Lisa's Substitute

"Lisa's Substitute" is the nineteenth episode of The Simpsons' second season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 25, 1991. In the episode, Lisa's teacher Miss Hoover takes medical leave due to what she thinks is Lyme disease, so substitute teacher Mr. Bergstrom takes over the class. Lisa finds Mr. Bergstrom's teaching methods inspiring and discovers an entirely new love for learning. When Miss Hoover returns to class, Lisa is devastated to lose her most positive adult role model. Eventually, she realizes that while Mr. Bergstrom was one of a kind, she can find role models in other people, including her father Homer. Meanwhile, Bart runs for class president against Martin.

"Lisa's Substitute"
The Simpsons episode
Episode no.Season 2
Episode 19
Directed byRich Moore
Written byJon Vitti
Production code7F19
Original air dateApril 25, 1991 (1991-04-25)[1]
Guest appearance(s)
Episode features
Couch gagThe Simpsons run in, only to discover the couch is missing.
CommentaryMatt Groening
Jon Vitti
Al Jean
Mike Reiss
Rich Moore
Episode chronology
← Previous
"Brush with Greatness"
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"The War of the Simpsons"
The Simpsons (season 2)
List of The Simpsons episodes

The episode was written by Jon Vitti and directed by Rich Moore. It is the first episode of the show to have the opening sequence start at the driveway scene. Dustin Hoffman, using the pseudonym Sam Etic, guest-starred as Mr. Bergstrom, who was modeled on the physical appearance of Mike Reiss, a longtime writer and producer on the show. The episode features cultural references to Mike Nichols's film The Graduate, which starred Hoffman, and the novel Charlotte's Web by E. B. White.

Since airing, the episode has received positive reviews from television critics. It acquired a Nielsen Rating of 11.1, and was the highest-rated show on Fox the week it aired.


Lisa's teacher, Miss Hoover, thinks she has Lyme disease and is replaced by substitute teacher Mr. Bergstrom.

Mr. Bergstrom is dressed as a cowboy, setting the scene as Texas, 1830. He adds there are three things wrong with his costume and whoever guesses them will win his hat. Lisa states that his belt said "State of Texas" but Texas was not a state until 1845, the revolver was not invented until 1835 and that Mr. Bergstrom appears to be of Jewish descent and there were no Jewish cowboys. Mr. Bergstrom is impressed by Lisa's knowledge and rewards her with his cowboy hat, also adding that he was wearing a digital watch. Due to his unorthodox teaching methods and friendly nature, Lisa starts falling in love with him. Lisa runs into Mr. Bergstrom at a museum and is embarrassed when Homer displays his ignorance. Sensing a void in their relationship, Mr. Bergstrom takes Homer aside to suggest he be a more positive role model.

At Marge's suggestion, Lisa goes to invite Mr. Bergstrom to dinner at their home, but is devastated to find Miss Hoover back and Mr. Bergstrom gone. She rushes to his apartment and learns that he has accepted a new job in Capital City. She rushes to the train station and confesses that she will be lost without him. Mr. Bergstrom replies that the life of a substitute teacher is transient, and he has to help the more needy. He writes her a note and tells her that any time she feels alone, its contents are all she needs to know. He boards the train and departs. Lisa opens the note: it reads "You are Lisa Simpson."

Meanwhile, Bart's class prepares to elect a class president. Mrs. Krabappel nominates Martin, while Sherri and Terri nominate Bart. During a debate with Martin, Bart tells jokes and wins the class over. Certain of Bart's victory, none of the children in his class—including Bart—votes, giving Martin the victory with just two votes.

Devastated by Mr. Bergstrom's departure, Lisa takes her grief out on the insensitive Homer, calling him a baboon. Marge tells Homer to console Lisa, explaining how their daughter is hurt and needs her father. Homer confesses to Lisa that he cannot imagine her experience, as he has never lost anyone special, and cheers her up by mimicking a monkey. Lisa apologizes for calling him a "baboon". Finding Bart seething over the election result, Homer comforts him by pointing out that being class president would have involved extra work with little reward. Finally, passing Maggie's room, he places her pacifier in her mouth. Homer goes to bed with Marge happily that night, saying he is "on the biggest roll" of his life.


Mr. Bergstrom was modeled on the physical appearance of Mike Reiss.

"Lisa's Substitute" was written by Jon Vitti and directed by Rich Moore. According to Vitti, The Simpsons producer James L. Brooks contributed more to this episode than he did to any other in the show's history. Vitti said the episode was "very controversial" when it was being made because it "came at a point when the staff were just beginning to realize the comedy potential of the show, but we were trapped with these love stories, and just as the staff were starting to get frustrated with the love stories, along came 'Lisa's Substitute': the biggest, huggiest, warmest and fuzziest of them all."[2]

Mr. Bergstrom was modeled on the physical appearance of Mike Reiss, a longtime writer and producer on the show. American actor Dustin Hoffman provided the voice of Mr. Bergstrom. Hoffman was not sure if he wanted to be identified with a cartoon show at the time, like many early guest stars on The Simpsons, and therefore used the pseudonym Sam Etic in the closing credits. Sam Etic is a play on the word semitic, alluding to the fact that both Hoffman and Mr. Bergstrom are Jewish. Brooks was the one who suggested the pseudonym, which Hoffman immediately liked. The cast of the show flew to New York to record the episode with Hoffman and were directed by James L. Brooks.[3] Yeardley Smith, who provides the voice of Lisa, said she grew as an actress after working with Hoffman that day.[4] The Simpsons writer Al Jean said he remembered that when the audio track of the episode came back, Hoffman's voice was too low on the singing parts. The staff were "petrified" that the singing scenes would not show up on air, so they had Hoffman re-record them when he was in Los Angeles.[5] Vitti mentioned on Twitter that the note Lisa receives at the end of the episode should have had an exclamation point at the end. He did not notice it in the animatic and it still "haunts [him] to this day".[6]

Cultural referencesEdit

Mrs. Krabappel trying to seduce Mr. Bergstrom is a reference to Hoffman's similar situation in the 1967 film The Graduate.[7] Mr. Bergstrom reads a line from the 1952 novel Charlotte's Web to his class. It is implied that this line is the end of the book, but in reality another chapter follows. Vitti said the line was the maximum amount of the book they could feature in the episode without being sued. The staff contacted a relative of the author E. B. White, but she would not clear the use of the book.[2] When Lisa arrives at Mr. Bergstrom's apartment building, a list of tenants can be seen. One of the names is J. Vitti, for the episode's writer Jon Vitti, and another is J. Kamerman, for then-animator Jen Kamerman.[2] When Bart unexpectedly loses to Martin in the class president race, a picture of Martin holding up a copy of The Daily Fourth Gradian with the headline "Simpson Defeats Prince" is taken, which in turn ends up on the front page of The Daily Fourth Gradian under the headline "Prince Beats Simpson". This is a reference to the famous picture of former President Harry S. Truman holding up a copy of a prematurely printed edition of the Chicago Tribune that proclaimed "Dewey Defeats Truman", taken the day after his unexpected victory over Thomas E. Dewey in 1948.[5]


Dustin Hoffman was praised by critics for his role as Mr. Bergstrom.

In its original broadcast, "Lisa's Substitute" finished forty-third in the ratings for the week of April 22–28, 1991, with a Nielsen Rating of 11.1, equivalent to approximately ten million viewing households. It was the highest-rated show on Fox that week.[8]

Since airing, the episode has received positive reviews from television critics with Hoffman's performance being critically lauded. The authors of the book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide, Warren Martyn and Adrian Wood, said "Despite a scene-stealing performance from Ms Krabappel, this is Lisa's show. Mr Bergstrom's last message for Lisa is a delightful touch and adds the finishing touch to a wonderful episode."[7] Former TV Squad blogger Adam Finley named "Lisa's Substitute" as one of his top fourteen most touching The Simpsons episodes,[9] and The Simpsons Archive webmaster Jouni Paakkinen rated the episode as his third favorite.[10]

Colin Jacobson of DVD Movie Guide said that Lisa episodes "tend to be goopy", but "Lisa's Substitute" seemed like "a good show, however". He went on to say, "The show offered many other good moments, and it helped expand the Lisa/Homer relationship neatly. The Bart's election subplot punctured any sappiness that otherwise might have occurred. [...] 'Lisa's Substitute' offered a fairly solid program."[11] Emily VanDerWerff of Slant Magazine picked the episode as the show's second best, praising its emotion and Hoffman's performance.[12]

Hoffman has been praised for his guest appearance as Mr. Bergstrom. Entertainment Weekly named it one of the sixteen greatest guest appearances on The Simpsons.[13] In 2007, Simon Crerar of The Times listed his performance as one of the thirty-three funniest cameos in the history of the show.[14] The episode's reference to The Graduate was named the 20th greatest film reference in the history of the show by Total Film's Nathan Ditum.[15] Ditum also ranked Hoffman's performance as the 16th best guest appearance in the show's history.[16]

"Lisa's Substitute" also received positive reviews from cast and crew members of the show. Bart's voice actress, Nancy Cartwright, said it is one of her top three episodes together with "Bart Sells His Soul" and "Bart the Mother",[17] while writer Al Jean said the episode was his favorite sentimental episode.[18] Yeardley Smith, the voice actress of Lisa, has mentioned this episode is one of her favorite Simpsons episodes of all time. [19] Dan Castellaneta, the voice of Homer, named it his favorite episode of the show together with "Simpson and Delilah" and "Homer the Heretic".[20] Executive producer James L. Brooks said he thinks "Lisa's Substitute" stands out because it is The Simpsons' "best show" with a message behind it.[21] When The Simpsons began streaming on Disney+ in 2019, former Simpsons writer and executive producer Bill Oakley named this one of the best classic Simpsons episodes to watch on the service.[22]


  1. ^ Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia (eds.). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.
  2. ^ a b c Vitti, Jon (2002). The Simpsons season 2 DVD commentary for the episode "Lisa's Substitute" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  3. ^ Yeardley Smith [@YeardleySmith] (29 November 2019). "This one, too, will be one of my forever favorites. They flew me to New York to record with Dustin Hoffman for this episode. @canyonjim directed us. It was an extraordinary day" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  4. ^ Reiss, Mike (2002). The Simpsons season 2 DVD commentary for the episode "Lisa's Substitute" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  5. ^ a b Jean, Al (2002). The Simpsons season 2 DVD commentary for the episode "Lisa's Substitute" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  6. ^ bird versus pigs [@jon_vitti] (22 August 2014). "The note is supposed to say "You are Lisa Simpson!" With an exclamation point. I didn't catch it at animatic. It haunts me to this day" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  7. ^ a b Martyn, Warren; Wood, Adrian (2000). "Lisa's Substitute". BBC. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  8. ^ "What we watch, what we don't...". Austin American-Statesman. May 5, 1991. p. 18.
  9. ^ Black, Jay (September 10, 2007). "Adam Finley: The 14 most touching Simpsons episodes". TV Squad. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
  10. ^ "10 Fan Favorites". USA Today. February 6, 2003. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
  11. ^ Jacobson, Colin. "The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season". DVD Movie Guide. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
  12. ^ VanDerWerff, Emily (2007-08-01). "5 for the Day: The Simpsons". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 2011-09-08.
  13. ^ "Springfield of Dreams: 16 Great 'Simpsons' Guest Voices". Entertainment Weekly. May 11, 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  14. ^ Crerar, Simon (2007-07-05). "The 33 funniest Simpsons cameos ever". The Times. Retrieved 2010-08-09.
  15. ^ Ditum, Nathan (June 6, 2009). "The 50 Greatest Simpsons Movie References". Total Film. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
  16. ^ Ditum, Nathan (March 29, 2009). "The 20 Best Simpsons Movie-Star Guest Spots". Total Film. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
  17. ^ Oakes, Keily (July 30, 2004). "Voice of Bart Simpson steps into limelight". BBC. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
  18. ^ "15 Writer Favorites". USA Today. 2003-02-06. Retrieved 2009-04-04.
  19. ^ Smith, Yeardley (2019-11-24). "@YeardleySmith". Twitter. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  20. ^ Lawson, Tim; Persons, Alisa (2004). "Dan Castellaneta". The Magic Behind the Voices. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-57806-696-4.
  21. ^ Justin, Neal (May 20, 2007). "'Simpsons' insiders pick their favorite episodes". The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
  22. ^ Katz, Mathew (2019-11-11). "The best classic Simpsons episodes on Disney+". Digital Trends.

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