Yosemite Sam is an American animated cartoon character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons produced by Warner Bros. Animation. The name is somewhat alliterative and is inspired by Yosemite National Park. Along with Elmer Fudd, he is the de facto archenemy of Bugs Bunny. He is commonly depicted as an extremely aggressive gunslinging prospector, outlaw, pirate, or cowboy with a hair-trigger temper and an intense hatred of rabbits, Bugs particularly. In cartoons with non-Western themes, he uses various aliases, including "Chilkoot Sam" (named for the Chilkoot Trail; Sam pronounces it "Chilli-koot") in 14 Carrot Rabbit (although in the same cartoon, when he tries to gain Bugs Bunny's trust, he cleverly invents the alias "Square-deal Sam"), "Riff Raff Sam" in Sahara Hare, "Sam Schultz" in Big House Bunny, "Seagoin' Sam" in Buccaneer Bunny, "Shanghai Sam" in Mutiny on the Bunny, and "Sam Von Schamm the Hessian" in Bunker Hill Bunny and many others. During the Golden Age of American animation, Yosemite Sam appeared in 33 shorts.
|Looney Tunes character|
|First appearance||Stage Door Cartoon (early version)
December 16, 1944
Hare Trigger (official version)
May 5, 1945
|Created by||Friz Freleng|
|Voiced by||Mel Blanc (1945–1989)
Joe Alaskey (1988–1992; 2010–2011)
Jeff Bergman (1990–1992)
Charlie Adler (1990)
Maurice LaMarche (1992–2016)
Greg Burson (1994)
Jim Cummings (1996–2014)
Bill Farmer (1996)
Jeff Bennett (2003–2004)
Fred Tatasciore (2016–present)
|Full name||Samuel Rosenbaum|
|Occupation||prospector, cowboy, sailor and many others|
Animator Friz Freleng introduced the character in the 1945 cartoon Hare Trigger. With his grumpy demeanor, fiery temper, strident voice and short stature (in two early gags in Hare Trigger, a train he is attempting to rob passes right over top of him and he has to use a set of portable stairs to get on his horse; in Bugs Bunny Rides Again, he rides a miniature horse), and fiery red hair, Sam was in some ways a caricature of Freleng. While he often denied any intentional resemblance, in the Looney Tunes Golden Collection, surviving members of his production crew assert, and the late director's daughter acknowledges, that Sam definitely was inspired by Freleng. Other influences were the Red Skelton character Sheriff Deadeye and the Tex Avery cartoon "Dangerous Dan McFoo". When he does a "slow burn" and cries "Oooooh!" he borrows a bit from such comedic character actors as Jimmy Finlayson (a frequent foil to Laurel and Hardy) and Frank Nelson (one of Mel Blanc's costars on The Jack Benny Program). Freleng also cited the Terrible-Tempered Mr. Bang, a character in the Toonerville Trolley comic strip, as an influence. In his memoir Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an Animated Cartoonist, Chuck Jones says that a great-uncle who occasionally visited his family was a retired Texas Ranger who was short, had red hair, a large mustache, and a hair-trigger temper (but no beard, unlike Sam). Mike Maltese originally considered calling the character Texas Tiny, Wyoming Willie, or Denver Dan, but then settled on the final name.
A running gag in the show is that sometimes Yosemite Sam tells Bugs "Open up this door open it up now!" and Bugs opens it when Yosemite Sam is in its way of opening and then closes it leaving a raging Yosemite Sam flattened. Another gag involved Sam yelling 'Whoa!' at whatever mode of transportation he was using, only to whack it when it refuses to stop. This is most notably shown in Sahara Hare, where he hits his camel in the head twice for not stopping; When I say 'whoa', I mean WHOA!, at which time, the camel's hump shrinks, and a lump of similar size rises from the camel's head.
Other characters with Sam-like features appear in several Looney Tunes shorts. The Bugs Bunny entry Super-Rabbit (1943) features the cowboy character "Cottontail Smith", whose voice is nearly similar to Sam. Stage Door Cartoon (1944), however, features a southern sheriff character that looks and sounds similar to Sam, except for a more defined southern stereotype to his voice. In a Daffy Duck cartoon called Along Came Daffy (1947), Daffy has to contend with two Yosemite Sams, one with Sam's red hair and one with black hair. Finally, Pancho's Hideaway (1964) features a Mexican villain who is designed much like Sam but has a different accent. In addition, in the 1949, Chuck Jones-directed cartoon Mississippi Hare, Bugs Bunny battles with an old, pistol-toting gambler called Colonel Shuffle, one whose role could have easily been portrayed by Sam. (The Colonel reappears in "Dog Gone South", this time pitted against Charlie Dog, and accompanied by a bulldog named Belvedere, who resembles Hector the Bulldog).
Freleng created Yosemite Sam to be a more worthy adversary for Bugs Bunny. Until then, Bugs' major foe had been Elmer Fudd, a man so mild-mannered and dim-witted that Freleng thought Bugs actually came off as a bully by duping him. Sam, on the other hand, was extremely violent and belligerent, not at all a pushover like Fudd. Freleng compacted into a tiny body and 11-gallon hat the largest voice and the largest ego "north, south, east, aaaaand west of the Pecos".
For over 19 years, except for one cartoon (Hare-Abian Nights in 1959) Freleng's unit had exclusive usage of Sam at the Warner studio. Though officially a cowboy, Freleng put Sam in a different costume in almost every film: a knight, a Roman legionary, a pirate, a royal cook, a prison guard, a duke (Duke of Yosemite, no less), a Hessian mercenary, a Confederate soldier, a mountain climber (climbing the 'Shmadderhorn' mountain in Switzerland), a hen-pecked househusband and even a space alien. The humor of the cartoons inevitably springs from the odd miscasting of the hot-tempered cowboy. However, some countries seem to prefer his pirate incarnation, as "Sam the pirate" is his official name in France and a frequent alternative name in Italy.
While Sam's basic character is that of a cowboy, he wears a black Domino mask (or actually, just a wide black outline on the outer sides of his eyes) to show that he's an outlaw. This is so associated with his persona that he wears the mask even when dressed as a duke, a riff, a pirate, or a Viking.
Sam is significantly tougher and more aggressive than Elmer Fudd when challenging Bugs Bunny. He is also quicker to learn from his mistakes, and never falls for the same ploy twice. But despite Sam's bluster, he doesn't prove much brighter than Elmer in his encounters with Bugs. His noise contrasts to the calmly cocky rabbit. Sam's own cockiness gets the best of him; Bugs can see he is incapable of turning down a challenge. Every time Bugs dares Sam to "step across that line", he can't help but do so, even if he steps off into empty space or down a mine shaft. In Wild and Woolly Hare, Sam and Bugs play "Chicken" in two locomotives going toward one another-Sam doesn't crash into Bugs but still ends up losing. In the classic Knighty Knight Bugs, Sam is a black knight with a fire breathing dragon.
While unscrupulous and ornery himself, Sam consistently displays an odd respect for religious conventions. Whenever he is preparing to shoot Bugs, he tells the "varmint," "Now say your prayers!", allowing Bugs enough time to foil his intentions.
Yosemite Sam is one of Bugs' toughest antagonists. Yosemite Sam is a character more violent than Bugs' most famous antagonist Elmer Fudd given that Sam has a tougher accent, a higher fierce voice, and a more violent spirit, although he is also portrayed as a bumbling fool in most of his appearances. Yosemite Sam has had several occupations in his life that Bugs has gotten in the way of. Among his occupations are:
- Prison Guard: In Big House Bunny, Yosemite Sam arrests and imprisons Bugs for a false accusation (escaping prison) and gives him 99 years in jail. However, he gets infuriated and lets Bugs out of prison after Bugs annoys him including briefly getting Sam beaten up and locked up in jail himself. However, when letting Bugs out, he is jailed by the Warden (who gets infuriated with the antics that causes Bugs to get Yosemite Sam in trouble with him) for Bugs' doings and for letting a prisoner (Bugs) escape. Yosemite Sam then vows to get even with the stool pigeon who squealed on him. It then cuts to Bugs on a stool making the sounds of a pigeon.
- Pirate: In Buccaneer Bunny, Yosemite Sam is known as "Sea-Goin' Sam", who is trying to bury his treasure, only for Bugs Bunny to foil his attempt. In Captain Hareblower, Yosemite Sam is a pirate captain who is able to intimidate and scare sailors and other pirates. Captain Sam encounters a trading ship led by Bugs Bunny and decides to take it for himself. With all of Bugs' fellow sailors too cowardly to face Sam and drowned in the ocean; Bugs challenges Sam to a fight. Captain Sam and Bugs Bunny battle each other's ships with Bugs on the verge of winning. The battle ends up with Sam being forced to abandon ship to escape an inevitable explosion on his own pirate ship. Captain Yosemite Sam then unknowingly triumphs over Bugs by lighting Bugs' make-up room into exploding and escaping by himself, but not before giving a warning for Bugs to get the match (an order Bugs Bunny does not follow, believing that "Talcum powder doesn't explode."). And in From Hare to Eternity, Sam aka "Buccaneer Sam", tries to find treasure, only to find Bugs Bunny protecting it.
- Riff-Raffer/Cowboy: In Sahara Hare, Yosemite Sam is a proud intimidating North African version of a cowboy; a Riff-Raffer who owns the Sahara Desert. When Bugs ends up in the desert when trying to find Miami Beach, he sees Bugs trespassing and chases Bugs into a deserted castle. Yosemite Sam sees Bugs using the castle for protection and tries several unsuccessful attempts at breaking into the castle; eventually ending with Bugs escaping after causing a booby trap that Sam falls for; an armed bomb coated door that will explode if Sam opens the door to the castle.
- Guard Captain: In Roman Legion-Hare, Yosemite Sam is the captain of the Roman Imperial Guard, and he is ordered by Grand Emperor Nero to find a victim for the lions at once... or else he will be their prey. He then heads out to look for a victim with a small band of Imperial Guards when Bugs shows up. When asked if it was a convention of the legion, Sam replies he is looking for victims to feed the lions... and is shocked to learn that no other victims - save Bugs - are present. He then chases the crafty cottontail into the Colosseum, where the lions await. Try as he might to keep the big cats quiet, they always tear his golden armor to shreds or ruffle the fuzz on his helm. And when he presents Bugs to Nero, the lions surge directly toward them, leaving Bugs unscathed.
- Viking: In Prince Violent, Sam is a Viking grunt who attempts to raid the archduchy castle, which happens to be under Bugs Bunny's protection. Bugs teasingly tells him that it's too early for Halloween and then kicks him out of the castle. He even hires an Indian Elephant to first ram what Sam thinks to be a door, but it's really a painting imitating a door, so the elephant is reduced to the shape of an accordion - before smashing his master into the same shape. Next, the elephant tries to demolish the castle walls with large boulders, but Bugs still remains persistent in defending the castle by sprinkling pepper over the elephant, which causes the pachyderm to sneeze and launch a bolder into Sam. Next, Bugs signals for the bridge to lower, at which point, the elephant charges onto it with Sam riding, but the elephant's weight proves to be too much for the bridge. Next, he suggests attacking the castle from the rear, but Bugs (defensive as always) cleverly places a champagne cork in the elephants trunk, causing him to swim back to land in his struggle to breathe, leaving Sam in the water. This drives Sam to permanently evict the elephant, chasing him away: "AND DON'T COME BACK!!!!! I'll handle that Prince Varmint myself!" His attempts to raid the castle are cut short when the same elephant joins Bugs in kicking him out of the kingdom for good.
- Indian Chief: In Horse Hare, Yosemite Sam is the chief of an Indian tribe during the Indian-American wars in 1886. One day Yosemite Sam sees a USA fort and decides to steal it for his tribe. He sees that Sergeant Bugs Bunny is guarding the fort and challenges him to war. Chief Sam has his men attack through various means such as launching himself into the fort, firing guns, etcetera but Sam is put on probation when he is accused of firing at one of his soldiers (It was actually Bugs). Eventually, the USA cavalry return and help Bugs defeat Sam and his army of Indians.
- Enemy Pilot: In Dumb Patrol, Yosemite Sam is Baron Sam Von Schpamm, a World War I Pilot who tries to shoot down Bugs Bunny, but who fails and ends up as a Hell's Angel.
- Duke of Yosemite: In From Hare to Heir, Yosemite Sam is Duke of Yosemite-can Sam keep his temper with Bugs Bunny as his guest?
- Legendary Mountain Climber: A legendary mountain climber in Piker's Peak, Sam hears of a contest where whoever hikes up and reaches the deadly highest mountain in the world, will receive money equaled to trillions of dollars in today's money; 50,000 Cronkites (named after legendary TV host Walter Cronkite). Yosemite Sam takes the contest and decides to climb up the mountain which is based on Pike's Peak. However, when he reaches base-camp at thousands of feet, he encounters Bugs Bunny who hears about the contest. With both of them wanting the prize, Yosemite Sam then must race and defeat Bugs along the way up to Piker's Peak to get the money.
- Cowboy: In Wild and Woolly Hare, Yosemite Sam is a legendary cowboy gangster who dominates much of the wild west through intimidation. One day he comes to take over a cafe in an old western town and is insulted by Bugs Bunny. Angered by the insult, Yosemite Sam challenges Bugs Bunny to a fight to the death. With Bugs on the verge of winning through trickery and deception, Yosemite Sam decides to try one last time to intimidate the town; to rob a train. But Bugs Bunny hijacks the train to save it. Yosemite Sam tries to follow it by horse and orders Bugs to get off by the time he counts to a specific number. However, just before he reaches his final number, he always runs into something such as a telephone pole, a tunnel wall and falling off a bridge. A frustrated Yosemite Sam tries to get on another train and force Bugs to surrender by preparing to ram head-on into Bugs' train. However, Bugs foils him by switching the railroad tracks causing Sam's train engine to crash hundreds of feet, into a gorge's river.
- Alien: In Lighter Than Hare, Yosemite Sam of Outer Space is an alien from a foreign planet. Inside a flying saucer spaceship, Yosemite Sam reveals his mission to find an earth creature to take back to his planet for uses such as slaves, producing on their planet Etcetera. Yosemite Sam detects Bugs Bunny and has his armies of robots to attack Bugs' hideout. After a long struggle Yosemite Sam's armies of robots are blown to pieces. Finally, an exasperated Yosemite Sam uses an incinerating laser cannon to threaten Bugs into surrendering and boarding his space ship. Yosemite Sam then flies out of earth to his planet, unaware that he has actually captured a decoy of Bugs filled with bombs. When Yosemite Sam presents the dummy to his leader, the bombs explode.
- Sailor: In Rabbitson Crusoe, Yosemite Sam is a sailor whose boat has sunk in a thunderstorm in the Pacific Ocean and lives as a castaway. Yosemite Sam jumps across rocks to a deserted island and spends many years there being targeted as a meal by a shark named Dopey Dick. After some time, Yosemite Sam grows tired of eating coconuts and finds Bugs Bunny. He decides to cook up Bugs for dinner. After a long battle, eventually the island is reclaimed by the seas and Yosemite Sam ends up being chased by Dopey Dick. Yosemite Sam is then forced to make a deal with Bugs where Bugs will not let Dopey Dick eat Sam and take Yosemite in his boat (the cooking pot) back to civilization....but only if Yosemite Sam is the one that does all the work in paddling 2,736 miles to San Francisco California USA.
- Chef: In Shishkabugs, Yosemite Sam has one of his rare performances where his goal is not for evil purposes and where he is not the aggressor. In this episode, Sam is a very kind, generous chef for a very rude spoiled king who has Sam enslaved through blackmail. One day, Sam makes the king a usual buffet only for the King to rudely kick it away and demand something new. That something new is Hasenpfeffer whose base is cooked rabbit. Sam captures Bugs and puts Bugs in the meal, but Bugs outsmarts Sam twice and the King blames it all on Sam. Eventually, the King loses his patience and has guards arrest Sam and installs Bugs as his new chef. The King claims to have set up Sam's death. But since Sam is seen alive in more episodes, it is presumed that either he was found not guilty by the kingdom court, the citizens demanded Sam's release, or Sam escaped.
- Knight: In Knighty Knight Bugs, Sam is the Black Knight and has stolen the Singing Sword. King Arthur hires court jester Bugs Bunny to retrieve the sword. After retrieving it, Bugs escapes Sam and manages to lock Sam out of his castle. Sam attempts to break back in, but each attempt backfires. Eventually, Bugs leads Sam and his fire-breathing dragon into the dynamite storage facility. The dragon sneezes, blowing the two of them to the moon.
- Trolley Conductor: In Tweety's High-Flying Adventure, Sam drives a trolley in San Francisco. The trolley is hijacked by Sylvester, who is hoping to use it to chase Tweety. Instead, he breaks the throttle which is used as a brake, rendering the trolley out of control. It speeds all over San Francisco, ending up on Alcatraz. During this, Sam attests to Sylvester's idiocy, eventually chasing Sylvester all over Alcatraz with his hat. He also chases Sylvester on a train to Las Vegas, only to be locked on another train heading out of the city.
Yosemite Sam made appearances in several television specials in the 1970s and 1980s, and in three of the Looney Tunes feature-film compilations.
Sam was the star of his own comic book series from 1970 to 1984, for a total of 81 issues. Published by Gold Key / Whitman Comics, the official title of the series was Yosemite Sam and Bugs Bunny.
Yosemite Sam was the main bases for the character of The Grump form DePatie-Freleng Enterprises's TV series Here Comes the Grump. The Grump's Dragon was similar to Sam's in "Knighty Knight Bugs", right down to the fiery nasal explosions upon its master.
Yosemite Sam was one of the classic Looney Tunes characters who appeared as faculty members of Acme Looniversity in the 1990s animated series Tiny Toon Adventures. Sam was shown teaching classes in Firearms and Anvilology (the study of falling anvils, a staple joke in the Looney Tunes genre), and was sometimes portrayed as the school principal (though at least one episode identified Bugs Bunny as the principal, and Wile E. Coyote was Dean of Acme Loo). As with all the main Looney Tunes characters, Sam had a student counterpart at Acme Loo in Montana Max. In "K-Acme TV," Yosemite Sam was seen as the judge of "Toon Court" (a parody of The People's Court) where he proceeded over a trial where Calamity Coyote issues a complaint against the ACME Corporation for negligence and faulty workmanship. The ACME Corporation's representative Bobbo ACME claims that the devices made by the ACME Corporation work if they are used right as he demonstrates the catapult on Calamity Coyote. Judge Yosemite Sam finds in favor of the ACME Corporation. In the same episode, Yosemite Sam appeared as a prospector in a documentary detailing about the sightings of a furry creature called Bigbutt (a spoof of Bigfoot).
Yosemite Sam also appeared along with Bugs Bunny in a number of Mirinda commercials in early 90s, most probably due to direct competition to Fanta, being advertised with Disney characters at that time.
He also appears in the movie Space Jam as a player for the Tune Squad. In a memorable scene, he and Elmer Fudd shoot off the teeth of one of the Monstars while clad in Pulp Fiction-esque attire, complete with Dick Dale's "Misirlou" playing. In an earlier scene, when the Nerdlucks hold all the toons hostage, Sam sneaks up on the Nerdlucks, pointing his pistols at them, and orders them to release all the toons, only to have the Nerdlucks fire a laser pistol back at him, which leaves Sam naked and beardless as the phasers burned off his mustache.
Sam also appeared in The Warners 65th Anniversary Special and two episodes of 1995's The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries.
In the 2003 movie Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Yosemite Sam is a bounty hunter employed by the Acme Corporation who was hired to finish off DJ Drake and Daffy Duck. In this film, he owns a casino in Las Vegas, which he calls Yosemite Sam's Wooden Nickel, and is accompanied by Nasty Canasta and Cottontail Smith (who may be originally employed as his security guards) (from Super Rabbit). He goes as far as betting a large sack of money to get the card, stealing Jeff Gordon's car, and even using a stick of Dynamite to beat DJ and Daffy. Though putting up a good chase, in the end, his car crashes into the wall of his own casino while the spy car flies above it. He get launched in a pitch black room full of Dynamite, and he lights all of them when he tries to look around with a match. He is last seen in the Acme building trying to cover his failure on DJ, Dusty Tails, and Daffy, though his boss couldn't even understand what he's saying.
A younger version of Sam had appeared in Baby Looney Tunes, in songs. In one episode, Bugs dresses up as Baby Sam for Halloween.
He also appears in the video games Loons: The Fight for Fame, Taz: Wanted, Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle, The Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle 2, Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle 3, The Bugs Bunny Birthday Blowout, Bugs Bunny: Rabbit Rampage, Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble, Bugs Bunny: Lost in Time, Bugs Bunny and Taz: Time Busters, Sheep, Dog, 'n' Wolf, Looney Tunes B-Ball, Daffy Duck in Hollywood and Looney Tunes: Back in Action the video game.
In Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal, Yosemite Sam makes an appearance riding a railway cart on the Wild West level.
Yosemite Sam appears in multiple episodes of The Looney Tunes Show, voiced by Maurice LaMarche. He first appeared in the show in three Merrie Melodies segments called "Blow My Stack", "Moostache" and "Stick to My Guns". Yosemite Sam is one of Bugs and Daffy's neighbors. In the episode "Daffy Duck, Esq.", it's revealed that his full name is Samuel Rosenbaum. In "Ridiculous Journey", it is revealed that Yosemite Sam has a cousin in Blacque Jacque Shellacque who Yosemite Sam enlisted to recover Sylvester, Tweety, and Tasmanian Devil after they were accidentally shipped to Alaska. It was through Yosemite Sam that Bugs Bunny and Granny enlisted Blacque Jacque Shellacque's help.
Yosemite Sam made two cameo appearances in a MetLife commercial in 2012. In one of the ads, a producer knocked on Yosemite Sam's trailer and he thought there were "varmints" bothering him and he took down and shot some fur coats of animals with rage. Even though he would shoot some animals with rage, his temper calmed and revived the animals with puppies.
Yosemite Sam appears in Wabbit voiced by Maurice LaMarche in season one and by Fred Tatasciore in season two. His appearance has him depicted to having a larger moustache and a fat body. Yosemite Sam is often shown trying to commit crimes or obtain items where Bugs Bunny always thwarts him. He is also shown to own a lot of cats at his house.
Yosemite Sam is also nose art on the WWII F4U Corsair Skyboss at the American Airpower Museum at Republic Airport in Farmingdale, NY.
- Mel Blanc
The role of Yosemite Sam was originated by the Warners' principal voiceman, Mel Blanc. In his autobiography, Blanc said he had a difficult time coming up with the voice, when he played a similar character called Tex on Judy Canova's radio show. He tried giving Sam a small voice, but didn't feel that it worked. One day, he decided to simply yell at the top of his voice, which was inspired by a fit of road rage he had that day. It fit perfectly with the blustery character, but was also a strain on Blanc's throat, thus he always did Yosemite Sam's lines at the end of a recording session so he could rest himself overnight. As he got into his 70s, the voice became too rough on his throat; he didn't reprise the role of Sam in Who Framed Roger Rabbit while playing all his other Looney Tunes roles in the movie. This makes Sam one of the few voices created by Blanc to be voiced by someone else during his lifetime. Blanc voiced the character one last time in the 1989 TV special Bugs Bunny's Wild World of Sports. Blanc used a voice similar to Yosemite Sam's for Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons.
- Joe Alaskey (Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Tiny Toon Adventures, TomTom Looney Tunes GPS, Looney Tunes Click 'N READ Phonics)
- Jeff Bergman (Tiny Toon Adventures, (Blooper) Bunny, Bugs Bunny's Creature Features, Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers)
- Charlie Adler (Tiny Toon Adventures)
- Maurice LaMarche (Tiny Toon Adventures, Taz-Mania, Carrotblanca, Looney Tunes: Reality Check, Looney Tunes: Stranger than Fiction, Duck Dodgers, Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas, The Looney Tunes Show, Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run, Wabbit (season 1), various video games)
- Greg Burson (Animaniacs)
- Jim Cummings (Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries, Animaniacs, Tweety's High-Flying Adventure, Scooby Doo and Looney Tunes Cartoon Universe: Adventure)
- Bill Farmer (Space Jam)
- Frank Gorshin (From Hare to Eternity)
- Jeff Bennett (Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Hare and Loathing in Las Vegas)
- Fred Tatasciore (Wabbit) (season 2)
- Barrier, Michael (6 November 2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. United States: Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-19-516729-0. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- "Sam le pirate". Telemaniac.free.fr. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- Yosemite Sam at the Comic Book DB
- Yosemite Sam and Bugs Bunny checklist at Comics-DB.com
- Eh, what's up, Doc? TomTom offers Looney Tunes voices for GPS navigators
Consumer Reports. September 27, 2010. Retrieved September 24, 2016.