1219

(Redirected from AD 1219)

Year 1219 (MCCXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1219 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1219
MCCXIX
Ab urbe condita1972
Armenian calendar668
ԹՎ ՈԿԸ
Assyrian calendar5969
Balinese saka calendar1140–1141
Bengali calendar626
Berber calendar2169
English Regnal yearHen. 3 – 4 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1763
Burmese calendar581
Byzantine calendar6727–6728
Chinese calendar戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
3915 or 3855
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
3916 or 3856
Coptic calendar935–936
Discordian calendar2385
Ethiopian calendar1211–1212
Hebrew calendar4979–4980
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1275–1276
 - Shaka Samvat1140–1141
 - Kali Yuga4319–4320
Holocene calendar11219
Igbo calendar219–220
Iranian calendar597–598
Islamic calendar615–616
Japanese calendarKenpō 7 / Jōkyū 1
(承久元年)
Javanese calendar1127–1128
Julian calendar1219
MCCXIX
Korean calendar3552
Minguo calendar693 before ROC
民前693年
Nanakshahi calendar−249
Thai solar calendar1761–1762
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1345 or 964 or 192
    — to —
阴土兔年
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1346 or 965 or 193

EventsEdit

By placeEdit

Fifth CrusadeEdit

  • February – Pelagius orders the Crusader army to prepare an attack against the Egyptians but is unsuccessful because of the weather and strength of the defenders. Sultan Al-Kamil, in command of the Egyptian forces, is almost overthrown by a conspiracy in his entourage. He considers fleeing to the Ayyubid Emirate of Yemen, ruled by his son Al-Mas'ud Yusuf, but the arrival of his brother Al-Mu'azzam, with reinforcements from Syria, ends the conspiracy. On hearing the news that Al-Kamil and his army is retreating to Cairo, the Crusaders march to Al-Adiliya. After driving back an assault from the garrison of Damietta they occupy the town on February 5.[1]
  • April – The Crusaders surround Damietta, with the Italian forces to the north, Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller to the east – and King John I of Jerusalem with his French and Pisan troops to the south. The Frisians and German troops occupy the old camp across the Nile. A new wave of Crusader reinforcements from Cyprus arrive led by Walter III of Caesarea. Meanwhile, Al-Mu'azzam decides to dismantle the fortifications at Mount Tabor and other defensive positions, as well as Jerusalem itself, in order to deny their protection should the Crusaders prevail there. Some fanatics wish to destroy the Holy Sepulchre, but this is refused by Al-Mu'azzam.[2]
  • April 7Al-Muzaffar II, Ayyubid ruler of Hama, arrives in Egypt with Syrian reinforcements, leading multiple attacks on the Crusader camp at Al-Adiliya, with little impact. In the meantime, new Crusader forces, bring badly-needed supplies. Egyptian attacks continue through May, with Crusader counter-attacks utilizing a Lombard device known as a carroccio, confounding the defenders.[3]
  • July 8 – Pelagius begins multiple attacks at Damietta, using Pisan and Venetian troops. Each time they are repelled by the defenders, using Greek fire. A counter-offensive led by Al-Kamil on the Templar camp is repulsed on July 31 by their new Grand Master Peire de Montagut, supported by the Teutonic Knights – where the Crusaders reform and pursue the enemy outside the gates.[4]
  • August 29 – The Crusaders attack the Egyptian camp in the Battle of Faraskur and the Muslims pretend a feigned retreat to Mansoura. John I advises to camp overnight, because there is no fresh water in the region between the Nile and Lake Manzalah. Al-Kamil decides to halt the retreat and turns his forces to deliver a smashing attack upon the disorganized Crusaders, losing some 4,300 men.[5]
  • September – Francis of Assisi, an Italian preacher, arrives in the Crusader camp and introduces Catholicism in Egypt. He seeks permission from Pelagius to visit Al-Kamil. After an initial refusal, he sends Francis under a flag of truce to Faraskur. Al-Kamil receives him courteously and offers him many gifts. He accepts a death-bed baptism, and is escorted back to the Crusader camp.[6]
  • October – Al-Kamil sends two captive knights as envoys, to renew his former offers of an armistice. If the Crusaders evacuate Egypt, he will return the True Cross (lost in the Battle of Hattin) and they can have Jerusalem, all central Palestine and Galilee. John I advised its acceptance, along with the nobles from England, France and Germany. Pelagius again refuses the peace terms.[7]
  • November 5Siege of Damietta: The Crusaders enter Damietta and find it abandoned. Seeing the Crusader standards flying from the towers, Al-Kamil hastily abandons his camp at Faraskur and withdraws to Mansoura. Survivors in the city are either sent into slavery or held as hostages to trade for Christian prisoners. On November 23, the Crusader army captures the city of Tinnis.[8]

Mongol EmpireEdit

  • Winter – Genghis Khan sends a Mongol army (some 20,000 men) under his eldest son Jochi and Jebe to cross the Tian Shan mountains ("Heavenly Mountains") to ravage the fertile Fergana Valley, in the eastern part of the Khwarezm Empire. The Mongols suffer many losses but slip through the defensive lines and confuse the enemy who thinks this is Genghis' main force. Muhammad II dispatches his elite cavalry reserve to protect the fertile regions with force. Meanwhile, another Mongol army under his second and third sons Chagatai and Ögedei passes through the Dzungarian Gate, and immediately start laying siege to the border city of Otrar.[9]
  • Mongol forces under Chagatai and Ögedei capture Otrar after a 5-month siege. The city becomes the first of many settlements to have its entire population slain or enslaved before it is razed to the ground. Inalchuq, the Khwarezmian governor of Otrar, is captured and executed by pouring molten silver into his eyes and ears – an unlikely and unnecessarily expensive end.[10]
  • By letter, Genghis Khan summons Qiu Chuji (Master Changchun) to visit him, to advise him on the medicine of immortality (the Philosopher's Stone).

EuropeEdit

AsiaEdit

By topicEdit

TechnologyEdit

BirthsEdit

DeathsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  2. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 133. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  3. ^ Moses, Paul (2009). The Saint and the Sultan: The Crusades, Islam, and Francis of Assisi's Mission of Peace, pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-385-52370-7.
  4. ^ Van Cleve, Thomas C. (1969). The Fifth Crusade: Prelude to the Siege, pp. 412–413. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  5. ^ Van Cleve, Thomas C. (1969). The Fifth Crusade: Prelude to the Siege, p. 414. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  6. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 136. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  8. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  9. ^ Man, John (2011). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection, pp. 190–191. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.
  10. ^ Man, John (2011). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection, p. 193. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.
  11. ^ Butkevičienė, Birutė; Gricius, Vytautas (July 2003). "Mindaugas — Lietuvos karalius". Mokslas Ir Gyvenimas (in Lithuanian). 7 (547). Archived from the original on May 23, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  12. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 138. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.