Chief Rabbi (Hebrew: רב הראשי) is a title given in several countries to the recognized religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities. Since 1911, through a capitulation by Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, Israel has had two chief rabbis, one Ashkenazi and one Sephardi.
Cities with large Jewish communities may also have their own chief rabbis; this is especially the case in Israel but has also been past practice in major Jewish centers in Europe prior to the Holocaust. North American cities rarely have chief rabbis. One exception however is Montreal, with two—one for the Ashkenazi community, the other for the Sephardi.
Jewish law provides no scriptural or Talmudic support for the post of a "chief rabbi." The office, however, is said by many to find its precedent in the religio-political authority figures of Jewish antiquity (e.g., kings, high priests, patriarches, exilarchs and gaonim). The position arose in Europe in the Middle Ages from governing authorities largely for secular administrative reasons such as collecting taxes and registering vital statistics, and for providing an intermediary between the government and the Jewish community, for example in the establishment of the Crown rabbi in several kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, the rab de la corte in Kingdom of Castile or the arrabi mor in Kingdom of Portugal, likely influenced by the expectations of their Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican governments and neighbors. Similarly, in the 19th century there was a Crown rabbi of the Russian Empire.
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- Gabriel Davidovich (2013–present)
- Jitzchok ben Mosche von Wien, "Or Sorua" (ca. 1200–1270)
- Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller, "Tosfos Jomtov" (1578–1654)
- Scheftel Horowitz (1561–1619)
- Gerschon "Uliph" Aschkenasi (ca. 1612–1693)
- Samson Wertheimer (1658–1724)
- Mosche Chanoch Berliner (1727–1793)
- Isaak Noah Mannheimer (1824–1865)
- Lazar Horowitz (1828–1868), chief rabbi of Vienna
- Adolf Jellinek (1865–1893)
- Moritz Güdemann (1894–1918)
- Zwi Perez Chajes (1918–1927)
- David Feuchtwang (1933–1936)
- Israel Taglicht (1936), provisional chief rabbi
- Insp. I. Öhler (1946), preacher at the Stadttempel
- Akiva Eisenberg (1948–1983)
- Paul Chaim Eisenberg (1983–2016)
- Arie Folger (July 2016)
- Eliakim Carmoly (1832-1839)
- Henri Loeb
- Aristide Astrue
- Élie-Aristide Astruc (1866–1879)
- Abraham Dreyfus
- Armand Bloch
- Gabriel Almosnino (1880–1885)
- Presiado Bakish (1885–1889)
- Shimon Dankowitz (1889–1891)
- Moshe Tadjer (1891–1893)
- Moritz Grünwald (1893–1895)
- Presiado Bakish (1895–1898)
- Moshe Tadjer (1898–1900)
- Mordecai Ehrenpreis (1900–1914)
- M. Hezkeya Shabetay Davidov (1914–1918)
- David Pifano (1920–1925)
- No Chief Rabbi (1925–1945)
- Asher Hannanel (1945–1949)
- Behor Kahlon (1990 - 2012)
- Aharon Zerbib (2012-2015)
- Yoel Yifrach (2015–Present)
- Rab Javier Waissbluth
- Rab Eliahu Tamim
- Meyer Rosenbaum (Son of Isamar of Nadvorna, Elected 1948: left Cuba in 1956, a little more than two years before Fidel Castro came to power in the Revolution)
- Raphael Yair Elnadav (1956–1959)
- Shmuel Szteinhendler current Chief Rabbi of Cuba and regional director for Masorti Judaism in Latin America.
- Kotel Da-Don (1998–2006) from 2006 rabbi of the Bet Israel community Zagreb
- Luciano Moše Prelević (2006–)
- Abraham Salomon (1687–1700)
- Israel Ber (1700–1728)
- Marcus David (1729–1739)
- Hirsch Samuel Levy (1741–1775)
- Gedalia Levin (1778–1793)
- Abraham Gedalia (1793–1827)
- Abraham Wolff (1828–1891)
- David Simonsen (1892–1902, 1919–1920)
- Tobias Lewenstein (1903–1910)
- Max (Moses) Friediger (1920–1947)
- Marcus Melchior (1947–1969)
- Bent Melchior (1970–1996)
- Bent Lexner (1996–2014)
- Jair Melchior (2014–present[update])
- Refael Aharon Ben Shimon (1891–1921)
- Masoud Haim Ben Shimon (1921–1925)
- Chaim Nahum (1925–1960)
- Haim Moussa Douek (1960–1972)
The Far EastEdit
- Aharon Moshe Kiselev (1937–1949)
- Simon Livson (2013-)
- David Sintzheim (1808–1812)
- Abraham Vita de Cologna (1808–1826)
- Emmanuel Deutz (1810–1842)
- Marchand Ennery (1846–1852)
- Salomon Ulmann (1853–1865)
- Lazare Isidor (1866–1888)
- Zadoc Kahn (1889–1905)
- Alfred Lévy (1907–1919)
- Israël Lévi (1920–1939)
- Isaïe Schwartz (1939–1952)
- Jacob Kaplan (1955–1980)
- René Samuel Sirat (1981–1987)
- Joseph Sitruk (1987–2008)
- Gilles Bernheim (2009–2013) (elected 22 June 2008, resigned 11 April 2013)
- Haim Korsia (2014–)
- Note that this list is out of order.
- Meir Eisenstadt known as the Panim Me'iros (1708–), rabbi of Eisenstadt and author of "Panim Me'irot"
- Alexander ben Menahem
- Phinehas Auerbach
- Jacob Eliezer Braunschweig
- Hirsch Semnitz
- Simon Jolles (1717–?)
- Samson Wertheimer (1693?–1724) (also Eisenstadt and Moravia)
- Issachar Berush Eskeles (1725–1753)
- Joseph Hirsch Weiss—grandfather of Stephen Samuel Wise
- Samuel Kohn
- Simon Hevesi (father of Ferenc Hevesi)
- Ferenc Hevesi
- Moshe Kunitzer a pioneer of the Haskalah movement in Hungary (1828–1837)
- Koppel Reich
- Chaim Yehuda Deutsch
- József Schweitzer
- Robert (Avrohom Yehudoh) Deutsch
- Yedidia Shofet (1922–1980)
- Uriel Davidi (1980–1994)
- Yosef Hamadani Cohen (1994–2007)
- Mashallah Golestani-Nejad (2007–present)
- Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (1921–1937)
- Immanuel Jakobovits (1949–1958)
- Isaac Cohen (1959–1979)
- David Rosen (1979–1984)
- Ephraim Mirvis (1985–1992)
- Shimon Yehudah Harris (1993–1994)
- Gavin Broder (1996–2000)
- Yaakov Pearlman (2001–2008)
- Zalman Lent (acting Chief Rabbi, 2008–present)
The appointment of a new Chief Rabbi of Ireland has been put on hold since 2008.
The position of chief rabbi (Hebrew: רַב רָאשִׁי) of the Land of Israel has existed for hundreds of years. During the Mandatory Period, the British recognized the chief rabbis of the Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities, just as they recognized the Mufti of Jerusalem. The offices continued after statehood was achieved. Haredi Jewish groups (such as Edah HaChareidis) do not recognize the authority of the Chief Rabbinate. They usually have their own rabbis who do not have any connection to the state rabbinate.
Under current Israeli law, the post of Chief Rabbi exists in only four cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Beersheba). In other cities there may be one main rabbi to whom the other rabbis of that city defer, but that post is not officially the "Chief Rabbi".
Many of Israel's chief rabbis were previously chief rabbis of Israeli cities.
- Shlomo Goren (1948–1968)
- Mordechai Piron (1968–1977)
- Gad Navon (1977–2000)
- Israel Weiss (2000–2006)
- Avichai Rontzki (2006–2010)
- Rafi Peretz (2010–2016)
- Eyal Karim (2016–)
- Moïse Yedid-Levy (1799–1829)
- Ralph Alfandari
- Youssef Mann (1849)
- Aharoun Yedid-Levy
- Zaki Cohen (1875)
- Menaché Ezra Sutton
- Jacob Bukai
- Haïm Dana
- Moïse Yedid-Levy
- Nassim Afandi Danon (1908–1909)
- Jacob Tarrab (1910–1921)
- Salomon Tagger (1921–1923)
- Shabtai Bahbout (1924–1950)
- Benzion Lichtman (1932–1959)
- Shahud Chreim (1960–1978)
- Shlomo Tawil (1998–Present)
- Avi Kozma
- Mardo Chee Bengio Chief Rabbi of Tangier.
- Raphael Ankawa (1918–1935)
- Mikail Encaoua
- Chalom Messas (1961–1978)
- Aaron Monsonego (1994–2018)
- Yoshiyahu Pinto (2019–present)
- Chezki Lifshitz (2000–present)
- Zion Levy (1951–2008) Sephardic Chief Rabbi
- Aaron Laine (1986–) Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi
- David Perets (2016–) Sephardic Chief Rabbi
- Moses Fishel (1541–1542)
- Dow Ber Percowicz (1945–1956)
- Zew Wawa Morejno (1956-1957)
- Dow Ber Percowicz (1957-1961)
- Uszer Zibes (1961–1966)
- Zew Wawa Morejno (1966–1973)
- Pinchas Menachem Joskowicz (1988–1999)
- Michael Schudrich (2004–present[update])
Poland: Armed ForcesEdit
- Chaim Elizjer Frankl (?–1933)
- Major Baruch Steinberg (1933–circa 12 April 1940) murdered by NKVD in the Katyn massacre
- Yaakov Yitzhak Neimerov (d. 1940)
- Alexandru Safran (1940–1948)
- Moses Rosen (1948–1994)
- Menachem Hacohen (1997–2011)
- Rabbi Mordechai Abergel/Rabbi Jean Pierre Fettmann
- Rabbi Moses Sofer (1806–1839)
- Rabbi Samuel Benjamin Sofer (1839–1871)
- Rabbi Simcha Bunim Sofer (1871–1907)
- Rabbi Akiva Sofer (1907–1938)
- Rabbi Izidor Katz (1950–1968)
- Rabbi Baruch Myers (1993–present)
- Judah Leo Landau (1915–1942)
- Louis Rabinowitz (1945–1961)
- Bernard M. Casper (1963–1987)
- Cyril Harris (1988–2004)
- Warren Goldstein (2005–present[update])
- Baruj Garzon (1968–1978), the first Chief Rabbi in Spain since the expulsion in 1492
- Yehuda Benasuli (1978–1997)
- Moshe Bendahan (1997–present[update])
- Solomon Malka (1906-1949)
- Haim Simoni (1950-1952)
- Massoud El-Baz (1953-early 1970s and the end of the Jewish community in Sudan.
- Yom Tov Yedid (1960–1985), moved to The United States in 1985 and died July 27, 2016 in the United States
- Yosef Kantor (1992–present)
Transylvania (before 1918)Edit
- Joseph Reis Auerbach (d. 1750)
- Shalom Selig ben Saul Cohen (1754–1757)
- Johanan ben Isaac (1758–1760)
- Benjamin Ze'eb Wolf of Cracow (1764–1777)
- Moses ben Samuel Levi Margaliot (1778–1817)
- Menahem ben Joshua Mendel (1818–23)
- Ezekiel Paneth (1823–1843)
- Abraham Friedmann (d. 1879), last chief rabbi of Transylvania
- Chaim Madar (1984–2004)
- Eli Capsali (1452–1454)
- Moses Capsali (1454–1497)
- Elijah Mizrachi (1497–1526)
- Mordechai Komitano (1526–1542)
- Tam ben Yahya (1542–1543)
- Eli Rozanes ha - Levi (1543)
- Eli ben Hayim (1543–1602)
- Yehiel Bashan (1602–1625)
- Joseph Mitrani (1625–1639)
- Yomtov Benyaes (1639–1642)
- Yomtov Hananiah Benyakar (1642–1677)
- Chaim Kamhi (1677–1715)
- Judah Benrey (1715–1717)
- Samuel Levi (1717–1720)
- Abraham Rozanes (1720–1745)
- Solomon Hayim Alfandari (1745–1762)
- Meir Ishaki (1762–1780)
- Eli Palombo (1780–1800)
- Chaim Jacob Benyakar (1800–1835)
- Abraham Levi Pasha (1835–1839)
- Samuel Hayim (1839–1841)
- Moiz Fresko (1841–1854)
- Yacob Avigdor (1854–1870)
- Yakir Geron (1870–1872)
- Moses Levi (1872–1909)
- Chaim Nahum Effendi (1909–1920)
- Shabbetai Levi (1920–1922)
- Isaac Ariel (1922–1926)
- Haim Bejerano (1926–1931)
- Haim Isaac Saki (1931–1940)
- Rafael David Saban (1940–1960)
- David Asseo (1961–2002)
- Ishak Haleva (2003–present[update])
- Yaakov Dov Bleich (1990–present[update]) original post-communism chief rabbi, still widely recognized Chief Rabbi of Ukraine and Kiev
- Alex Dukhovny The Progressive Chief Rabbi of Kiev and Ukraine
- Azriel Chaikin (2003–2008) Chabad affiliated; not recognized as Ukraine Chief Rabbi, but heads the Ukrainian Chabad
- Moshe Reuven Azman rabbi from Chabad, though elected mostly by secular Jewish leaders and not by any rabbinical authority (2005–present[update])
United Kingdom and CommonwealthEdit
Ashkenazi chief rabbisEdit
- Judah Loeb ben Abraham Ephraim Asher Anshel (1696–1700)
- Aaron the Scribe of Dublin (1700–1704)
- Aaron Hart (1704–1756)
- Hart Lyon (1758–1764)
- David Tevele Schiff (1765–1791)
- Solomon Hirschell (1802–1842)
- Nathan Marcus Adler (1845–1891)
- Hermann Adler (1891–1911)
- Joseph Herman Hertz (1913–1946)
- Israel Brodie (1948–1965)
- Immanuel Jakobovits (1966–1991; knighted 1981, life peer 1988)
- Jonathan Sacks (1991–2013; knighted 2005, life peer 2009)
- Ephraim Mirvis (2013–present)
Spanish and Portuguese community Hahamim/senior rabbisEdit
The Sephardi Jews in the United Kingdom are mainly members of independent synagogues. There is no single rabbi recognised by them as a chief rabbi. The Spanish and Portuguese community, however, consists of several synagogues, charities, a beth din and a kashruth authority. These are under the leadership of an ecclesiastical head. Historically, the individual who fills this role is recognised as a senior rabbi of Anglo Jewry, being the leader of the oldest Jewish community in the country. The Senior Rabbi was traditionally given the title, Haham, meaning "wise one". Since 1918, however, only Solomon Gaon was given this title. The official title of the holder of this office is now The Senior Rabbi of the S&P Sephardi Community of the United Kingdom.
- Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas (1664–1665)
- Yehoshua Da Silva (1670–1679)
- Jacob Abendana (1681–1684)
- Solomon Ayllon (1689–1700)
- David Nieto (1701–1728)
- Isaac Nieto (1732–1740)
- Moshe Gomes de Mesquita (1744–1751)
- Moshe Cohen d'Azevedo (1761–1784)
- Raphael Meldola (1806–1828)
- Benjamin Artom (1866–1879)
- Moses Gaster (1887–1918)
- Shem Tob Gaguine (1920–1953) (officially the "Ecclesiastical Chief of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews' Congregation," not the Haham)
- Solomon Gaon (1949–1995)
- Abraham Levy (1995–2012) (officially the Communal Rabbi and Spiritual Head of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews' Congregation, not the haham)
- Joseph Dweck (2013–) (elected Senior Rabbi of The S&P Sephardi Community, not the haham)
A chief rabbinate never truly developed within the United States for a number of different reasons. While Jews first settled in the United States in 1654 in New York City, rabbis did not appear in the United States until the mid-nineteenth century. This lack of rabbis, coupled with the lack of official colonial or state recognition of a particular sect of Judaism as official effectively led to a form of congregationalism amongst American Jews. This did not stop others from trying to create a unified American Judaism, and in fact, some chief rabbis developed in some American cities despite lacking universal recognition amongst the Jewish communities within the cities (for examples see below). However, Jonathan Sarna argues that those two precedents, as well as the desire of many Jewish immigrants to the US to break from an Orthodox past, effectively prevented any effective Chief Rabbi in America.
- Jaime Spector (1931–1937)
- Aaron Milevsky (1937–1943)
- Aaron Laschover (1943–1967)
- Nechemia Berman (1970–1993)
- Eliahu Birenbaum (1994–1999)
- Yosef Bittón (1999–2002)
- Mordejai Maarabi (2002–2009)
- Shai Froindlich (2009–2010)
- Isaac Fadda (2011–2012)
- Ben-Tzion Spitz (2013–2016)
- Max Yojanan Godet (2017–present)
Chief rabbis by cityEdit
- Chaim Kreiswirth (1953–2001)
Baltimore, Maryland - United StatesEdit
- Abraham N. Schwartz (d. 1937)
- Joseph H. Feldman (retired 1972, d. 1992)
- Mordechai Scheiner (2002–present)
- Yonasan Steif (pre-World War II)
Chicago, Illinois - United StatesEdit
- Yaakov Dovid Wilovsky known as the Ridbaz, served as chief rabbi of the Russian-American congregations in the city 1903–1905.
- Menachem Halevi Klein|Menachem Klein
- Nathan HaKohen Adler
Gateshead, United KingdomEdit
The Hague, NetherlandsEdit
- Saul Isaac Halevi (1748–1785)
- Dov Yehuda Schochet (1946–1952)
Hebron, West BankEdit
Hoboken, New Jersey - United StatesEdit
- Chaim Hirschensohn (1904–1935). His post included Hoboken, Jersey City, Union Hill and the Environs.
- Note: The Edah HaChareidis is unaffiliated with the State of Israel. It is a separate, independent religious community with its own Chief Rabbis, who are viewed, in the Haredi world, as being the Chief Rabbis of Jerusalem.
- Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld (1919–1932)
- Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky (1932–1948)
- Zelig Reuven Bengis (1948–1953)
- Joel Teitelbaum of Satmar (1953–1979)
- Yitzchok Yaakov Weiss (1979–1989)
- Moshe Aryeh Freund (1989–1996)
- Yisrael Moshe Dushinsky (1996–2002)
- Yitzchok Tuvia Weiss (2002–present[update])
- Yaakov Bleich (1990-present)
- Avraham David Shaumann
- Elia Kopciovsky (195?–1980)
- Giuseppe Laras (1980–2005)
- Alfonso Arbib (2005–present[update])
Montreal, Quebec, CanadaEdit
- Yakov Maze (prior to 1924–1933)
- Shmaryahu Yehudah Leib Medalia (1933–1938)
- Shmuel Leib Medalia (1943)
- Shmuel Leib Levin (1943–1944)
- Shlomo Shleifer (1944–1957)
- Yehuda Leib Levin (1957–1971)
- Adolf Shayevich (1983, officially since 1993–present[update])
- Pinchas Goldschmidt (1987–present)
- Berel Lazar (1990-present)
- Yitshak Ehrenberg (1989–1997)
- Pinchos Biberfeld, moved back to Germany from where he had emigrated to Israel over 50 years earlier. (1980–1999)
- Steven Langnas, first German (descendance) Chief Rabbi and Av Beth Din of Munich (1999–2011)
Netherlands – Inter-Provincial Chief rabbinateEdit
- Dov Yehuda Schochet (1946–1952) [Chief Rabbi of The Hague]
- Elieser Berlinger (1960–1985)
- Binyomin Jacobs (2008–recent)
New York, New York - United StatesEdit
- Jacob Joseph (1840–1902) was the only true Ashkenazi chief rabbi of New York City; there was never a Sephardi chief rabbi, although Dr. David DeSola Pool acted as a leader among the Sepharadim and was also respected as such. Others it has been said claimed the title of Chief Rabbi; eventually, the title became worthless through dilution.
- Chaim Jacob Wiedrewitz was the Chassidc chief rabbi of New York and Pennsylvania; he was previously the Chassidic Rav of Moscow and was officially called as "The Moskover Rav", immigrated in 1893 and died in 1911, he's buried in the Chabad society of the Bayside Cemetery in Ozone Park NY.
- Jacob S. Kassin was the Chief Rabbi of the Syrian Jewish community of New York 1930–1995.
- Leibish Wolowsky was the chief rabbi of the Galician community of NYC 1888–1913, he was previously the rabbi of Sambor, Austria and immigrated to the US in 1888. He died in 1913 and is buried in the Achum Ahuvim of Reizow at the Mount Zion Cemetery in Maspeth NY.
- Avrohom Aharon Yudelevitz who was previously the rav of Manchester, England was accepted in 1919 as the chief rabbi of the Jewish Arbitration Court of NYC, he authored many books on Jewish law and Responsa. He died in 1930 and is buried in family plot at the Bayside cemetery in Ozone Park NY.
Nové Zámky, SlovakiaEdit
- Ernest Klein (1931–1944)
- Michel Seligmann (1809–1829)
- Marchand Ennery (1829–1845)
- Lazard Isidor (1847–1865)
- Zadoc Kahn (1866–1889)
- Jacques-Henri Dreyfuss (1891–1933)
- Julien Weill (1933–1950)
- Jacob Kaplan (1950–1955)
- Meïr Jaïs (1956–1980)
- Alain Goldmann (1980–1994)
- David Messas (1994–2011)
- Michel Gugenheim (2012– )
- Josiah Pardo (1648–1669) See his Haskama – Approbation to Sefer Nachalat Shiva, edition Amsterdam 1667, where he is mentioned as Chief Rabbi of both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations in Rotterdam
- Yosia Pardo (1648–1669). Left in 1669 to Amsterdam.
- Yuda Loeb ben Rabbi Shlomo (1674-abt. 1700). Born in Wilna.
- Judah Salomon (1682)
- Judah Loeb ben Abraham Ephraim Asher Anshel (1700–1708) Born in Hamburg, left for Amsterdam.
- Solomon Ezekiel (1725–1735)
- Judah Ezekiel (1738–1755)
- Abraham Ezekiel (1755–79)
- Aryeh Leib Breslau (1741–1809)
- Judah Akiba Eger son of Akiba Eger I (invited but refused position)
- Elijah Casriel (1815–1833)
- E.J. Löwenstamm (1834–1845)
- Joseph Isaacsohn (1850–1871; one of three sons-in-law of Jacob Ettlinger who were Chief Rabbis in the Netherlands)
- Bernhard Löbel Ritter (1885–1928)
- Simon Hirsch (1928–1930)
- Aaron Davids (1930–1944)
- Justus Tal (1945–1954)
- Salomon Rodrigues Pereira (1954–1959)
- Levie Vorst (1959–1971)
- Daniel Kahn (1972–1975)
- Albert Hutterer (1975–1977)
- Dov Salzmann (1986–1988)
- Lody van de Kamp
- Raphael Evers
St. Louis, Missouri - United StatesEdit
Tel Aviv-Jaffa, IsraelEdit
- Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel (1911–1939)
- Ya'akov Moshe Toledano (1942–1960)
- Ovadia Yosef (1968–1973)
- Hayim David HaLevi (1973–1998?)
Toronto, Ontario, CanadaEdit
- Pinchas Menachem Joskowicz (1988–1999)
- Baruch Rabinowitz (1999–2000)
- Michael Schudrich (2000–present[update])
- Abraham Bing (1814–1839)
- Cameron Brown. "Rabbi Ovadia Yosef And His Culture War in Israel". Meria.idc.ac.il. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Judaism: The Chief Rabbinate". The Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE). Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- Himelstein, Shmuel (2011). "Chief Rabbinate". In Berlin, Adele (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2nd ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-973004-9. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Kaplan Appel, Tamar, ed. (3 August 2010). "Crown Rabbi". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300119039. OCLC 170203576. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Chief rabbi installed in Albania". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 12 December 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
- "Albanian Jews reject appointment of new chief rabbi". Jerusalem Post. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
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- Tiempo, Casa Editorial El (24 October 2007). "Judíos llegaron para quedarse en la localidad de Chapinero". El Tiempo.
- Rabbis of Chilean Masorti Forum meet with Mr. Zeev Bielsky Archived 20 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine Masorti World
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- BILEFSKY, DAN (10 May 2009). "Hard Times Give New Life to Prague's Golem". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Elsebeth Paikin (21 May 2004). "Rabbis in Denmark – JewishGen Scandinavia SIG". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
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- "CHIEF RABBI SALANT DIES IN JERUSALEM; Head of the Ashkanezic Congregationalists Was an Eminent Talmudist. A FRIEND OF MONTEFIORE Collected Donations for the Building of New Synagogue Bet Ya'akob – Favorite of His People". The New York Times. 17 August 1909. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Japan Gets First-Ever Chief Rabbi". 17 September 2015.
- "MOORISH JEWS GRATEFUL.; Chief Rabbi Thanks Us for Our Action at Algeciras Conference" (pdf). The New York Times. 10 June 1906.
- "Le nouveau grand rabbin du Maroc a été nommé". Al HuffPost Maghreb (in French). 15 April 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "Ukrainian chief rabbi to resign". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 29 May 2008.
- "Ukraine's Second Chief Rabbi?". NCSJ. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
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- Yerushaseinu 5771 (PDF).[permanent dead link]
- "Sephardim vote in new rabbinic head with massive majority".
- Sarna, Jonathan (2004). American Judaism: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-300-10976-8.
- "In Bukhara, 10,000 Jewish Graves but Just 150 Jews". The New York Times. 7 April 2018.
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- Title page of Malki Ba-Kodesh, vol. 2; Hoboken, 1921
- "Bnei Brak rabbi named to new beit din post". Web.archive.org. 27 April 2006. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Frum Jewish News". The Yeshiva World. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Grand Rabbinat du Québec". Rabbinat.qc.ca. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Consistoire - Consistoire de paris". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- http://www.archieven.nl/pls/m/zk2.inv?p_q=64729996[permanent dead link]
- Jacobs, Joseph; Slijper, E. "Netherlands". The Jewish Encyclopedia.
The names of the chief rabbis of Rotterdam are: Judah Salomon (1682); Solomon Ezekiel (1725–35; his salary was 305 gulden); Judah Ezekiel, son of the preceding (1738–55); Abraham Judah Ezekiel, son of the preceding (1755–79); Judah Akiba Eger (1779; left in 1781); Levie Hyman Breslau, author of "Pene Aryeh" (1781–1807); Elijah Casriel, from Leeuwarden (1815–33); E.J. Löwenstamm, grandson of L.H. Breslau (1834–45); Joseph Isaacson (1850–71; removed to Filehne as a result of dissensions in the community); B. Ritter (since 1884).
- Jizkor Platenatlas. 1978. p. 37.
- Landman, Isaac (1941). The Universal Jewish encyclopedia. 5.
... and the chief rabbi of Rotterdam, Aryeh Leib Breslau (1781–1809)
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 522.
In 1885 werd rabbijn dr Bernard Löbel Ritter tot rabbijn van Rotterdam benoemd.
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 526.
Na het ontslag van Ritter in 1928 werd het twee jaar lang waargenomen door de opperrabbijn van Zwolle, Simon JS Hirsch. In 1930 vond de joodse gemeente opperrabbijn Aaron Jissachar (ABN) Davids (1895–1944) van Friesland bereid naar Rotterdam te komen. Hij werd nog datzelfde jaar benoemd.
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 531.
Het opperrabinaat werd in de naoorlogse periode waargenomen door de opperrabbijn van Amsterdam Justus Tal (van 1945 tot '54) en vervolgens door chacham SA Rodrigues Pereira (van 1954 tot '59). Vanaf 1946 had rabbijn Levie Vorst (1903–'87) de dagelijkse leiding van de gemeente. Direct na het afleggen van het hoogste rabbinale examen werd hij benoemd tot opperrabijn, hetgeen hij bleef aan tot zijn immigratie naar Israël in 1971. Hij werd opgevolgd door Daniël Kahn (van 1972 tot '75) en Albert Hutterer (van 1975 tot '77). Na diens vertrek heeft Rotterdam het een tijd zonder rabbijn gesteld. Van 1986 tot '88 was Dov Salzmann rabbijn.
- "Rebbetzin Paula Rivkin remembered as 'woman of valor' – St. Louis Jewish Light: Local News – Rebbetzin Paula Rivkin remembered as 'woman of valor': Local News". Stljewishlight.com. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
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