictional untold story of Pinocchio, with a dark twist. Pino, as he’s come to be known after he became a real boy, has discovered that he has the power to bring puppets to life himself.
  • Pinocchio by Pinocchio (2013) by Michael Morpurgo.
  • Pinocchio was the subject of the 2015 satirical novel Splintered: A Political Fairy Tale by Thomas London.
  • Marvel Fairy Tales, a comic book series by C. B. Cebulski, features a retelling of The Adventures of Pinocchio with the robotic superhero called The Vision in the role of Pinocchio.
  • The Wooden Prince and Lord of Monsters by John Claude Bemis adapt the story to a science fiction setting.
  • Part 6 of Jojo's Bizarre Adventure features an evil version of Pinocchio, brought to life by Bohemian Rhapsody.

FilmEdit

Early filmsEdit

Disney versionEdit

Pinocchio
 
Pinocchio as seen in Walt Disney's Pinocchio
First appearancePinocchio (1940)
Created byCarlo Collodi
Walt Disney
Voiced by

When Walt Disney Productions was developing the story for their film version of Pinocchio (1940), they intended to keep the obnoxious aspects of the original character, but Walt Disney himself felt that this made the character too unlikable, so alterations were made to incorporate traits of mischief and innocence to make Pinocchio more likable. Pinocchio was voiced by Dickie Jones. Today, the film is considered one of the finest Disney features ever made, and one of the greatest animated films of all time, with a rare 100% rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes. In the video game adaptation of the film, Pinocchio lives out (mostly) the same role as the film, traveling through the world filled with temptations and battling various forces.

This Disney incarnation was later used in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, voiced by Peter Westy; and Disney's House of Mouse, voiced by Michael Welch; as well as making cameo appearances in Aladdin, Teacher's Pet, Tangled, the Mickey Mouse television series, and Ralph Breaks the Internet.[14]

Pinocchio is a supporting character, voiced by Seth Adkins, in the Kingdom Hearts video game series. He plays a major role in the eponymous first game, Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, and Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance, while in Kingdom Hearts II he appears during a flashback at the early stages.

In Kinect Disneyland Adventures, he appears as a meet-and-greet character in Fantasyland and has several quests for the player. In Epic Mickey: Power of Illusion Pinocchio is featured as one of the many iconic Disney characters kidnapped by the evil witch Mizrabel in her plot to dominate their world; he is imprisoned alongside Genie in the Cave of Wonders until eventually being rescued by Mickey Mouse.

In the early 1990s, it is rumored that Elijah Wood portrayed the real-boy version of Pinocchio in the live-action segments for the updated Jiminy Cricket educational serials I'm No Fool and You, in addition to the new shorts of I'm No Fool.

20th-centuryEdit

 
Totò portrayed Pinocchio in Toto in Color
  • Italian comedian Totò portrayed Pinocchio in the 1952 film Toto in Color (Totò a colori).
  • Actor Mel Blanc voiced Pinocchio in a 1953 radio adaptation of the story. This is the second adaptation of Pinocchio with Mel Blanc involved, as Blanc voiced Gideon the Cat in the 1940 Disney film until all of his lines were deleted, save for three hiccups.
  • The Adventures of Buratino (Priklyucheniya Buratino) is a 1959 Soviet animated feature film directed by Dmitriy Babichenko and Ivan Ivanov-Vano. The story is based on the novel The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino (1936) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy. Pinocchio (Buratino) is voiced by actress Nina Gulyaeva and in the 1998 shortened English-dubbed version (Pinocchio and the Golden Key), by child actor Joseph Mazzello.
  • In Pinocchio (1965), the character is portrayed by actor John Joy.
  • In the Belgian-American animated film Pinocchio in Outer Space (1965), the character is voiced by actor Peter Lazer.
  • Pinocchio (Turlis Abenteuer) (1967) is an East German film, directed by Walter Beck. Pinocchio (Turli) is a puppet, voiced by actress Gina Presgott. In the final scene, as a boy, he is portrayed by Uwe Thielisch.
 
Pinocchio as portrayed in Giuliano Cenci's film The Adventures of Pinocchio (1972)

21st-centuryEdit

TelevisionEdit

Stage productionEdit

  • "Pinocchio" (1961-1999), by Carmelo Bene.
  • "Pinocchio" (2002), musical by Saverio Marconi and musics by Pooh.
  • The Adventures of Pinocchio is a 2007 opera in two acts by English composer Jonathan Dove with a libretto by Alasdair Middleton. The original production opened at the Grand Theatre, Leeds on 21 December 2007 with mezzo-soprano Victoria Simmonds as Pinocchio.
  • Actor John Tartaglia portrayed Pinocchio in the original Broadway cast of Shrek the Musical (2008) as well as in the 2013 filmed version.
  • L'altro Pinocchio (2011), musical by Vito Costantini based on L'altro Pinocchio (Editrice La Scuola, Brescia 1999).
  • Pinocchio. Storia di un burattino da Carlo Collodi by Massimiliano Finazzer Flory (2012)
  • The Adventures of Pinocchio is a 2009 opera by Israeli composer Jonathan Dove, "for 3 actors, flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, bassoon and piano".
  • The musical Pinocchio - Superstar was produced by Norberto Bertassi and performed by young talents association Teatro. Premiered on 20 July 2016 in Mödling, Austria.
  • Pinocchio (2017), musical by Dennis Kelly, with songs from 1940 Disney movie, directed by John Tiffany, premiered on the National Theatre, London.

In popular cultureEdit

 
"A probable death of Pinocchio" (Una probabile morte di Pinocchio), Walther Jervolino, oil on canvas.
  • The story is set in a villa in Collodi, where Carlo Collodi had spent his youth, in 1826. This villa is now named Villa Pinocchio.[21]
  • In the series of paintings titled La morte di Pinocchio, Italian painter and engraver Walther Jervolino (1944–2012) shows Pinocchio being executed with arrows or decapitated, thus presenting an alternative story ending.
  • 12927 Pinocchio, a main-belt asteroid discovered on 30 September 1999, by M. Tombelli and L. Tesi at San Marcello Pistoiese, was named after Pinocchio.
  • In A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001), the story of Pinocchio is woven throughout the story as a robot, an artificial boy, struggles to become real through a search for the Blue Fairy.[22]
  • In the modern Battlestar Galactica series, the producers have stated that main antagonist John Cavil basically suffers from an inverted version of Pinocchio Syndrome; where Pinocchio was a puppet who wanted to be a real boy, Cavil was a machine who was given a human body and now wants to be a true machine, resenting his creators for making him in the image of humanity.
  • In Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), the story of Pinocchio is referenced to symbolize the cybernetic villain Ultron becoming free of his masters (the Avengers) orders'. A dark version of the Disney Pinocchio song "I've Got No Strings" is also quoted by him, and used in promotional material for the film.[23]
  • In 2015 and 2016, the Dutch themepark Efteling used its own version of Pinocchio's story for a musical in her theater. It is a mix of the original Carlo Collodi's story, the Disney version and some adjustments. Fay de Fee (translated: Fay the Fairy) here takes on the role of the good fairy, but is also Pinocchio's 'conscience'. In the Efteling version there is also a Monster Fish that eats Pinocchio and Geppetto. Various other versions speak of a Whale. Halfway through 2016, the fairytale of Pinocchio was added in the Fairytale Forest of the Efteling. A walk-through attraction in a wooded area, in which various scenes from fairytales are depicted. Especially for the Italian visitors, an Italian translation was added for this fairytale.[24][25]
  • Unicode emoji list since version 9.0 (2016) includes character U+1F925 🤥 LYING FACE with description "face, lie, lying face, Pinocchio".[26]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "pinocchio noun - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes". Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 16 October 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2019.
  2. ^ Joy Lo Dico (2 May 2009). "Classics corner: Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi". Culture. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b Martin, Clancy (6 February 2015). "What the Original 'Pinocchio' Really Says About Lying". The New Yorker. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  4. ^ Reardon, Sara (7 June 2013). "Carlo Collodi's Pinocchio: Why is the original Pinocchio subjected to such sadistic treatment?". Slate. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  5. ^ "Pinocchio: Carlo Collodi - Children's Literature Review". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  6. ^ Linda Falcone (2007). Italian, It's All Greek to Me: Everything You Don't Know About Italian ... ISBN 9781571431714. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  7. ^ Rich, Nathaniel (24 October 2011). "Carlo Collodi's Pinocchio: Why is the original Pinocchio subjected to such sadistic treatment?". Slate.com. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  8. ^ a b Morrissey, Thomas J., and Richard Wunderlich. "Death and Rebirth in Pinocchio." Children's Literature 11 (1983): 64–75.
  9. ^ Gaetana Marrone; Paolo Puppa (26 December 2006). Encyclopedia of Italian Literary Studies. Routledge. pp. 485–. ISBN 978-1-135-45530-9.
  10. ^ Collodi, Carlo (1996). "Introduction". In Zipes, Jack (ed.). Pinocchio. Penguin Books. pp. xiii–xv.
  11. ^ Schodt, Frederik L. "Introduction." Astro Boy Volume 1 (Comic by Osamu Tezuka). Dark Horse Comics and Studio Proteus. Page 3 of 3 (The introduction section has 3 pages). ISBN 1-56971-676-5.
  12. ^ "June Foray as Walt Disney's "Pinocchio & "Ferdinand the Bull"". cartoonresearch.com. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  13. ^ "Hudson Hornet". Behind The Voice Actors. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  14. ^ "Video Interview with TANGLED Directors Nathan Greno and Byron Howard". Collider. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Canadian animation recommended—for Canadians". Baltimore Sun, 28 January 1983.
  16. ^ Ten of the Most Translated Books Across the Globe Archived 29 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine on Ten of the Most Translated Books Across the Globe: "A look at 10 of the most translated books of all time, including The Holy Bible and several fiction books." (29 April 2020)
  17. ^ Trumbore, Dave (6 November 2018). "Netflix Sets Guillermo del Toro's 'Pinocchio' and Henry Selick's 'Wendell & Wild' for 2021". Collider. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  18. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (19 August 2020). "Cate Blanchett, Ewan McGregor, Tilda Swinton & More Round Out Cast For Guillermo del Toro Netflix 'Pinocchio' Movie". Deadline. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  19. ^ News, A. B. C. "Netflix announces cast for 'Pinocchio' animated musical film". ABC News. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  20. ^ "Andy Ivine: Bio, Chapter 1". Andyirvine.com. 14 October 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  21. ^ "Pinocchio's Luxury Villa For Sale In Tuscany". Lionard. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  22. ^ West, Rebecca (2002). "The Persistent Puppet: Pinocchio's Heirs in Contemporary Fiction and Film". University of Chicago. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  23. ^ McMillan, Graeme (22 October 2014). "What's Revealed in the Leaked 'Avengers: Age of Ultron' Trailer?". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Pinokkio Sprookjesbos - Efteling". efteling.com (in Dutch). Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  25. ^ [Pinocchio Efteling Version]
  26. ^ "Emoji List, v11.0". www.unicode.org. Retrieved 24 October 2018.

External linksEdit