Bartholomew JoJo Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated television series The Simpsons and part of the Simpson family. He is voiced by Nancy Cartwright and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed Bart while waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic strip, Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. While the rest of the characters were named after Groening's family members, Bart's name is an anagram of the word brat. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family received its own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Bart has appeared in every Simpsons episode except "Four Great Women and a Manicure".
|The Simpsons character|
|First appearance||"Good Night" (1987)|
|Created by||Matt Groening|
|Designed by||Matt Groening|
|Voiced by||Nancy Cartwright|
|Full name||Bartholomew JoJo Simpson|
|Occupation||4th grade student at Springfield Elementary School|
At ten years old, Bart is the eldest child and only son of Homer and Marge, and the brother of Lisa and Maggie. Bart's most prominent and popular character traits are his mischievousness, rebelliousness and disrespect for authority. Hallmarks of the character include his chalkboard gags in the opening sequence; his prank calls to Moe; and his catchphrases "Eat my shorts", "¡Ay, caramba!", "Don't have a cow, man!", and "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?". However, with the exception of "Ay, caramba!", these hallmarks have been retired or are not often used. Bart has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials, and comic books – and inspired an entire line of merchandise.
In casting, Cartwright originally planned to audition for the role of Lisa, while Yeardley Smith tried out for Bart. Smith's voice was too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. Cartwright found that Lisa was not interesting at the time, so instead auditioned for Bart, which she thought was a better role.
During the first two seasons of The Simpsons, Bart was the show's breakout character and "Bartmania" ensued, spawning Bart Simpson-themed merchandise touting his rebellious attitude and pride at underachieving, which caused many parents and educators to cast him as a bad role model for children. Around the third season, the series started to focus more on the family as a whole, though Bart still remains a prominent character. Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century, and he was named "entertainer of the year" in 1990 by Entertainment Weekly. Cartwright has won several awards for voicing Bart, including a Primetime Emmy Award in 1992 and an Annie Award in 1995. In 2000, Bart, along with the rest of his family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Role in The Simpsons
The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not age or age very little, and as such, the show is always assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific times, though sometimes this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes. Bart's year of birth was stated in "I Married Marge" (season three, 1991) as being in the early 1980s. In "Simpsorama" (season 26, 2014) Bart states his birthday as February 23. He lived with his parents in the Lower East Side of Springfield until the Simpsons bought their first house. When Lisa was born, Bart was at first jealous of the attention she received, but he soon warmed to her when he discovered that "Bart" was her first word. Bart's first day of school was in the early 1990s. His initial enthusiasm was crushed by an uncaring teacher and Marge became worried that something was truly wrong with Bart. One day during recess, Bart met Milhouse and started entertaining him and other students with various gestures and rude words. Principal Skinner told him "you've just started school, and the path you choose now may be the one you follow for the rest of your life! Now, what do you say?" In his moment of truth, Bart responded, "eat my shorts". The episode "That '90s Show" (season nineteen, 2008) contradicted much of the backstory's time frame; for example, it was revealed that Homer and Marge were childless in the early 1990s.
Bart's hobbies include skateboarding, watching television (especially The Krusty the Clown Show which includes The Itchy & Scratchy Show), reading comic books (especially Radioactive Man), playing video games and generally causing mischief. His favorite movies are Jaws and the Star Wars Trilogy. For the duration of the series, Bart has attended Springfield Elementary School and has been in Edna Krabappel's fourth grade class. While he is too young to hold a full-time job, he has had occasional part-time jobs. He works as a bartender at Fat Tony's social club in "Bart the Murderer" (season three, 1991); as Krusty the Clown's assistant in "Bart Gets Famous" (season five, 1994); as a doorman in Springfield's burlesque house, the Maison Derrière, in "Bart After Dark" (season eight, 1996); and briefly owns his own factory in "Homer's Enemy" (season eight, 1997).
Matt Groening first conceived of Bart and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986, while waiting in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show, and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening decided to go in another direction. He hurriedly sketched out his version of a dysfunctional family, naming the characters after members of his own family. For the rebellious son, he substituted "Bart", an anagram of the word brat, for his own name, as he decided it would have been too obvious for him to have named the character 'Matt'. Bart's middle initial J is a "tribute" to animated characters such as Bullwinkle J. Moose and Rocket J. Squirrel from The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, who received their middle initial from Jay Ward. According to the book Bart Simpson's Guide to Life, Bart's full middle name is "JoJo".
Bart had originally been envisioned as "a much milder, troubled youth given to existential angst who talks to himself", but the character was changed based on Cartwright's voice acting. Groening has credited several different figures with providing inspiration for Bart: Matt Groening's older brother Mark provided much of the motivation for Bart's attitude. Bart was conceived as an extreme version of the typical misbehaving child character, merging all of the extreme traits of characters such as Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn into one person. Groening describes Bart as "what would happen if the son of Eddie Haskell [from Leave It to Beaver] got his own show". Groening has also said that he found the premise of Dennis the Menace disappointing and was inspired to create a character who was actually a menace.
Bart made his debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987 in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night". In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series airing on the Fox Broadcasting Company. Bart and the Simpson family remained the main characters on this new show.
The entire Simpson family was designed so that they would be recognizable in silhouette. The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings. Bart's original design, which appeared in the first shorts, had spikier hair, and the spikes were of different lengths. The number was later limited to nine spikes, all of the same size. At the time Groening was primarily drawing in black and "not thinking that [Bart] would eventually be drawn in color" gave him spikes which appear to be an extension of his head. The features of Bart's character design are generally not used in other characters; for example, no other characters in current episodes have Bart's spiky hairline, although several background characters in the first few seasons shared the trait.
The basic rectangular shape of Bart's head is described by director Mark Kirkland as a coffee can. Homer's head is also rectangular (with a dome on top), while spheres are used for Marge, Lisa, and Maggie. Different animators have different methods of drawing Bart. Former director Jeffrey Lynch starts off with a box, then adds the eyes, then the mouth, then the hair spikes, ear, and then the rest of the body. Matt Groening normally starts with the eyes, then the nose, and the rest of the outline of Bart's head. Many of the animators have trouble drawing Bart's spikes evenly; one trick they use is to draw one on the right, one on the left, one in the middle, then continue to add one in the middle of the blank space until there are nine. Originally, whenever Bart was to be drawn from an angle looking down so the top of his head was seen, Groening wanted there to be spikes along the outline of his head, and in the middle as well. Instead, Wes Archer and David Silverman drew him so that there was an outline of the spikes, then just a smooth patch in the middle because "it worked graphically." In "The Blue and the Gray", Bart (along with Lisa and Maggie) finally questions why his hair has no visible border to separate head from hair.
In the season seven (1995) episode "Treehouse of Horror VI", Bart (along with Homer) was computer animated into a three-dimensional character for the first time for the "Homer3" segment of the episode. The computer animation was provided by Pacific Data Images. While designing the 3D model of the character, the animators did not know how they would show Bart's hair. They realized that there were vinyl Bart dolls in production and purchased one to use as a model.
Bart's voice is provided by Nancy Cartwright, who voices several other child characters on The Simpsons, including Nelson Muntz, Ralph Wiggum, Todd Flanders, and Kearney. While the roles of Homer and Marge were given to Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner because they were already a part of The Tracey Ullman Show cast, the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Yeardley Smith had initially been asked to audition for the role of Bart, but casting director Bonita Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled, "I always sounded too much like a girl. I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'" Smith was given the role of Lisa instead. On March 13, 1987, Nancy Cartwright went in to audition for the role of Lisa. After arriving at the audition, she found that Lisa was simply described as the "middle child" and at the time did not have much personality. Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart, who was described as "devious, underachieving, school-hating, irreverent, [and] clever". Matt Groening let her try out for the part instead, and upon hearing her read, gave her the job on the spot. Cartwright is the only one of the six main Simpsons cast members who had been professionally trained in voice acting prior to working on the show.
Cartwright's normal speaking voice is said to have "no obvious traces of Bart". The voice came naturally to Cartwright; prior to The Tracey Ullman Show, she had used elements of it in shows such as My Little Pony, Snorks, and Pound Puppies. Cartwright describes Bart's voice as easy to perform, saying, "Some characters take a little bit more effort, upper respiratory control, whatever it is technically. But Bart is easy to do. I can just slip into that without difficulty." She usually does five or six readings of every line in order to give the producers more to work with. In flashforward episodes, Cartwright still provides the voice of Bart. For "Lisa's Wedding", (season six, 1995) Bart's voice was electronically lowered.
Despite Bart's fame, Cartwright is rarely recognized in public. When she is recognized and asked to perform Bart's voice in front of children, Cartwright refuses as it "freaks [them] out". During the first season of The Simpsons, the Fox Network did not allow Cartwright to give interviews because they did not want to publicize that Bart was voiced by a woman.
Until 1998, Cartwright was paid $30,000 per episode. During a pay dispute in 1998, Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices. The dispute was resolved and Cartwright received $125,000 per episode until 2004, when the voice actors demanded that they be paid $360,000 an episode. The dispute was resolved a month later, and Cartwright's pay rose to $250,000 per episode. After salary renegotiations in 2008, the voice actors receive approximately $400,000 per episode. Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Cartwright and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut to just over $300,000 per episode.
In the opening sequence of many Simpsons episodes, the camera zooms in on Springfield Elementary School, where Bart can be seen writing a message on the chalkboard. This message, which changes from episode to episode, has become known as the "chalkboard gag". Chalkboard messages may involve political humor such as "The First Amendment does not cover burping", pop culture references such as "I can't see dead people", and meta-references such as "I am not a 32-year-old woman" and "Nobody reads these anymore". The animators are able to produce the chalkboard gags quickly and in some cases have changed them to fit current events. For example, the chalkboard gag for "Homer the Heretic" (season four, 1992) read, "I will not defame New Orleans." The gag had been written as an apology to the city for a controversial song in the previous week's episode, "A Streetcar Named Marge", which called the city a "home of pirates, drunks and whores". Many episodes do not feature a chalkboard gag because a shorter opening title sequence, where the chalkboard gags are cut, is used to make more room for story and plot development.
One of Bart's early hallmarks were his prank calls to Moe's Tavern owner Moe Szyslak in which Bart calls Moe and asks for a gag name. Moe tries to find that person in the bar, but rapidly realizes it is a prank call and (despite not knowing who actually made the call) angrily threatens Bart. These calls were based on a series of prank calls known as the Tube Bar recordings. Moe was based partly on Tube Bar owner Louis "Red" Deutsch, whose often profane responses inspired Moe's violent side. The prank calls debuted in "Homer's Odyssey", (season one, 1990) the third episode to air, but were included in "Some Enchanted Evening", the first episode of the series that was produced. As the series progressed, it became more difficult for the writers to come up with a fake name and to write Moe's angry response, so the pranks were dropped as a regular joke during the fourth season but they have occasionally resurfaced on the show.
The catchphrase "Eat My Shorts" was an ad-lib by Cartwright in one of the original table readings, harking back to an incident when she was in high school. Cartwright was in the marching band at Fairmont High School, and one day while performing, the band chanted "Eat my shorts" rather than the usual "Fairmont West! Fairmont West!"It could also be an homage to The Breakfast Club, as John Bender says the phrase at Principal Vernon, and John Bender would become the inspiration for another Matt Groening creation, Bender from Futurama. Bart's other catchphrases, "¡Ay, caramba!" came from a Portuguese flamenco dancer and "Don't have a cow!" had been around since the 1950s which derived from the British phrase "Don't have kittens"; both were featured on T-shirts manufactured during the production of the early seasons of The Simpsons. "Cowabunga" is also commonly associated with Bart, although it was mostly used on the show after it had been used as a slogan on the T-shirts. Reiss also stated the writers took the phrase from Chief Thunderthud on The Howdy Doody Show. The use of catchphrase-based humor was mocked in the episode "Bart Gets Famous" (season five, 1994) in which Bart lands a popular role on Krusty the Clown's show for saying the line "I didn't do it." The writers chose the phrase "I didn't do it" because they wanted a "lousy" phrase "to point out how really crummy things can become really popular".
Bart commonly appears nude in the show, although in every case only his buttocks are visible. In The Simpsons Movie (2007), Bart appears in a sequence where he is skateboarding while fully nude; several different items cover his genitalia, but for a brief moment his penis can be seen. The scene was one of the first worked on for the film, but the producers were nervous about the segment because they thought it would earn the movie an R rating. Despite this, the film was rated PG-13 by the Motion Picture Association of America for "Irreverent Humor Throughout." The scene was later included by Entertainment Weekly in their list of "30 Unforgettable Nude Scenes."
—Chris Turner, author
Bart's character traits of rebelliousness and disrespect for authority have been compared to that of America's founding fathers, and he has been described as an updated version of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, rolled into one. In his book Planet Simpson, Chris Turner describes Bart as a nihilist, a philosophical position that argues that existence is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value.
Bart's rebellious attitude has made him a disruptive student at Springfield Elementary School, where Bart is an underachiever and proud of it. He is constantly at odds with his teacher Ms. Krabappel, Principal Skinner, and occasionally Groundskeeper Willie. Bart does poorly in school and is well aware of it, having once declared, "I am dumb, okay? Dumb as a post! Think I'm happy about it?" On one occasion, Lisa successfully proves that Bart is dumber than a hamster, although Bart ultimately outsmarts her in the end. Bart's thoughts are often illogical― he once thought if he died and reincarnated as a butterfly, he would be able to burn the school down without being suspected, thinking that he would be able to hold a gas can as a butterfly. He has also thought if he wrote his name in wet cement, people who see it after it dries will wonder how he managed to write his name in solid cement. In "Separate Vocations" (season three, 1992) Bart becomes hall monitor and his grades go up, suggesting that he struggles mainly because he does not pay attention, not because he is stupid. This idea is reinforced in "Brother's Little Helper", (season eleven, 1999) in which it is revealed that Bart suffers from attention deficit disorder. His lack of smarts can also be attributed to the hereditary "Simpson Gene", which affects the intelligence of most male members of the Simpson family. Although he gets into endless trouble and can be sadistic, shallow and selfish, Bart also exhibits many qualities of high integrity. He has, on a few occasions, helped Principal Skinner and Mrs. Krabappel: In "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" (season five, 1994), Bart accidentally got Skinner fired and befriended him outside the school environment. Bart missed having Skinner as an adversary and got him rehired, knowing that this would mean that the two could no longer be friends.
Due to Bart's mischievousness and Homer's often uncaring and incompetent behavior, the two have a turbulent, jaded, violent, and at times borderline sadistic relationship. Bart regularly addresses Homer by his given name instead of "Dad", while Homer in turn often refers to him as "the boy". Homer has a short temper and when enraged by Bart will strangle him on impulse in a cartoonishly violent manner. One of the original ideas for the show was that Homer would be "very angry" and oppressive toward Bart, but these characteristics were toned down somewhat as their characters were explored. Marge is a much more caring, understanding and nurturing parent than Homer, but she also refers to Bart as "a handful" and is often embarrassed by his antics. In "Marge Be Not Proud", (season seven, 1995) she felt she was mothering Bart too much and began acting more distant towards him after he was caught shoplifting. At the beginning of the episode, Bart protested at her over-mothering but as her attitude changed, he felt bad and made it up to her. Despite his attitude, Bart is sometimes willing to experience humiliation if it means pleasing his mom. Marge has expressed an understanding for her "special little guy" and has defended him on many occasions. She once said "I know Bart can be a handful, but I also know what he's like inside. He's got a spark. It's not a bad thing... Of course, it makes him do bad things."
Bart shares a sibling rivalry with his younger sister, Lisa, but has a buddy-like relationship with his youngest sister Maggie, due to her infant state. While Bart has often hurt Lisa, and even fought her physically, the two are often very close. Bart cares for Lisa deeply and has always apologized for going too far. He also believes Lisa to be his superior when it comes to solving problems and frequently goes to her for advice. Bart is also highly protective of Lisa: When a bully destroys her box of cupcakes in "Bart the General", (season one, 1990), Bart immediately stands up for her.
Bart is portrayed as a popular cool boy and has many friends at school. Out of all of them his best friend is Milhouse Van Houten, although Bart has at times shown embarrassment about their friendship. Bart is a bad influence on Milhouse, and the two have been involved in a lot of mischief together. Because of this behavior, Milhouse's mother forbids Milhouse from playing with Bart in "Homer Defined" (season three, 1991). While at first he pretended that he did not care, Bart eventually realizes that he needs Milhouse, and Marge manages to convince Mrs. Van Houten to reconsider. Milhouse is a frequent target for local bullies Nelson Muntz and his friends Jimbo, Dolph, and Kearney. At times, Bart also finds himself at the hands of their abuse. Despite being the more socially powerful of the two, Bart's social popularity has temporarily subsided various episodes either due to extreme embarrassment caused by his family or other people (or even himself) or an unfortunate coincidence. Milhouse describes their social standing as "Three and a half. We get beat up, but we get an explanation." While Bart and the bullies have been adversaries at times, with Bart once declaring war on Nelson, the school bullies actually like Bart for his ways and hang out with him at times, especially Nelson who eventually becomes close friends with him.
Bart is one of the biggest fans of children's television host Krusty the Clown. He once declared, "I've based my whole life on Krusty's teachings," and sleeps in a room filled with Krusty merchandise. He has helped the clown on many occasions, for example, foiling Sideshow Bob's attempt to frame Krusty for armed robbery in "Krusty Gets Busted" (season one, 1990), reuniting Krusty with his estranged father in "Like Father, Like Clown". and helping Krusty return to the air with a comeback special and reignite his career in "Krusty Gets Kancelled". For his part, Krusty has remained largely ignorant of Bart's help and treats Bart with disinterest. One summer, Bart enthusiastically attended Kamp Krusty, which turned out to be a disaster, with Krusty nowhere to be seen. Bart keeps his hopes up by believing that Krusty would show up, but is soon pushed over the edge, and finally decides that he is sick of Krusty's shoddy merchandise and takes over the camp. Krusty immediately visits the camp in hopes of ending the conflict and manages to appease Bart. One of the original ideas for the series was that Bart worshiped a television clown but had no respect for his father, although this was never directly explored. Because of this original plan, Krusty's design is basically Homer in clown make-up. When Bart foiled Sideshow Bob's plans in "Krusty Gets Busted", it sparked a long-standing feud between the two. The writers decided to have Bob repeatedly return to get revenge on Bart. They took the idea of the Coyote chasing the Road Runner and depicted Bob as an intelligent person obsessed with catching a bratty boy. Bob has appeared in fourteen episodes, generally plotting various evil schemes which often have to do with getting revenge on Bart (and sometimes the entire Simpson family by proxy), but is always foiled in the end.
Reception and cultural influence
In 1990, Bart quickly became one of the most popular characters on television in what was termed "Bartmania". He became the most prevalent Simpsons character on memorabilia, such as T-shirts. In the early 1990s, millions of T-shirts featuring Bart were sold; as many as one million were sold on some days. Believing Bart to be a bad role model, several American public schools banned T-shirts featuring Bart next to captions such as "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?" and "Underachiever ('And proud of it, man!')". The Simpsons merchandise sold well and generated $2 billion in revenue during the first 14 months of sales. The success of Bart Simpson merchandise inspired an entire line of black market counterfeit items, especially T-shirts. Some featured Bart announcing various slogans, others depicted redesigns of the character, including "Teenage Mutant Ninja Bart, Air Simpson Bart, [and] RastaBart". Matt Groening generally did not object to bootleg merchandise, but took exception to a series of "Nazi Bart" shirts which depicted Bart in Nazi uniform or as a white power skinhead. 20th Century Fox sued the creator of the shirts, who eventually agreed to stop making them.
Bart became so associated with Fox that, when bidding in 1993 to show pro football, the network had to assure the NFL and reporters that the character would not announce games. Due to the show's success, over the summer of 1990 Fox decided to switch The Simpsons' timeslot so that it would move from 8:00 p.m. ET on Sunday night to the same time on Thursday, where it would compete with The Cosby Show on NBC, the number one show at the time. Through the summer, several news outlets published stories about the supposed "Bill vs. Bart" rivalry. The August 31, 1990 issue of Entertainment Weekly featured a picture of Bill Cosby wearing a Bart Simpson T-shirt. "Bart Gets an "F"" (season two, 1990) was the first episode to air against The Cosby Show, and it received a lower Nielsen rating, tying for eighth behind The Cosby Show, which had an 18.5 rating. The rating is based on the number of household televisions that were tuned into the show, but Nielsen Media Research estimated that 33.6 million viewers watched the episode, making it the number one show in terms of actual viewers that week. At the time, it was the most watched episode in the history of the Fox Network, and it is still the highest rated episode in the history of The Simpsons. Because of his popularity, Bart was often the most promoted member of the Simpson family in advertisements for the show, even for episodes in which he was not involved in the main plot.
Bart was described as "television's king of 1990", "television's brightest new star" and an "undiminished smash". Entertainment Weekly named Bart the "entertainer of the year" for 1990, writing that "Bart has proved to be a rebel who's also a good kid, a terror who's easily terrorized, and a flake who astonishes us, and himself, with serious displays of fortitude." In the United States congressional, senatorial and gubernatorial elections of 1990, Bart was one of the most popular write-in candidates, and in many areas was second only to Mickey Mouse amongst fictional characters. In the 1990 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, Bart made his debut as one of the giant helium-filled balloons for which the parade is known. The Bart Simpson balloon has appeared at every parade since. This was referenced in The Simpsons in the episode "Bart vs. Thanksgiving", which aired the same day as the parade, where Homer tells Bart, "If you start building a balloon for every flash-in-the-pan cartoon character, you turn the parade into a farce!" Meanwhile, behind and unbeknownst to him, the television briefly shows a Bart Simpson balloon.
The album The Simpsons Sing the Blues was released in September 1990 and was a success, peaking at No. 3 on the Billboard 200 and becoming certified 2x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. The first single from the album was the pop rap song "Do the Bartman", performed by Nancy Cartwright and released on November 20, 1990. The song was written by Bryan Loren, a friend of Michael Jackson. Jackson was a fan of The Simpsons, especially Bart, and had called the producers one night offering to write Bart a number one single and do a guest spot on the show. Jackson eventually guest starred in the episode "Stark Raving Dad" (season three, 1991) under the pseudonym John Jay Smith. While the song was never officially released as a single in the United States, it was successful in the United Kingdom. In 1991 it was the number one song in the UK for three weeks from February 16 to March 9 and was the seventh best-selling song of the year. It sold half a million copies and was certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry on February 1, 1991.
Bart as a role model
Bart's rebellious nature, which frequently resulted in no punishment for his misbehavior, led some parents and conservatives to characterize him as a poor role model for children. Robert Bianco of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette wrote that "[Bart] outwits his parents and outtalks his teachers; in short, he's the child we wish we'd been, and fear our children will become." In schools, educators claimed that Bart was a "threat to learning" because of his "underachiever and proud of it" attitude and negative attitude regarding his education. Others described him as "egotistical, aggressive and mean-spirited." In response to the criticism, James L. Brooks said, "I'm very wary of television where everybody is supposed to be a role model, you don't run across that many role models in real life. Why should television be full of them?"
In 1990 William Bennett, who at the time was drug czar of the United States, visited a drug treatment centre in Pittsburgh and upon noticing a poster of Bart remarked, "You guys aren't watching The Simpsons, are you? That's not going to help you any." When a backlash over the comment ensued, Bennett apologized, claiming he "was just kidding" and saying "I'll sit down with the little spike head. We'll straighten this thing out." In a 1991 interview, Bill Cosby described Bart as a bad role model for children, calling him "angry, confused, frustrated." In response, Matt Groening said, "That sums up Bart, all right. Most people are in a struggle to be normal. He thinks normal is very boring, and does things that others just wished they dare do." On January 27, 1992, then-President George H. W. Bush said, "We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to make American families a lot more like the Waltons and a lot less like the Simpsons." The writers rushed out a tongue-in-cheek reply in the form of a short segment which aired three days later before a rerun of "Stark Raving Dad" in which Bart replied, "Hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too."
Although there were many critics of the character, favorable comments came from several quarters. Columnist Erma Bombeck wrote, "Kids need to know that somewhere in this world is a contemporary who can pull off all the things they can only fantasize about, someone who can stick it to their parents once in a while and still be permitted to live." In 2003, Bart placed first in a poll of parents in the United Kingdom who were asked "which made-up character had the most influence" on children under 12 years old.
In 1998, Time named Bart one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. He was the only fictional character to make the list. He had previously appeared on the cover of the edition of December 31, 1990. He was also ranked No. 48 in TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time" in 1996 and both he and Lisa ranked No. 11 in TV Guide's "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time" in 2002.
At the 44th Primetime Emmy Awards in 1992, Cartwright won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for voicing Bart in the season three episode "Separate Vocations". She shared the award with five other voice actors from The Simpsons. Various episodes in which Bart is strongly featured have been nominated for Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Radio Bart" in 1992, "Future-Drama" in 2005, "The Haw-Hawed Couple" in 2006 and "Homer's Phobia", which won the award in 1997. In 1995, Cartwright won an Annie Award for "Voice Acting in the Field of Animation" for her portrayal of Bart in an episode. In 2000, Bart and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.
In 2014 Bart Simpson became the second mascot of Russian football club FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, wearing number 87 on his back (referring to The Simpsons debut in 1987; the club's first mascot is a blue-maned lion).
Alongside T-shirts, Bart has been included in various other The Simpsons-related merchandise, including air fresheners, baseball caps, bumper stickers, cardboard standups, refrigerator magnets, key rings, buttons, dolls, posters, figurines, clocks, soapstone carvings, Chia Pets, bowling balls and boxer shorts. The Bart Book, a book about Bart's personality and attributes, was released in 2004. Other books include Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, which is not an official publication, includes a chapter analyzing Bart's character and comparing him to the "Nietzschean ideal".
Bart has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. He has appeared in every one of The Simpsons video games, including Bart vs. the World, Bart Simpson's Escape from Camp Deadly, Bart vs. the Space Mutants, Bart's House of Weirdness, Bart vs. The Juggernauts, Bartman Meets Radioactive Man, Bart's Nightmare, Bart & the Beanstalk and The Simpsons Game, released in 2007. Alongside the television series, Bart regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, which were first published on November 29, 1993 and are still issued monthly, and also has his own series called Bart Simpson Comics which have been released since 2000. Bart also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood. Bart appears as a playable character in the toys-to-life video game Lego Dimensions, released via a "Fun Pack" packaged with a Gravity Sprinter accessory in November 2015.
Bart, and other The Simpsons characters, have appeared in numerous television commercials for Nestlé's Butterfinger candy bars from 1990 to 2001, with the slogan "Nobody better lay a finger on my Butterfinger!" Lisa would occasionally advertise it too. Matt Groening would later say that the Butterfinger advertising campaign was a large part of the reason why Fox decided to pick up the half-hour show. The campaign was discontinued in 2001, much to the disappointment of Cartwright. Bart has also appeared in commercials for Burger King and Ramada Inn. In 2001, Kellogg's launched a brand of cereal called "Bart Simpson Peanut Butter Chocolate Crunch", which was available for a limited time. Before the half-hour series went on the air, Matt Groening pitched Bart as a spokesperson for Jell-O. He wanted Bart to sing "J-E-L-L-O", then burp the letter O. His belief was that kids would try to do it the next day, but he was rejected.
On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Bart and the four other members of the Simpson family. They are the first characters, other than Sesame Street characters, to receive this accolade while the show is still in production. The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, 2009.
- "Top 10 facts about the Simpsons". Daily Express. April 19, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- Hajek, Daniel (February 28, 2015). "'Whoa, Mama!': A Voice Actress's Road To Fame As A 10-Year-Old Boy". NPR. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Martin, Jeff; Lynch, Jeffrey (December 26, 1991). "I Married Marge". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 12. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- J. Stewart Burns (November 9, 2014). "Simpsorama". The Simpsons. Season 26. Episode 6. Fox.
Prove it! When is your birthday?CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "February 23rd." "Ha! February has no 23rd!" "Yes it does!"
- Martin, Jeff; Kirkland, Mark (December 3, 1992). "Lisa's First Word". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 10. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Jean, Al; Polcino, Dominic (October 19, 1997). "Lisa's Sax". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 03. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Selman, Matt; Kirkland, Mark (January 27, 2008). "That '90s Show". The Simpsons. Season 19. Episode 11. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Turner 2004, p. 122.
- Swartzwelder, John; Moore, Rich (October 10, 1991). "Bart the Murderer". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 04. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Swartzwelder, John; Dietter, Susie (February 3, 1994). "Bart Gets Famous". The Simpsons. Season 05. Episode 12. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Appel, Richard; Weinstein, Josh (November 4, 1996). "Bart After Dark". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 05. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Swartzwelder, John; Reardon, Jim (May 4, 1997). "Homer's Enemy". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 23. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- BBC (2000). 'The Simpsons': America's First Family (6-minute edit for the season 1 DVD) (DVD). UK: 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt: Jean, Al (2007). The Simpsons Movie: A Look Behind the Scenes (DVD). distributed by The Sun.
- "J is for Jay". BBC. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
- Groening, Matt. (2007). Commentary for "D'oh-in' in the Wind", in The Simpsons: The Complete Tenth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt (2001). Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-5-558-68551-0.
- Farrell, Peter (December 17, 1989). "Christmans is 'Life in Hell' for The Simpsons". The Oregonian.
- Groening, Matt. (2006). Commentary for "My Sister, My Sitter", in The Simpsons: The Complete Eighth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Paul, Alan (September 30, 1995). "Life in Hell". Flux Magazine.
- Groening, Matt. (2006). Commentary for "Bart Carny", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Kolbert, Elizabeth (March 11, 1993). "With spirit of youthful rebellion, 'Simpsons' creator takes on success". Orlando Sentinel.
- Groening, Matt. (2005). Commentary for "Two Bad Neighbors", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 14.
- Kuipers, Dean (April 15, 2004). "3rd Degree: Harry Shearer". Los Angeles: City Beat. Archived from the original on June 5, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
- Groening, Matt. (2005). Commentary for "Fear of Flying", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Silverman, David; Archer, Wes. (2004). Illustrated commentary for "Treehouse of Horror IV", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Anderson, Mike B.; Groening, Matt; Michels, Pete; Smith, Yeardley. (2006). "A Bit From the Animators", Illustrated Commentary for "All Singing, All Dancing", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt; Reiss, Mike; Kirkland, Mark. (2002). Commentary for "Principal Charming", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Archer, Wes; Groening, Matt; Kirkland, Mark. (2005). "A Bit From the Animators", Illustrated Commentary for "Summer of 4 Ft. 2", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt; Lynch, Jeffrey; Reardon, Jim; Silverman, David. (2005). Illustrated Commentary for "Who Shot Mr. Burns? (Part One)", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Oakley, Bill; Weinstein, Josh; Johnson, Tim; Silverman, David; Mirkin, David; Cohen, David X. "Homer in the Third Dimension" (2005), in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 178–179.
- Lee, Luaine (February 27, 2003). "D'oh, you're the voice". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
- Carroll, Larry (July 26, 2007). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To 'Burns-Sexual' Smithers". MTV. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
- Miranda, Charles (December 8, 2007). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
- Cartwright, pp. 35–40
- "Bart's voice tells all". BBC News. November 10, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- Turner 2004, p. 21.
- Brockes, Emma (August 2, 2004). "That's my boy". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
- Mirkin, David. (2005). Commentary for "Lisa's Wedding", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Bark, Ed (July 15, 1990). "Bart Simpson's secret: he's a woman". Ottawa Citizen.
- Glaister, Dan (April 3, 2004). "Simpsons actors demand bigger share". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- "'Simpsons' Cast Goes Back To Work". CBS News. May 1, 2004. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
- Sheridan, Peter (May 6, 2004). "Meet the Simpsons". Daily Express.
- "Simpsons cast sign new pay deal". BBC News. June 3, 2008. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- Block, Alex Ben (October 7, 2011). "'The Simpsons' Renewed for Two More Seasons". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- Turner 2004, p. 71.
- Forrester, Brent; Reardon, Jim (May 14, 1995). "Lemon of Troy". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 24. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Swartzwelder, John; Affleck, Neil (November 28, 1999). "Take My Wife, Sleaze". The Simpsons. Season 11. Episode 08. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Martin, Jeff (2004). "The Cajun Controversy", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fourth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Lorando, Mark (October 8, 1992). "Bart chalks up apology for New Orleans song". The Times-Picayune. p. A1.
- Kaulessar, Ricardo (August 10, 2005). "Joke on 'Simpsons' started in JC". Jersey City Reporter. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- Brooks, James L.; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al. (2001). Commentary for "Some Enchanted Evening", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Reiss, Mike. (2001). Commentary for "Moaning Lisa", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Canning, Robert (October 6, 2005). "The Simpsons: "Lost Verizon" Review". IGN. Archived from the original on October 9, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- Reiss, Mike; Klickstein, Mathew (2018). Springfield confidential: jokes, secrets, and outright lies from a lifetime writing for the Simpsons. New York City: Dey Street Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-0062748034.
- "The Surprising Origins of TV Character Names". www.mentalfloss.com. May 30, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
- Turner 2004, p. 25.
- "Bart Simpson". Time. June 8, 1998. Archived from the original on May 25, 2009. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- Brooks, James L.; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Silverman, David. (2002). Commentary for "Bart Gets an "F"", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Turner 2004, p. 61.
- Mirkin, David. (2004). Commentary for "Bart Gets Famous", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "Bart Simpson goes nude". News24. South Africa. April 30, 2007. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- Brooks, James L.; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Scully, Mike; Silverman, David; Castellaneta, Dan; Smith, Yeardley. (2007). Commentary for The Simpsons Movie [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- ""Simpsons Movie, The" rating listing". FilmRatings.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
- Raphael, Lisa (2008). "Bodies of Work: 30 Unforgettable Nude Scenes". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 27, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- Turner 2004, p. 124.
- Cantor, P. (December 1999). "The Simpsons: Atomistic Politics and the Nuclear Family". Political Theory. 27 (6): 734–749. doi:10.1177/0090591799027006002. JSTOR 192244. S2CID 143998133.
- Stern, David M.; Silverman, David (October 11, 1990). "Bart Gets an "F"". The Simpsons. Season 02. Episode 01. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Doyle, Larry; Kirkland, Mark (April 19, 1998). "Girly Edition". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 21. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Stern, David M.; Reardon, Jim (February 18, 1993). "Duffless". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 16. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Stern, Joshua; Ventimilia, Jeffrey (April 30, 1995). "'Round Springfield". The Simpsons. Season 6. Episode 22. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Forrester, Brent (May 14, 1995). "Lemon of Troy". The Simpsons. Season 6. Episode 24. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Meyer, George; Lynch, Jeffrey (February 27, 1992). "Separate Vocations". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 18. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Meyer, George; Kirkland, Mark (October 3, 1999). "Brother's Little Helper". The Simpsons. Season 11. Episode 02. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Goldreyer, Ned; Dietter, Susie (March 8, 1998). "Lisa the Simpson". The Simpsons. Season 09. Episode 17. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Pulido, Rachel; Dietter, Susie (April 6, 1997). "Grade School Confidential". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 19. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Oakley, Bill; Weinstein, Josh; Anderson, Bob (April 28, 1994). "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song". The Simpsons. Season 05. Episode 19. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Martin, Jeff; Kirkland, Mark (December 3, 1992). "Lisa's First Word". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 10. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Groening, Matt. (2002). Commentary for "Simpson and Delilah", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Groening, Matt. (2004). Commentary for "Marge on the Lam", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Gewirtz, Howard; Kirkland, Mark (October 17, 1991). "Homer Defined". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 05. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Scully, Mike; Moore, Steven Dean (December 17, 1995). "Marge Be Not Proud". The Simpsons. Season 07. Episode 11. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Chun, Daniel; Anderson, Mike B. (November 13, 2005). "Marge's Son Poisoning". The Simpsons. Season 17. Episode 05. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Moore, Roger (July 25, 2007). "Nancy Cartwright, voice of Bart Simpson, has personal theme: 'Simpsons Forever'". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- Meyer, George; Silverman, David (November 22, 1990). "Bart vs. Thanksgiving". The Simpsons. Season 02. Episode 07. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Swartzwelder, John; Silverman, David (February 4, 1990). "Bart the General". The Simpsons. Season 01. Episode 05. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Greaney, Dan; Kirkland, Mark (May 19, 1996). "Summer of 4 Ft. 2". The Simpsons. Season 07. Episode 25. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Selman, Matt; Clements, Chris (February 4, 1990). "The Haw-Hawed Couple". The Simpsons. Season 18. Episode 08. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Kogen, Jay; Wolodarsky, Wallace; Bird, Brad; Lynch, Jeffrey (October 4, 1991). "Like Father, Like Clown". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 6. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Swartzwelder, John; Silverman, David (May 13, 1993). "Krusty Gets Kancelled". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 22. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Stern, David M.; Kirkland, Mark (September 24, 1992). "Kamp Krusty". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 01. Fox. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Turner 2004, pp. 128–129.
- Groening, Matt (October 23, 2003). "Fresh Air" (Interview). Interviewed by Terry Gross. Philadelphia: NPR. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- "Talking about The Simpsons". Entertainment Weekly. July 20, 2007. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Jean, Al. (2003). Commentary for "Black Widower", in The Simpsons: The Complete Eighth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Keller, Richard (November 25, 2007). "The Simpsons: Funeral for a Fiend". TV Squad. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Turner 2004, pp. 120–121.
- Cassidy, John (July 8, 1990). "Cartoon leads a revolt against apple-pie family – Simpsons". The Sunday Times.
- "Simpsons set for big screen". The Daily Telegraph. July 15, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- Kleinfield, N.R. (April 29, 1990). "Cashing in on a Hot New Brand Name". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- Barmash, Isador (October 7, 1990). "The T-Shirt Industry Sweats It Out". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- "Bart Simpson–Defiant, Saw-Topped and Cheeky—the Brat Terrible Gave Underachievers a Good Name". People. 34 (26). December 31, 1990. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Griffiths, Nick (April 15, 2000). "America's First Family". The Times Magazine. pp. 25, 27–28. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014.
- Rohter, Larry (December 30, 1990). "Overacheiver – and Learning to Deal With It, Man". The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Burey, Chris. (1990). ABC News report about the Bart Simpson T-shirt controversy included as an Easter Egg in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season (2001) [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Svetkey, Benjamin (July 27, 1990). "But is it Bart?". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 3, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Kelly, Kevin (1999). "One-Eyed Aliens! Suicide Booths! Mom's Old-Fashioned Robot Oil!". Wired. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- "Metzger stops ' Nazi Bart' T-shirt sales". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. June 4, 1991.
- Curtis, Bryan (December 13, 2018). "The Great NFL Heist: How Fox Paid for and Changed Football Forever". The Ringer. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
- Cerone, Daniel (May 9, 1991). "'Simpsons' steals away Cosby viewers". Los Angeles Times. p. 4.
- Appelo, Tim (August 31, 1990). "Cosby's Brood vs. The Radical Dood". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- Pierce, Scott D. (October 18, 1990). "Don't have a cow, man! More viewers watch "The Simpsons" than "Cosby"!". Deseret News. p. C5.
- Potts, Kimberly (2006). "'The Simpsons' Best Episodes: No. 15 – 11". AOL. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- Groening, Matt; Jean, Reiss; Moore, Rich; Reiss, Mike; Vitti, Jon. (2002). Commentary for "Lisa's Substitute", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- McDaniel, Mike (December 30, 1990). "Television in 1990 – Among bright spots: 'Civil War,' CBS,'Simpsons'". The Sunday Times.
- Boone, Mike (December 30, 1990). "Bart Simpson was ray of hope in a year of generally drab television". The Gazette.
- Harris, Mark (December 28, 1990). "1. Bart Simpson". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
- Potter, Bruce (December 30, 1990). "Write-ins Galore: Cast of Ballot Characters Widens". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
- Stromberg, Amy (November 9, 1990). "Mickey, Bart fit write-in at ballot box". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- Stromberg, Amy (November 23, 1990). "Bart Simpson, 'Falloon' floats debut at Macy's N.Y. Thanksgiving Parade". The Press of Atlantic City.
- Martyn, Warren; Wood, Adrian (2000). "Bart vs. Thanksgiving". BBC. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- "Artist Chart History – The Simpsons". Billboard charts. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "RIAA Searchable database – Gold and Platinum". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on November 3, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Michael Jackson Didn't Write 'Do The Bartman' After All". Fact. July 22, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
- Cartwright, pp. 115–117
- Brooks, James L. (2003). Commentary for "Stark Raving Dad", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Martyn, Warren; Wood, Adrian (2000). "Stark Raving Dad". BBC. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "All the Number 1 Singles–1990s". Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
- "Certified awards". British Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on May 25, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "Questions for Matt Groening". The New York Times. December 27, 1998. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Turner 2004, p. 131.
- Rosenbaum, Martin (June 29, 2007). "Is The Simpsons still subversive?". BBC News. Archived from the original on August 25, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
- Bianco, Robert (June 28, 1990). "Weekend TV: Beer'N' Bart giving parents prime-time hangover". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- Freedman, Donna (June 2, 1990). "Is Bart a brat? Popular cartoon kid as annoying to some as he is funny to others". Anchorage Daily News.
- Dunne, Mike (June 1, 1990). "Bart Simpson: Cool dude or smart-aleck menace?". The Sacramento Bee.
- Shales, Tom (October 15, 1990). "About Bart: No need to have a Cow, Man". The Roanoke Times.
- Goldberg, Jonah (May 1, 2000). "Homer Never Nods". National Review. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "Drug czar 'just kidding'". Edmonton Journal. Associated Press. May 26, 1990.
- Berke, Richard L. (May 23, 1992). "The 1992 Campaign: Political Memo; In Capital and on Coast, Lines Drawn on Quayle". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "A Badder Bart". The Record. September 25, 1991.
- Turner 2004, p. 230-231.
- Ortved, John (August 2007). "Simpson Family Values". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on August 27, 2008. Retrieved August 26, 2008.
- "Bart Simpson is your top role model". CBBC Newsround. April 24, 2003. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "TIME Magazine Cover: Bart Simpson". Time. December 31, 1990. Archived from the original on June 21, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
- "TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time". TV Guide. December 14, 1996.
- "CNN – TV Guide's 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters". CNN. July 30, 2002. Archived from the original on March 20, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- "Briefing–'Simpsons' score big in Prime-Time Emmys". Daily News of Los Angeles. August 3, 1992. p. L20.
- "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
- "Legacy: 23rd Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1995)". Annie Awards. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2007.
- "Hollywood Icons". Hollywood Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
- Барт Симпсон стал талисманом футбольного клуба "Зенит" (in Russian). ITAR TASS. September 1, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
- "Bart Simpson items big sellers". Ottawa Citizen. July 7, 1990.
- "Search Results for Bart". Fox Shop. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Groening, Matt; Morrison, Bill (2005). The Bart Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-111660-5.
- Bedard, Paul; Parker, Suzi; Kaplan, David E. (November 8, 2004). "Publishing war begins over Tenet's CIA book". U.S. News & World Report. 137 (16). p. 6. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.
- Blair, Jayson (September 9, 2001). "Word for Word/Deconstructing 'The Simpsons'; The Aristotelian Logic of Bart And Homer. Or Is It Platonic?". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Walk, Gary Eng (November 5, 2007). "Work of Bart". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Radford, Bill (November 19, 2000). "Groening launches Futurama comics". The Gazette.
- Shutt, Craig. "Sundays with the Simpsons". MSNBC. Archived from the original on July 8, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- MacDonald, Brady (April 9, 2008). "Simpsons ride features 29 characters, original voices". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- Robertson, Andy. "'Lego Dimensions' Wave 2 Adds Doctor Who World And Hire-able Minifigures".
- "Don't lay a finger on his Butterfinger". Prepared Foods. 167 (6). June 1998. p. 37.
- "A Portrait of the Bartist – The Simpsons' Matt Groening has fulfilled his dream of invading mainstream U.S. pop culture". Star Tribune. May 13, 1995.
- "Nancy Cartwright on the Spot". Adweek. November 21, 2005. Retrieved October 29, 2008.
- "D'Oh! Eat Homer for breakfast". CNN. September 10, 2001. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved September 3, 2008.
- Fonseca, Nicholas (November 15, 2001). "Cereal Numbers". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Groening, Matt. (2001). Commentary for "There's No Disgrace Like Home", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- "The Simpsons stamps launched in US". Newslite. May 8, 2009. Archived from the original on August 28, 2009. Retrieved May 8, 2009.
- "The Simpsons Get 'Stamping Ovation' To Tune of 1 Billion Stamps". United States Postal Service. May 7, 2009. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
- Cartwright, Nancy (2000). My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy. New York City: Hyperion Books. ISBN 978-0-7868-8600-5.
- Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia (eds.). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.
- Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.
- Alberti, John, ed. (2003). Leaving Springfield: The Simpsons and the Possibility of Oppositional Culture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2849-1.
- Brown, Alan; Logan, Chris (2006). The Psychology of The Simpsons. BenBella Books. ISBN 978-1-932100-70-9.
- Conard, Mark T. (1999). "Thus Spake Bart: On Nietzsche and the Virtues of Being Bad". In Irwin, William; Skoble, Aeon (eds.). The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer. Chicago: Open Court. ISBN 978-0-8126-9433-8.
- Groening, Matt; Morrison, Bill (2005). The Bart Book. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-111660-5.
- Groening, Matt (2001). Bart Simpson's Guide to Life. Harper Perennia]. ISBN 978-5-558-68551-0.
- Groening, Matt (1991). The Simpsons Uncensored Family Album. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-096582-2.
- Pinsky, Mark I (2004). The Gospel According to The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life of the World's Most Animated Family. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-22419-6.