2020s in political history

  (Redirected from 2020s in politics)

2020s political history refers to significant political and societal historical events of the 2020s, presented as a historical overview in narrative format.

Millennium: 3rd millennium



COVID-19 pandemicEdit

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organisation declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. By December 2020 the virus had extended to virtually every corner of the planet including ships at sea but excluding Antarctica and a handful of small islands. As of 16 August 2022[1], there were 591,729,856[1] confirmed cases and 6,439,887[1] deaths. The United States, India, and Brazil reported the most infections, deaths, and recoveries; the highest death rates were reported in Belgium, Italy, Peru, and Spain. The United States leads in new cases, new deaths, active cases, and recoveries.[2]

The pandemic triggered global social and economic disruption, including the largest global recession since the Great Depression.[3] It led to the postponement or cancellation of events, widespread supply shortages exacerbated by panic buying, famines affecting hundreds of millions of people, and decreased emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Educational institutions were partially or fully closed. Misinformation circulated through social media and mass media. There were incidents of xenophobia and discrimination against Chinese people and against those perceived as being Chinese or as being from areas with high infection rates.[4]

Countries with at least one election date altered

The pandemic impacted international relations and affected the political systems of multiple countries, causing suspensions of legislative activities, isolation or deaths of multiple politicians and reschedulings of elections due to fears of spreading the virus. The pandemic also triggered broader debates about political issues such as the relative advantages of democracy and autocracy,[5][6] how states respond to crises,[7] politicization of beliefs about the virus,[8] and the adequacy of existing frameworks of international cooperation.[9]


Map showing real GDP growth rates in 2020, recorded by the International Monetary Fund as of 26 January 2021; countries in brown are those that have faced a recession.

The COVID-19 recession is a global economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The recession began in most countries in February 2020.

After a year of global economic slowdown that saw stagnation of economic growth and consumer activity, the COVID-19 lockdowns and other precautions taken in early 2020 drove the global economy into crisis.[10][11][12][13] Within seven months, every advanced economy had fallen to recession.[14][15]

The first major sign of recession was the 2020 stock market crash, which saw major indices drop 20 to 30% in late February and March. Recovery began in early April 2020, as of April 2022, the GDP for most major economies has either returned to or exceeded pre-pandemic levels [16] and many market indices recovered or even set new records by late 2020.[17][18][19]

The recession saw unusually high and rapid increases in unemployment in many countries. By October 2020, more than 10 million unemployment cases had been filed in the United States,[20] swamping state-funded unemployment insurance computer systems and processes.[21][22] The United Nations (UN) predicted in April 2020 that global unemployment would wipe out 6.7% of working hours globally in the second quarter of 2020—equivalent to 195 million full-time workers.[23] In some countries, unemployment was expected to be around 10%, with more severely affected nations from the pandemic having higher unemployment rates.[24][25][26] Developing countries were also affected by a drop in remittances[27] and exacerbating COVID-19 pandemic–related famines.[28]

The recession and the accompanying 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war led to a drop in oil prices; the collapse of tourism, the hospitality industry, and the energy industry; and a downturn in consumer activity in comparison to the previous decade.[29][30][31] The 2021–2022 global energy crisis was driven by a global surge in demand as the world exited the early recession caused by the pandemic, particularly due to strong energy demand in Asia.[32][33][34]

This was then further exacerbated by the reaction to escalations of the Russo-Ukrainian War, culminating in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine and the 2022 Russian debt default.[35]

Second Cold WarEdit

On May 24, 2020, China Foreign Minister Wang Yi said that relations with the U.S. were on the "brink of a new Cold War" after it was fuelled by tensions over the COVID-19 pandemic.[36] In his September 2021 speech to the United Nations General Assembly, US President Joe Biden said that the US is "not seeking a new Cold War or a world divided into rigid blocs." Biden further said that the US would cooperate "with any nation that steps up and pursues peaceful resolution to shared challenges," despite "intense disagreement in other areas, because we'll all suffer the consequences of our failure."[37][38]


Supply chain crisisEdit

Global Container Freight Index
July 2019 - December 2021

In 2021, as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, global supply chains and shipments slowed, causing worldwide shortages and affecting consumer patterns. Causes of the economic slowdown included workers becoming sick with COVID-19 as well as mandates and restrictions affecting the availability of staff. In cargo shipping, goods remained at port due to staffing shortages.

The related global chip shortage has contributed to the supply chain crisis, specifically in the automobile and electronics sectors. During the Christmas and holiday season of 2021, an increase in spending in North America, combined with the spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19, further exacerbated already tight supplies.

Long tail effects of the supply chain crises are contributing to ongoing food security issues related to the pandemic, including the 2022 food crises.


Economic conditionsEdit

Natural gas prices in Europe and United States
  National Balancing Point NBP (UK) natural gas prices
  Europe TTF natural gas prices
  United States Henry Hub natural gas prices
The 2021–present global energy crisis is the most recent in a series of circular energy shortages experienced over the last fifty years. It is more acutely affecting countries such as the United Kingdom[39][40] and China,[41] among others.[42]
Inflation rate, United States and eurozone, January 2016 through June 2022
Inflation Rates[43]
Country/Region 2020 2021
World 1.9% 3.4%
Europe/Central Asia 1.2% 3.1%
Latin America/Caribbean 1.4% 4.3%
Brazil 3.2% 8.3%
South Asia 5.7% 5.5%
Australia 0.8% 2.9%
South Korea 0.5% 2.5%
Japan 0.0% -0.2%
China 2.4% 1.0%
Canada 0.7% 3.4%
United Kingdom 1.0% 2.5%
United States 1.2% 4.7%
In early 2021, a worldwide increase in inflation began. It has been attributed primarily to supply shortages (including chip shortages and energy shortages) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine, coupled with strong consumer demand.[44][45] As a result, many countries have seen their highest inflation in decades and their central banks have responded by aggressively increasing interest rates.[46][47][48]

2022 food crisesEdit

Fertilizer prices 1992–2022. The 2007-2008 world food crisis happened when fertilizer prices spiked then.
Commodity Prices

2022 saw a rapid increase in food prices and shortages of food supplies around the world. The compounding crises in distinct parts of the world were caused by compounding geopolitical and economic crisis. The crises follow food security and economic crises during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Following the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Food and Agriculture Organization, as well as other observers of the food commodities markets, warned of a collapse in food supply and price increases.[49][50][51][52][53] Much of the concern is related to supply shortages of key commodity crops, such as wheat, corn, and oil seeds, which could cause price increases.[51] The invasion also led to fuel and associated fertilizer price increases, causing further food shortfalls and price increases.[53]

Even before the invasion, food prices were already at record highs. As of February 2022, year-over-year food prices were up 20%, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization.[54] The war further increased year-over-year prices another 40% in March.[55] The compounding issues, including COVID-19, the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and climate-related crop failures, are expected to reverse global trends in reducing hunger and malnutrition.[56]

Some regions, such as East Africa and Madagascar, were already experiencing drought and famine due to agricultural system failures and climate change, and the price increases are expected to make the situation worse.[53][55] Even Global North countries that usually have secure food supplies, such as the UK and US, are beginning to experience the direct impacts of cost inflation due to food insecurity.[57] Some analysts described the price increases as the worst since the 2007–2008 world food price crisis.[55] Though initial international responses to the food crisis suggested that some suppliers or harvests may alleviate to global shortages and price increases (e.g. a proposed influx of grain from India), as of June 2022 no international efforts have been effective at alleviating prices.[58]

Effects on food security by the pandemicEdit

Acute food insecurity estimates for 2020 using the IPC scale

During the COVID-19 pandemic, food insecurity has intensified in many places – in the second quarter of 2020 there were multiple warnings of famine later in the year.[59][60] According to early predictions, hundreds of thousands of people would likely die and millions more experience hunger without concerted efforts to address issues of food security. As of October 2020, these efforts were reducing the risk of widespread starvation due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Famines were feared as a result of the COVID-19 recession and some of the measures taken to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[61][62] Additionally, the 2019–2021 locust infestation,[63] ongoing wars and political turmoil in some nations were also viewed as local causes of hunger.[64]

At the opening of the United Nations Food Systems Pre-Summit in Rome, Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi said "The health crisis (COVID-19) has led to a food crisis," citing data showing that malnutrition has become the leading cause of ill health and death in the world.[65]

In September 2020, David Beasley, executive director of the World Food Programme, addressed the United Nations Security Council, stating that measures taken by donor countries over the course of the preceding five months, including the provision of $17 trillion in fiscal stimulus and central bank support, the suspension of debt repayments instituted by the IMF and G20 countries for the benefit of poorer countries, and donor support for WFP programmes, had averted impending famine, helping 270 million people at risk of starvation.[66] However, he cautioned that, despite having forestalled mass starvation in poor countries, further donor action will be needed to prevent famine in 2021 as the pandemic and regional conflicts continue unabated.[66] As the pandemic-incited food issues began to subside, the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine triggered another global food crises compounding already extreme price increases.[67][68][69][70][71]

Russo-Ukrainian WarEdit

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War that began in 2014. The invasion caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II,[72][73] with more than 6.4 million Ukrainians fleeing the country[74][75] and a third of the population displaced.[76][77] The invasion also caused global food shortages.[78][79]

In 2014, Russia invaded and annexed Crimea, and Russian-backed separatists seized part of the Donbas region of south-eastern Ukraine, consisting of Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts, sparking a regional war.[80][81] In 2021, Russia began a large military build-up along its border with Ukraine, amassing up to 190,000 troops and their equipment. In a televised address shortly before the invasion, Russian president Vladimir Putin espoused irredentist views,[82] challenged Ukraine's right to statehood,[83][84] and falsely[85] claimed Ukraine was governed by neo-Nazis who persecuted the ethnic Russian minority.[86] On 21 February 2022, Russia recognised the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic, two self-proclaimed breakaway quasi-states in Donbas.[87] The next day, the Federation Council of Russia authorised the use of military force, and Russian troops promptly advanced on both territories.[88]

The invasion began on the morning of 24 February,[89] when Putin announced a "special military operation" to "demilitarise and denazify" Ukraine.[90][91] Minutes later, missiles and airstrikes hit across Ukraine, including the capital Kyiv. A large ground invasion followed from multiple directions.[92][93] Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy enacted martial law and a general mobilisation of all male Ukrainian citizens between 18 and 60, who were banned from leaving the country.[94][95] Russian attacks were initially launched on a northern front from Belarus towards Kyiv, a north-eastern front towards Kharkiv, a southern front from Crimea, and a south-eastern front from Luhansk and Donetsk.[96][97] During March, the Russian advance towards Kyiv stalled. Amidst heavy losses and strong Ukrainian resistance, Russian troops retreated from Kyiv Oblast by 3 April. On 19 April, Russia launched a renewed attack on Donbas, which has been proceeding very slowly, with Luhansk Oblast only fully captured by 3 July,[98] while other fronts remained largely stationary. At the same time, Russian forces continued to bomb both military and civilian targets far from the frontline, including in Kyiv,[99] Lviv,[100] Serhiivka near Odesa and Kremenchuk, among others. On 20 July, Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov announced that Russia would respond to the increased military aid being received by Ukraine from abroad as justifying the expansion of the 'special operations' front to include military objectives in both the Zaporizhzhia Oblast and Kherson Oblast beyond the original objectives of the oblasts of the Donbas region.[101]

The invasion has received widespread international condemnation. The United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution condemning the invasion and demanding a full withdrawal of Russian forces.[102] The International Court of Justice ordered Russia to suspend military operations and the Council of Europe expelled Russia. Many countries imposed sanctions on Russia, which have affected the economies of Russia and the world,[103] and provided humanitarian and military aid to Ukraine.[104] Protests occurred around the world; those in Russia were met with mass arrests and increased media censorship,[105][106] including a ban on the words "war" and "invasion".[93][107] The International Criminal Court has opened an investigation into crimes against humanity in Ukraine since 2013, as well as war crimes in the 2022 invasion.[108]

By topicEdit

International conflictEdit

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, which totally bans nuclear weapons, went into effect on January 22, 2021. The treaty is not supported by NATO or any known nuclear powers.[109]

Indian border skirmishesEdit

Beginning on 5 May 2020, Chinese and Indian troops engaged in aggressive melee, face-offs, and skirmishes at locations along the Sino-Indian border, including near the disputed Pangong Lake in Ladakh and the Tibet Autonomous Region, and near the border between Sikkim and the Tibet Autonomous Region. Additional clashes also took place at locations in eastern Ladakh along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).

In late May, Chinese forces objected to Indian road construction in the Galwan river valley.[110][111] According to Indian sources, melee fighting on 15–16 June 2020 resulted in the deaths of Chinese and Indian soldiers.[112][113][114] Media reports stated that soldiers were taken captive on both sides and released in the coming few days while official sources on both sides went on to deny this.[115][116][117] On 7 September, for the first time in 45 years, shots were fired along the LAC, with both sides blaming each other for the firing.[118][119] Indian media also reported that Indian troops fired warning shots at the PLA on 30 August.[120]

Partial disengagement from Galwan, Hot Springs, and Gogra occurred in June–July 2020 while complete disengagement from Pangong Lake north and south bank took place in February 2021.[121][122] Following disengagement at Gogra in August 2021, Indian analysts pointed out that the LAC has shifted westwards at patrol point 17A (PP 17A).[123][124]

Amid the standoff, India reinforced the region with approximately 12,000 additional workers, who would assist India's Border Roads Organisation in completing the development of Indian infrastructure along the Sino-Indian border.[125][126][127] Experts have postulated that the standoffs are Chinese pre-emptive measures in responding to the Darbuk–Shyok–DBO Road infrastructure project in Ladakh.[128] China has also extensively developed its infrastructure in these disputed border regions and is continuing to do so.[129][130] The revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, in August 2019, by the Indian government has also troubled China.[131] However, India and China have both maintained that there are enough bilateral mechanisms to resolve the situation.[132][133] This includes multiple rounds of colonel, brigadier, and major general rank dialogue, special representatives' meetings,[a][135][136] meetings of the 'Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on China-India Border Affairs' (WMCC),[b][138] and meetings and communication between their respective foreign and defense ministers.[139] On 12 January 2022, the 14th corps-commander-level meeting at Chushul-Moldo Border Personnel Meeting (BPM) point took place.[140]

Following the Galwan Valley skirmish on 15 June, some Indian campaigns about boycotting Chinese products were started.[141][142] Action on the economic front included cancellation and additional scrutiny of certain contracts with Chinese firms, and calls were also made to stop the entry of Chinese companies into strategic markets in India.[143][144][145] By November 2020, the Indian government had banned over 200 Chinese apps, including apps owned by Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Sina, and Bytedance.[146]


Batken Region in Kyrgyzstan.

On 28 April, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan forces on the Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan border near Kök-Tash, Leilek, started the clashes, resulting in four deaths and dozens of injuries.[147] The following day clashes resumed, with at least 41 people killed from both sides and roughly 10,000 people evacuated.[148] The same day the foreign ministers of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan agreed to a ceasefire at the border.[149] On 30 April, Tajikistan acknowledged the ceasefire in a statement published by its state information service.[150]


The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war took place in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between the Republic of Artsakh backed by Armenia and Azerbaijan from September 2020 to November 2020. It is the latest escalation of the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. A peace treaty was signed between Armenia, Azerbaijan, Artsakh, and Russia, ending hostilities on 10 November 2020. Widespread protests in Armenia followed the treaty while it was celebrated in Azerbaijan.

Persian GulfEdit

The 2019–2021 Persian Gulf crisis has led to the attack on the United States embassy in Baghdad during the start of the decade, the subsequent assassination of Qasem Soleimani by the United States days later, the Iranian attack on U.S. forces in Iraq in revenge, as well as the accidental shootdown of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 by Iran soon after.

Syrian civil warEdit

The 2019–2020 northwestern Syria offensive, codenamed was a military operation launched by the armed forces of the Syrian Arab Republic, Russia, Iran, Hezbollah and other allied militias against Syrian opposition and allied fighters of the Syrian National Army, Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, Rouse the Believers Operations Room, the Turkistan Islamic Party, and other rebel and Salafi jihadist[151] forces.[152][153]

By February 2020, pro-government forces had encircled several Turkish observation posts that had been established throughout Idlib.[154][155] On 27 February, after intermittent deadly clashes between Turkish and Syrian forces, Turkey formally intervened in the offensive and announced the beginning of Operation Spring Shield with the aim of pushing Syrian government forces back to pre-offensive frontlines.[156]

Operation Spring Shield (Turkish: Bahar Kalkanı Harekâtı) was a cross-border military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) against the Syrian Armed Forces and allied militias in the Idlib Governorate of northwestern Syria,[157] which began on 27 February 2020 in response to the Balyun airstrikes.[158][159] Turkish National Defense Minister Hulusi Akar said that the purpose of the operation had been within the framework of the Astana talks, to ensure a ceasefire agreement in the Second Northern Syria Buffer Zone and to prevent migration from Idlib towards the Turkish border. On 5 March, Turkey and Russia signed a ceasefire agreement in Moscow.[160]

A series of airstrikes were carried out by the Israeli Air Force on multiple Iranian-linked targets in the Deir ez-Zor Governorate of Syria on 13 January 2021.[161] More airstrikes were launched the following February. Later that same month, the United States military carried out an airstrike on a site which it believed to have been occupied by Iranian-backed Iraqi militias operating from across the border in eastern Syria.[162][163][164] The US-led coalition continued to hit targets in Syria, as part of what it described as a war against ISIS.[165]


Climate changeEdit

In 2020, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, declared that "The state of the planet is broken" and that "Humanity is waging war on nature. This is suicidal."[166] The United Nations has also called climate change "the defining issue of our time",[167] and the World Health Organization said it "threatens the essential ingredients of good health - clean air, safe drinking water, nutritious food supply, and safe shelter - and has the potential to undermine decades of progress in global health".[168]


Gender equalityEdit

Out of all national parliamentarians in Greece, 24.3% were women as of February 2019, while 11 women were serving as Head of State and 12 as Head of Government in June 2019. Furthermore, 20.7% of government ministers were women as of January 2019.[169] Katerina Sakellaropoulou became the first female president of Greece in January 2020.[170] Maia Sandu reached the same milestone for Moldova in 2020 as well. In Austria, the first female-majority cabinet was sworn in in 2020.[171]


In a January 2020 interview with the Financial Times, German Chancellor Angela Merkel urged Europe to develop its own technology, such as manufacturing of batteries, electric cars, and cloud computing. Europe depends mostly on Asia for electric car batteries, and it has no hyperscale computing companies to support companies like Amazon and Facebook.[172]

Switzerland's neutrality was called into question when it was in revealed in February 2020 that German and U.S. intelligence services had been using coding devices manufactured by Crypto AG to spy on other countries.[173]

Pandora papersEdit

The Pandora Papers are 11.9 million leaked documents with 2.9 terabytes of data that the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) published beginning on 3 October 2021.[174][175][176] The leak exposed the secret offshore accounts of 35 world leaders, including current and former presidents, prime ministers, and heads of state as well as more than 100 billionaires, celebrities, and business leaders. The news organizations of the ICIJ described the document leak as their most expansive exposé of financial secrecy yet, containing documents, images, emails and spreadsheets from 14 financial service companies, in nations including Panama, Switzerland and the United Arab Emirates,[177][178] surpassing their previous release of the Panama Papers in 2016, which had 11.5 million confidential documents (2.6 terabytes).[179][180][181][182][183] At the time of the release of the papers, the ICIJ said it is not identifying its source for the documents.[184]

Estimates by the ICIJ of money held offshore (outside the country where the money was made) range from US$5.6 trillion to US$32 trillion.[176][185][186]


World tradeEdit

President Trump's trade disputes appear to be neutralizing as the President completed a phase 1 agreement with China and renegotiated NAFTA with the ratification of the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement an improved, bipartisan trade agreement. Tomasz Brodzicki of IHS Markit predicts that world merchandise trade volume will increase by 2.7% to 14.174 billion tons (US$18.870 trillion) in 2020 and by 5% to 14.881 billion tons (US$19.795 trillion) in 2021. He forecasts the highest growth rates in 2020 for South and North America and the lowest for Africa. He predicts low trade growth for the U.S. and Canada and continuing conflicts with China, which should benefit Taiwan, Vietnam, and other parts of the ASEAN Free Trade Area. He also says the paralysis of the multilateral dispute settlement system in the World Trade Organization (WTO) will probably last.[187]

The world's largest free trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, was signed on November 15, 2020, including the members of ASEAN, as well as Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea.[188]

The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA) will go fully into effect on July 1, 2020, abolishing 90% of tariffs between member states and bringing a 50% increase in trade in the next few years.[189] In June 2019 the Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) reached a tentative agreement.pdf with the European Union. They are also looking forward to similar agreements with the United States, Canada, and the EFTA bloc—made up of Iceland, Norway, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland.[190]

History by regionEdit


During 2020–22, coup d'état's were launched successfully in Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Sudan, and unsuccessfully in Guinea-Bissau and Niger. In Chad, the Transitional Military Council took power as a military junta.



US representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) and Taliban representative Abdul Ghani Baradar (right) sign the agreement in Doha, Qatar, on February 29, 2020

The Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan, commonly known as the US–Taliban deal or the Doha Agreement, was a peace agreement signed by the United States and the Taliban on February 29, 2020 in Doha, Qatar, to bring an end to the 2001–2021 war in Afghanistan.[191][192] Negotiated by Zalmay Khalilzad, the agreement did not involve the then Afghan government.[193] The deal, which also had secret annexes, was one of the critical events that caused the collapse of the Afghan National Security Forces.[194] Following the deal, the US dramatically reduced the number of air attacks and deprived the ANSF of a critical edge in fighting the Taliban insurgency, leading to the Taliban takeover of Kabul on 15 August 2021.[195]

The agreement stipulated fighting restrictions for both the US and the Taliban, and provided for the withdrawal of all NATO forces from Afghanistan in return for the Taliban's counter-terrorism commitments. The US agreed to an initial reduction of its force level from 13,000 to 8,600 within 135 days (i.e. by July 2020), followed by a full withdrawal within 14 months (i.e. by 1 May 2021) if the Taliban keeps its commitments. The United States also committed to closing five military bases within 135 days, and expressed its intent to end economic sanctions on the Taliban by August 27, 2020. The agreement was supported by Pakistan, China, and Russia,[193] and unanimously endorsed by the UN Security Council.[196] India also welcomed the pact.[197][198]

Insurgent attacks against the Afghan security forces, however, surged in the aftermath of the deal, with thousands killed. However, withdrawals per the agreement continued. By January 2021, just 2,500 US troops remained in the country, and NATO forces fully evacuated by the end of that summer. The US completed its full evacuation on August 30, 2021, as the Taliban took control of the country by force.
US airmen board a C-17 at Al Udeid Air Base during the withdrawal, 27 April 2021

The United States Armed Forces completed their withdrawal from Afghanistan on 30 August 2021, marking the end of the 2001–2021 war. In February 2020, the Trump administration and the Taliban, without the participation of the then Afghan government, signed the US–Taliban deal in Doha, Qatar,[199] which stipulated fighting restrictions for both the US and the Taliban, and provided for the withdrawal of all NATO forces from Afghanistan in return for the Taliban's counter-terrorism commitments. The Trump administration's US–Taliban deal, and then the Biden administration’s decision in April 2021 to pull out all US troops by September 2021 without leaving a residual force, were the two critical events that caused the collapse of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).[200] Following the deal, the US dramatically reduced the number of air attacks and deprived the ANSF of a critical edge in fighting the Taliban insurgency, leading to the Taliban takeover of Kabul on 15 August 2021.[201]

As part of the US–Taliban deal, the Trump administration agreed to an initial reduction of US forces from 13,000 to 8,600 troops by July 2020, followed by a complete withdrawal by 1 May 2021, if the Taliban kept its commitments.[202] At the start of the Biden administration, there were 2,500 US soldiers in Afghanistan and, in April 2021, Biden said the US would not begin withdrawing these soldiers before 1 May, but would complete the withdrawal by 11 September.[203][204] The Taliban began a final offensive on 1 May and, on 8 July, Biden specified a new completion date of 31 August.[205][206] There were about 650 US troops in Afghanistan in early August 2021, tasked with protecting Hamid Karzai International Airport and the US embassy in Kabul.[207][208] NATO's Resolute Support Mission concluded on 12 July 2021[209] while US intelligence assessments estimated as late as July that Kabul would fall within months or weeks following withdrawal of all American forces from Afghanistan, though the security situation deteriorated rapidly.[210][211]

The US also launched Operation Allies Refuge to airlift the United States translators and selected Afghan citizens considered at risk of reprisals and US Forces Afghanistan Forward was established on 7 July 2021 as a successor command overseeing the evacuation of all US diplomatic, security, advisory, and counter-terrorism personnel remaining in the country after the withdrawal of US troops. On 12 August 2021, following continued Taliban victories across Afghanistan, the Biden administration announced that 3,000 US troops would be deployed to Kabul Airport to evacuate embassy personnel, US nationals and Special Immigrant Visa applicants.[212][213] With the rapid advance of the Taliban in the provinces, on 14 August the US increased its troop commitment to 5,000.[214] On 15 August, with the fall of Kabul, another 1,000 troops were deployed,[215] and on 16 August, another 1,000 troops were deployed, bringing the total number of troops to 7,000. The last US military planes left Kabul airport at 11:59 p.m. Kabul time on 30 August 2021.[216]

Following the U.S. withdrawal, around one thousand U.S. citizens and Afghans holding U.S. or other visas were held up by the Taliban with the U.S. government not authorizing their departure.[217][218] On 28 and 29 September 2021, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Mark Milley and United States Central Command (CENTCOM) commander Gen. Frank McKenzie were among the numerous Defense Department officials who denied during Congressional testimonies President Biden's previous claim that his decision to withdraw troops from Afghanistan was because of advice from senior U.S. military leaders and stated that they had in fact advised him to keep some troops in Afghanistan.[219][220]


Chinese Communist Party (CCP) continued the mass imprisonment of Uyghyrs in the Xinjiang internment camps, under CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping's administration.[221]

Hong KongEdit

The Hong Kong protests against the Chinese government continued into 2020. A controversial new national security law was enacted on 30 June 2020 by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.[222] In July, 12 politicians were banned from standing the upcoming elections.[223] The elections were then postponed by a year, officially due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[223] After the arrest of eight opposition politicians in November, 15 other opposition lawmakers resigned in protest, including the remaining opposition members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong.[223] The democracy activist Joshua Wong was also arrested, facing up to three years in prison in his trial.[224]

The Decision of the National People's Congress on Improving the Electoral System of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region was enacted on 11 March 2021 by the National People's Congress (NPC), the de jure legislative body of the People's Republic of China (PRC), to rewrite the electoral rules, imposing a much restrictive electoral system on the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) for its Chief Executive (CE) and the Legislative Council (LegCo), claiming to ensure a system of "patriots governing Hong Kong."[225][226] Police later arrested five executives of the Apple Daily newspaper as the newspaper warned that press freedom in the city was "hanging by a thread".[227]

The Stand News raids and arrests occurred on 29 December 2021, when Stand News, one of the few remaining pro-democracy media outlets in Hong Kong following the passage of the Hong Kong national security law in 2020, was raided by the National Security Department of the Hong Kong Police Force. Media executives and journalists were arrested on the charge of "conspiring to publish seditious publications" on a large scale.[228] As a result of the raid, Stand News ceased operations, the organisation's website and social media became inactive, and all of its employees were dismissed. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, along with leaders in Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and United States, condemned the raid.[229]


Protests broke out on 2 January 2022 after a sudden sharp increase in gas prices which, according to the Kazakh government, was due to high demand and price fixing. The protests began in Zhanaozen, a city built on an oil field, but quickly spread to other cities in the country,[230] including the largest city, Almaty. Growing discontent with the government and former president Nursultan Nazarbayev also influenced larger demonstrations. As there were no popular opposition groups against the Kazakh government, the unrest appeared to be assembled directly by citizens. In response, President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev declared a state of emergency in Mangystau Region and Almaty, effective from 5 January. The Mamin Cabinet resigned the same day.[231][232]

In response to the unrest, the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) – a military alliance of post-Soviet states that includes Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan itself – agreed to deploy peacekeeping troops in Kazakhstan. The local police reported that "dozens of attackers were liquidated", while former President Nazarbayev was removed as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan.[233] Tokayev later announced a series of reforms to the national parliament, including re-establishing the Constitutional Court, reducing the membership requirement for establishing political parties from 20,000 to 5,000, reducing the number of parliament deputies appointed by the president, and restoring three regions that were merged during the 1990s. He says that the purpose of these reforms is to move the current political system from "superpresidential" rule to a presidential republic with a strong parliament.[234]


The 2020 Kyrgyzstani protests began on 5 October 2020 in response to the recent parliamentary election that was perceived by protestors as unfair, with allegations of vote rigging.[235][236] The results of the election were annulled on 6 October 2020.[237] On 12 October 2020, President Jeenbekov announced a state of emergency in the capital city of Bishkek,[238] which was approved by Parliament the following day.[239] Jeenbekov resigned on 15 October 2020.

In January 2021 a referendum on the form of government was held alongside presidential elections (won by Sadyr Japarov), with voters asked whether they would prefer a presidential system, a parliamentary system, or opposed both. Just over 84% voted in favour of a presidential system.

Work began on drafting a new constitution, which was debated in the Supreme Council in February 2021. The draft new constitution replaces the parliamentary system with a presidential one, with presidents limited to two five years terms instead of a single six-year term. It also reduces the number of seats in the Supreme Council from 120 to 90 and establishes a constitutional court.[240]

In March 2021 members of the Supreme Council passed a bill, scheduling a referendum on the new constitution for 11 April, the same day as local elections.[240] The result was 79.31% in favour.[241]


In early 2020, officials from the Malaysia's Prime Minister's Office (PMO) said that Malaysia has recovered US$322 million stolen from the sovereign wealth fund 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal, a fraction of the more than US$4.5 billion US prosecutors say was looted.[242] In April, the US Department of Justice returned US$300 million in funds stolen during the 1MDB scandal to Malaysia.[243][244] Former Prime Minister Najib Razak was found guilty of one count of abuse of power, three counts of criminal breach of trust, three counts of money laundering, a total of seven charges for the SRC International trial.[245][246]

On 24 February 2020, Malaysia entered the 2020 Malaysian political crisis for almost a week after the resignation of the 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad. Immediately that afternoon, the King of Malaysia re-appointed Mahathir Mohamad as the Interim Prime Minister to solve the political crisis. On 29 February 2020, Yang Dipertuan Agong, King Abdullah of Pahang agreed to appoint Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia, and he was sworn in at the Istana Negara on 1 March 2020.

Malaysia declared a State of Emergency in January 2021 amid the worsening COVID-19 pandemic, suspending parliament and all elections until August.[247] The declaration attracted political controversy;[248] a number of MPs from major coalition party UMNO withdrew support for the government in disapproval,[249] temporarily leading to a minority government and destabilising the coalition. On 8 July 2021, the President of UMNO announced that the party had withdrawn support for Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin over the government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic[250] although others in UMNO later affirmed their support, splitting the party and putting the government's status into question.[251][252] After losing majority support and attempts to regain it were unsuccessful,[253] Prime Minister Muhyiddin and his cabinet resigned on 16 August 2021 with Muhyiddin remaining as caretaker Prime Minister. Four days later, UMNO's Vice President Ismail Sabri Yaakob was appointed Prime Minister by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong after receiving support from most of the MPs.[254][255]


General elections were held in Myanmar on 8 November 2020, in which the National League for Democracy won 396 out of 476 seats in parliament, while the military's proxy party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party, won only 33 seats.[256] In the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état, democratically elected members of the ruling National League for Democracy were detained and/or deposed from their offices by the Tatmadaw; Myanmar's military. The Tatmadaw declared a year-long state of emergency and declared power had been vested in the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Min Aung Hlaing. The coup d'état occurred the day before the Parliament of Myanmar was due to swear in the members elected at the November 2020 general election, preventing this from occurring.[257] President Win Myint and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi were detained, along with ministers and their deputies and members of Parliament.[256] Domestic civil resistance efforts in Myanmar, known locally as the Spring Revolution (Burmese: နွေဦးတော်လှန်ရေး),[258][259] began in opposition to the coup d'état on 1 February.[260] As of 2 April 2021, at least 550 civilians, including children, have been killed by military or police forces and at least 2,574 people detained.[261]

The National Unity Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar was formed by the Committee Representing Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, a group of elected lawmakers ousted in the coup d'état. It included representatives of the National League for Democracy (the deposed ruling party of former state counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi), ethnic minority insurgent groups, and various minor parties.[262] The NUG has sought international recognition as the government of Myanmar.[263] On 5 May 2021, the NUG announced the formation of "People's Defense Force" as its armed wing to launch an armed revolution against the military junta.[264][265]


Parliamentary elections in June 2020[266][267] resulted in a victory for the ruling Mongolian People's Party. The Prime Minister Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh resigned on 27 January 2021 following a minor protest against the mistreatment of a hospital patient.[268]


In July 2021, the Nepalese Supreme Court declared that the dissolution of the Federal Parliament of Nepal by Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli in May was unconstitutional, reinstating the Parliament and removing the duties of Oli.[269] The Supreme Court also designated leader of the opposition Sher Bahadur Deuba as the new Prime Minister.[269]


A political and constitutional crisis emerged in Pakistan when, on 3 April 2022, National Assembly Deputy Speaker Qasim Khan Suri dismissed a no-confidence motion against prime minister Imran Khan during a session in which it was expected to be taken up for a vote. Moments later, the president dissolved the National Assembly on the advice of prime minister Imran Khan.[270][271] This created a constitutional crisis, as effectively, Imran Khan led a constitutional coup to remain in power.[272][273]

Four days later, the Supreme Court of Pakistan ruled that the dismissal of the no-confidence motion and subsequent dissolution of the National Assembly were unconstitutional, and overturned these actions. The Supreme Court further held that the National Assembly had not been prorogued and had to be reconvened by the Speaker immediately.[274][275] Shortly after midnight on 10 April, the National Assembly voted and passed the No Confidence motion removing prime minister Khan from office immediately upon passing of the resolution[276] and making him the first prime minister in Pakistan to be so removed from office.[277]

Sri LankaEdit

economic crisis
People waiting for hours to refill liquefied petroleum gas cylinders

The Sri Lankan economic crisis[278] is an ongoing crisis in the island-state of Sri Lanka that started in 2019.[279] It is the country's worst economic crisis since its independence in 1948.[279] It has led to unprecedented levels of inflation, near-depletion of foreign exchange reserves, shortages of medical supplies, and an increase in prices of basic commodities.[280] The crisis is said to have begun due to multiple compounding factors like tax cuts, money creation, a nationwide policy to shift to organic or biological farming, the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. The subsequent economic hardships resulted in the 2022 Sri Lankan protests.

Sri Lanka had been earmarked for sovereign default, as the remaining foreign exchange reserves of US$1.9 billion as of March 2022 would not be sufficient to pay the country's foreign debt obligations for 2022, with $4 billion to be repaid.[281] An International Sovereign Bond repayment of $1 billion is due to be paid by the government in July 2022. Bloomberg reported that Sri Lanka had a total of $8.6 billion in repayments due in 2022, including both local debt and foreign debt.[282][283] In April 2022, the Sri Lankan government announced that it was defaulting, making it the first sovereign default in Sri Lankan history since its independence in 1948 and the first state in the Asia-Pacific region to enter sovereign default in the 21st century.[284][285]

In June 2022, then Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe said in parliament that the economy had collapsed, leaving it unable to pay for essentials.[286]
Political crisis
Protesters protest in front of the Presidential Secretariat

The 2022 Sri Lankan political crisis is an ongoing political crisis in Sri Lanka due to the power struggle between President Gotabaya Rajapaksa and the Parliament of Sri Lanka. It is fueled by the anti-government protests and demonstrations by the public due to the economic crisis in the country. The anti-government sentiment across various parts of Sri Lanka has triggered a state of political instability the country has not seen since the civil war.[287]

The political crisis began on 3 April 2022, after all 26 members of the Second Gotabaya Rajapaksa cabinet with the exception of Prime Minister Rajapaksa resigned en masse overnight. Critics said the resignation was not valid as they did not follow the constitutional protocol and thus deemed it a "sham",[288][289][290] and several were reinstated in different ministries the next day.[291] There were even growing calls on forming a caretaker government to run the country or for snap elections, but the latter option was deemed unviable due to paper shortages and concerns over election expenditure, which would often cost in billions.[292]

Protestors have taken to streets to show their anger and displeasure over the mismanagement of the economy by the government and the protestors urged the President Gotabaya to immediately step down for a political change;[293] he refused to do so,[294][295][296] later eventually fleeing to Singapore and resigning on 14 July.[297] Main opposition Samagi Jana Balawegaya had determined to abolish the 20th amendment by bringing a private members Bill in order to scrap the executive powers of Executive Presidency.[298]

The 2022 Sri Lankan protests (Sinhala: අරගලය, romanized: Aragalaya, lit.'Struggle'), are ongoing[citation needed] mass protests which began in March 2022 against the government of Sri Lanka. The government has been criticized for mismanaging the Sri Lankan economy, which led to a subsequent economic crisis involving severe inflation, daily blackouts, and a shortage of fuel, domestic gas, and other essential goods. The main demand of the protesters has been the resignation of Gotabaya Rajapaksa and key officials from the Rajapaksa family.[299][300] Despite the involvement of several opposition parties, most protesters have considered themselves to be apolitical, and some have expressed discontent with the parliamentary opposition.[301] During the protests, protesters have chanted slogans such as "go home Gota" and "go home Rajapaksas".[302][303] The protests have been mainly caused by the general public,[304][305] with youths playing a major part by carrying out protests at Galle Face Green.[306][307][308][309]

The government has reacted to these protests with authoritarian actions, such as declaring a state of emergency, allowing the military to arrest civilians, imposing curfews, and restricting access to social media. The government has violated the law and the Sri Lankan constitution by attempting to suppress the protests.[310][311][312] The Sri Lankan diaspora has also begun demonstrations against the suppression of basic human rights in the country.[313][314] In April, the government's ban on social media was perceived to have backfired, with hashtags including #GoHomeGota and #GoGotaGo trending on Twitter in countries such as the United States, Singapore, and Germany. The government's ban was lifted later that day. The Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka has condemned the measure and summoned officials responsible for the blocking and abuse of protesters.[315][316]

On 3 April, all 26 members of the Second Gotabaya Rajapaksa cabinet resigned with the exception of Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa; critics said that the resignation was not valid as they did not follow constitutional protocol.[317][318][319] Several of the ministers who "resigned" were reinstated in different ministries the next day.[320] Chief government whip Johnston Fernando insisted that President Gotabaya Rajapaksa would not resign under any circumstances.[321] The protests, however, achieved the removal of officials and ministers including members of the Rajapaksa family and their close associates along with appointment of more qualified and veteran officials and the creation of the Advisory Group on Multilateral Engagement and Debt Sustainability.[322]

In July 2022, protesters occupied President's House in Colombo, causing Rajapaksa to flee and Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe to announce his own willingness to resign.[323] About a week later, Parliament elected Wickremesinghe as president, on 20 July.[324]


Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow stepped down as president on 19 March 2022, after a non-democratic snap presidential election, in which his son Serdar Berdimuhamedow won, becoming the next President and establishing a political dynasty.[325]


The Citizenship Amendment Act protests occurred after the enactment of the Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) by the Indian government on 12 December 2019, which triggered widespread ongoing protests across India and abroad against the act and the associated proposals to enact a National Register of Citizens (NRC).[326] The Amendment created a pathway to Indian citizenship for illegal migrants belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian communities from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, who had entered India before 2014 fleeing religious persecution.[327] The Amendment does not provide the same pathway to Muslims and others from these countries, nor to refugee Sri Lankan Tamils in India, Rohingyas from Myanmar, or Buddhists from Tibet.[328] The proposed National Register of Citizens (NRC) will be an official record of all legal citizens of India; individuals would need to provide a prescribed set of documents issued before a specified cutoff date to be included in it.[329] The amendment has been widely criticised as discriminating on the basis of religion, in particular for excluding Muslims.[330] Protestors against the amendment demand that it be scrapped and that the nationwide NRC not be implemented.[331] Protesters in Assam and other northeastern states do not want Indian citizenship to be granted to any refugee or immigrant, regardless of their religion, as they fear it would alter the region's demographic balance.[332][333]

Prime Minister Narendra Modi dismissed 12 cabinet ministers, including Health Minister Harsh Vardhan, following intense criticisms over his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ravi Shankar Prasad, who held multiple concurrent positions as Law, Information Technology, and Communications Minister, also resigned.[334]


An Indonesian general was killed by West Papuan separatists in April 2021.[335]


On 8 July 2022, Shinzo Abe, a former prime minister of Japan and a serving member of the House of Representatives, was assassinated while speaking at a political event outside Yamato-Saidaiji Station in Nara, Nara Prefecture, Japan.[336][337][338] While delivering a campaign speech for a Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) candidate, Abe was shot from behind at close range by a man with a homemade firearm.[339] He was transported by medical helicopter to Nara Medical University Hospital, where he was pronounced dead.[340]


In Thailand, protests began in early 2020. Beginning first as demonstrations against the government of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, it later included the unprecedented demands for reform of the Thai monarchy. The protests were initially triggered by the dissolution of the Future Forward Party (FFP) in late February 2020 which was critical of Prayut, the changes to the Thai constitution in 2017 and the country's political landscape that it gave rise to.


Karakalpakstan (red) within Uzbekistan (red and white)

Protests broke out in the autonomous region of Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan on 1 July 2022 over proposed amendments by Shavkat Mirziyoyev, the Uzbek President, to the Constitution of Uzbekistan, which would have ended Karakalpakstan's status as an autonomous region of Uzbekistan and right to secede from Uzbekistan via referendum. A day after protests had begun in the Karakalpak capital of Nukus, President Mirziyoyev withdrew the constitutional amendments. The Karakalpak government said that protesters had attempted to storm government buildings.[341]

Despite concessions given by the Uzbek government in preserving Karakalpakstan's autonomy, protests continued growing, resulting in internet blockage throughout Karakalpakstan on 2 July,[342] and President Mirziyoyev declaring a state of emergency in the region.[343] The protests were quelled by the morning of 3 July.[344] The state of emergency was lifted on July 21.[345]


The European Union reduced in member states from 28 to 27 with the exit of the United Kingdom on January 31, 2020. The response to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a rift between Northern and Southern European member states over spending, with the former demanding more stringent measures to curb overspending, while the latter argued for more financial support in order to overcome the crisis.[346] A key issue of contention was the issuing of so-called corona bonds. After a historic debt-sharing deal for economic stimulus was agreed to by the remaining countries, Hungary and Poland threatened to veto both it and the EU's budget unless a clause demanding the upholding of the rule of law by member states was dropped.[347] A compromise was reached to pass the deal, which involved delaying the implementation of the clause.[348]

Middle EastEdit

As a result of the Arab Spring which began in 2011, which evolved into what some considered the Arab Winter, much of the region was riven by massive instability and conflict, with the Syrian, Libyan and Yemeni Civil Wars continuing into the 2020s.. The 2018–2022 Arab protests in Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Lebanon and Egypt were seen as a continuation of the Arab Spring.[349][350]


Following the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement, Armenian forces were to withdraw from Armenian-occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh by 1 December. An approximately 2,000-strong Russian peacekeeping force from the Russian Ground Forces was to be deployed to the region for a minimum of five years, one of its task being protection of the Lachin corridor, which links Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Additionally, Armenia undertook to "guarantee safety" of passage between mainland Azerbaijan and its Nakhchivan exclave via a strip of land in Armenia's Syunik Province. Russian FSB′s Border Troops would exercise control over the transport communication.[351][352][353]

Shortly after the news about the signing the ceasefire agreement broke in the early hours of 10 November, violent protests erupted in Armenia against Nikol Pashinyan, claiming he was a "traitor" for having accepted the peace deal.[354] Protesters also seized the parliament building by breaking a metal door, and pulled the President of the National Assembly of Armenia Ararat Mirzoyan from a car and beat him.[355][356] Throughout November, numerous Armenian officials resigned from their posts, including the Armenian minister of foreign affairs, Zohrab Mnatsakanyan,[357] the minister of defence, David Tonoyan,[358] head of the same ministry's military control service, Movses Hakobyan,[359] and the spokesman of Armenia's Defense Ministry, Artsrun Hovhannisyan.[360]

Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan accused Chief of the General Staff of the Armenian Armed Forces Onik Gasparyan and more than 40 other high-ranking military officers of attempting a coup after they published a statement calling for Pashinyan's resignation on 25 February 2021. Two days later Armenian President Armen Sarksyan refused the order from Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan to dismiss Onik Gasparyan, saying parts of the decree were in violation of the constitution. Pashinyan immediately resent the motion to dismiss Gasparyan to the president.[361] On 27 February, more than 15,000 protested in the capital Yerevan calling for Pashinyan to resign.[362]


The 2019–2020 Iranian protests were a series of nationwide civil protests in Iran, initially caused by a 50%–200%[363][364][365] increase in fuel prices, becoming the most violent and severe anti-government unrest since the rise of Iran's Islamic Republic in 1979.[366][367][368][369] As many as 1,500 Iranian protesters were killed.[370][371] The government crackdown prompted a violent reaction from protesters who destroyed 731 government banks including Iran's central bank, nine Islamic religious centres, tore down anti-American billboards, and posters and statues of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei as well as former leader Khomeini. Fifty government military bases were also attacked by protesters.[372][373]

In January 2020, the United States assassinated the commander of the Quds Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, general Qasem Soleimani. This led to an Iranian missile strike against bases housing US troops in Iraq five days later. As a result of expectations of a US retribution, the Iranian air defence system accidentally shot down Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, killing all 176 people on board.[374] The International Maritime Security Construct was setup by the US to prevent Iran from disrupting international shipping in the Strait of Hormuz.[375]

Israel was suspected of being behind at least five explosions and fires at Iranian nuclear sites in the summer of 2020.[376] The leading nuclear scientist of the country, Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, was assassinated on 27 November 2020, with Iran blaming Israel for the attack.[377]

The 2021 Iranian protests started on 15 July in Khuzestan in response to the water crisis, but they quickly spread to other provinces and turned political in nature, with protesters in various cities calling for the end of the current regime.[378]

Protests 2021 to presentEdit

The 2021 Iranian protests are ongoing protests in Iran, in many regions, to protest the ongoing water shortages and blackouts of electricity all over Iran, fuelling public anger. Protests erupted on 15 July to protest the water shortages and crisis, but soon was met with police violence and brutality. The protests has been dubbed Uprising of the Thirsty.[379]

The protests started on 15 July in Khuzestan in response to the water crisis, but they quickly spread to other provinces and turned political in nature, with protesters in various cities calling for the end of the current regime.[380] In August 2021 Amnesty International noted that brutal forces have been used by Iran's Security Force to oppress the protesters.[381]

In 2022, ongoing protests in Iran escalated into nationwide civil unrest[382] as a result of government price hikes on staple foods including bread and pasta.[383][384] The protests were part of a countrywide wave of protests beginning in July 2021. Protests were initially concentrated in the water-stricken province of Khuzestan,[385] but rapidly spread nationwide. Authorities responded by declaring riot control action[386] and blocking internet access.[387]

Prior to the start of the demonstrations, preceding and during International Workers' Day on May 1, Iran preemptively detained 38 teachers[388] in order to stymie planned nationwide protests during National Teachers' Day on May 2. Workers' protests in Iran increased in Iran over the past year as the result of a deterioration in living conditions caused by the re-imposition of US sanctions against Iran during the Trump administration, and the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.[389] After the Iranian government ended subsidies for imported wheat, the price of flour soared by around 500%,[390] exacerbating current inflation, which hovered around 50%.[391]

The protests, starting on May 6 in Khuzestan,[392] were initially associated with the rising cost of living. However, they rapidly escalated into anti Mullah demonstrations.[393][394] Ranchers in at least 10 cities allegedly staged demonstrations at offices of the Iranian Agricultural Ministry, with pensioners participating in similar demonstrations.[385] Large scale demonstrations reportedly broke out in the city of Dezful,[385] and reportedly spread into the cities of Khafajia, Hawizeh, and Shiraz.[395] The National Council of Resistance of Iran's president-elect Maryam Rajavi, claimed that protestors had started demonstrations in the cities of Andimeshk, Ahvaz, Hamedan, Isfahan, Dorud, Tabriz, Tehran, Izeh, and Shahr-e Kord.[396]


In 2020–21, demonstrations took place in Baghdad and other parts of Iraq, over popular discontent with government corruption, unemployment, poor government services, and foreign interference within Iraq. Reports said that 450 protesters had been fatally shot by security forces.[397] Major protests were based in Nasiriyah in Dhi Qar province, with hundreds of protesters arriving there from other cities.[398] New clashes erupted in Baghdad between protesters and security forces, with security forces using gunfire against protesters.[399][400][401] One march included more than 1,000 students.[402]

In March 2020, Mohammed Allawi sent a letter to the President of Iraq, stating that he had to decline to take office as Prime Minister since the Iraqi Parliament had declined to approve his cabinet.[403][404][405] Reports indicated that the crowds of protesters in Baghdad had expressed widespread opposition to Allawi.[397][406]

Mustafa Al-Kadhimi was named by President Barham Salih as prime minister-designate, the third person tapped to lead the country in just 10 weeks as it struggled to replace a government that fell last year after months of protests.[407] Kadhimi was nominated by President Barham Salih, state television reported, shortly after the previous designated prime minister, Adnan al-Zurfi, announced he was withdrawing having failed to secure enough support to pass a government.[408] After nearly six months of political negotiations, Iraq's parliament confirmed al-Kadhimi as Prime Minister of Iraq on 6 May 2020.[409] Before entering office, al-Kadhimi said his government would be a government that finds solutions to Iraq's many problems and not a crisis ridden government. He promised early elections and vowed Iraq would not be used as a battleground by other countries.[citation needed] He assumed office on the heels of major upheavals in Iraq - protests, falling oil prices, and the COVID-19 pandemic.[410]

Parliamentary elections were held in Iraq on 10 October 2021.[411] Iraqis who were supporters of the Iran-backed PMF and Fatah Alliance called the results "a fraud", as most Iran-backed parties, including Fatah Alliance, lost many seats.[412] Following the election, clashes between Iraqi protesters and security forces left more than 125 injured and 2 dead. The protestors were supporters of Iran-backed militias and political parties.[413] Two days later on the 7 November, an assassination attempt was made on Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi via a drone strike. The PM survived the attack unharmed but resulted in six of his bodyguards being injured. The security forces reportedly opened fire on demonstrators, leading to at least one death. It was rumored that the assassination attempt was connected to these protests.[414][415]


The 2019–2021 Israeli political crisis continued, with the fourth election within two years held in 2021.[416] The rotation government established after the third elections between the competing factions of Likud and Blue and White collapsed. In foreign relations, the country signed the Abraham Accords (also in 2020), leading to the Bahrain–Israel and Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreements. Sudan also announced that it would be normalizing relations with the country as did Morocco.[417] The Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu also met with Saudi Arabia's crown prince Mohammed bin Salman soon after.[418]

The 2021 Palestinian legislative election for the Palestinian Legislative Council, originally scheduled for 22 May 2021, according to a decree by President Mahmoud Abbas on 15 January 2021, was indefinitely postponed.[419] President Abbas announced the postponement on 29 April 2021, stating the following: "Facing this difficult situation, we decided to postpone the date of holding legislative elections until the participation of Jerusalem and its people is guaranteed."[420]

Mahmoud Abbas was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority on 9 January 2005 for a four-year term that ended on 9 January 2009.[421] The last elections for the Palestinian Legislative Council were held on 25 January 2006.[422] There have not been any elections either for president or for the legislature since these two elections.

The 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis started on 6 May 2021, with Palestinians protesting in Jerusalem over a forthcoming decision of the Israeli Supreme Court regarding the eviction of four Palestinian families from Sheikh Jarrah, a neighbourhood of East Jerusalem.[423] The protests quickly escalated into violent confrontations between Jewish and Palestinian protesters. The following day, the major Islamic holy site and the holiest to Judaism, known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound (the Temple Mount), was stormed[424] by the Israeli police using tear gas, rubber bullets and stun grenades against firecrackers and stone-throwing Palestinians.[425][426][427][428] On 10 May, two Palestinian militant groups, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad, began firing rockets into Israel from the Gaza Strip, hitting multiple residences and a school.[429][430][431] Israel launched airstrikes against Gaza, including airstrikes targeting multiple apartment buildings, a refugee camp, and a news office building.[432][433][434][435][436]

As part of the crisis, widespread protests and riots occurred across Israel, particularly in cities with large Arab populations. In Lod, rocks were thrown at Jewish apartments and some Jewish residents were evacuated from their homes by the police. One man was seriously injured after being struck in the head by a rock. In the nearby city of Ramle, Jewish rioters threw rocks at passing vehicles.[437] On 11 May, Mayor of Lod Yair Revivio urged Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu to deploy Israel Border Police in the city, stating that the city had "completely lost control" and warning that the country was on the brink of "civil war".[438][439] Netanyahu declared a state of emergency in Lod on 11 May, marking the first time since 1966 that Israel has used emergency powers over an Arab community.[440][441] Minister of Public Security Amir Ohana announced the implementation of emergency orders.[441]

Following the unrest, Yair Lapid, leader of the Yesh Atid political party and the Israeli opposition, informed outgoing President Reuven Rivlin that he and Yamina leader Naftali Bennett had reached a deal to form a coalition government, which would remove Netanyahu from power.[442] Mansour Abbas, leader of the United Arab List party, agreed to join the coalition.[443] On 2 June 2021, a coalition agreement was signed between Yesh Atid, Blue and White, Yamina, the Labor Party, Yisrael Beiteinu, New Hope, Meretz, and the United Arab List, with the new government sworn in on 13 June.[444][445] On 20 June 2022, a litlle over a year after the coalition government was sworn in, Bennett and Lapid announced that they would begin the process of dissolving the government, thus sending Israel to a fifth round of elections in less than four years.[446] The election is scheduled for 1 November, with Lapid serving as interim Prime Minister until then.[447]


The 2021 Jordanian coup d'état attempt was a failed military coup attempt against King Abdullah II of Jordan. The former Crown Prince Prince Hamzah bin Hussein was placed under house arrest.


The 17 October Revolution continued, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Saad Hariri, and then his successor Hassan Diab following the 2020 Beirut explosion. These events have also happened against the ongoing Lebanese liquidity crisis. Following being an interim Prime Minister, Saad Hariri resigned in July 2021 after both failing to form a new government in the past eight months and reaching an impasse with President Michel Aoun on adopting some constitutional amendments.[448]


General elections were held in Qatar for the first time on 2 October 2021, following an announcement by the Emir of Qatar on 22 August 2021.[449] The elections for the Consultative Assembly were originally scheduled to be held in the second half of 2013,[450] but were postponed in June 2013 until at least 2016.[451] In 2016 they were postponed again.[452] Finally in November 2020 Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani pledged to hold the election in October 2021.[453] The voter turnout during the election was 63.5%.[454]


In early 2020, there was some evidence of new positive ties between the Syrian government and the Kurdish leaders in the autonomous region of Rojava, as the Kurds asked the Syrian government for help and protection against Turkish forces who invaded that region of Syria.[455]

In June 2020, the Syrian pound underwent a dramatic collapse. The US Government stated via US Envoy James Jeffrey that the collapse would be exacerbated due to sanctions, and offered to help Assad if he agreed to meet certain conditions for political reform.[456] On 10 June, hundreds of protesters returned to the streets of Sweida for the fourth consecutive day, rallying against the collapse of the country's economy, as the Syrian pound plummeted to 3,000 to the dollar within the past week.[457] On 11 June, Prime Minister Imad Khamis was dismissed by President Bashar al-Assad, amid anti-government protests over deteriorating economic conditions.[458] The new lows for the Syrian currency, and the dramatic increase in sanctions, began to appear to raise new threats to the survival of the Assad government.[459][460][461] Analysts noted that a resolution to the current banking crisis in Lebanon might be crucial to restoring stability in Syria.[462]

As of early 2022, Syria was still facing a major economic crisis due to sanctions and other economic pressures. there was some doubt of the Syrian government's ability to pay for subsidies for the population and for basic services and programs.[463][464][465] The UN reported there were massive problems looming for Syria's ability to feed its population in the near future.[466]

In one possibly positive sign for the well-being of Syria's population, several Arab countries began an effort to normalize relations with Syria, and to conclude a deal to provide energy supplies to Syria. This effort was led by Jordan, and included several other Arab countries.[467]


In January 2020, Turkey announced it had sent troops to Libya in order to support the National Transitional Council in the Libyan Civil War, but that they would be in non-combat duties.[468] In March 2020, Turkey started a military offensive against the Syrian Armed Forces as part of its intervention in the Syrian Civil War.[469] That same month Turkey also declared that it would no longer stop migrants from entering the European Union.[470] Turkey also supported the Azerbaijani side in the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war by supplying it with Syrian mercenaries and drones.[471]


The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.[472]


The pink tide showed signs of resurging following a series of violent protests against austerity measures and income inequality scattered throughout Latin America, including the 2019-2020 Chilean protests, 2019–2020 Colombian protests, 2018–19 Haitian protests, and the 2021 Colombian protests.[473][474] This development was strengthened by the landslide victory of left-wing MAS and its presidential candidate Luis Arce in Bolivia in the 2020 Bolivian general election.[475] The trend continued throughout 2021, when multiple left wing leaders won elections in Latin America. In the 2021 Peruvian general election, Peru elected the indigenous, socialist union leader Pedro Castillo in contrast to the previous leaders who embraced neoliberal populism.[476] In November 2021, Honduras elected leftist president Xiomara Castro,[477] and just weeks later, left-winger Gabriel Boric won the 2021 Chilean election.[478]


In 2021, at the request of Bolivia, Argentine prosecutors filed charges against former president Mauricio Macri, security minister Patricia Bullrich, defense minister Oscar Aguad and former Argentine ambassador to Bolivia Normando Álvarez García for allegedly supporting the removal of Evo Morales from power in November 2019.[479] The Argentine government of that time was also accused of sending ammunition and weaponry to help the government of interim president Jeanine Áñez suppress protests organized by Morales's supporters.[479]


The government of Barbados announced in September 2020 that it would transition to a republic during the next year. In 2021, an indirect presidential election was held to choose the first ever President of Barbados. The outgoing Governor-General of Barbados, Dame Sandra Mason, was the only candidate nominated; Mason was sworn in on 30 November, the 55th anniversary of Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom.[480]


On March 30, 2021, the commanders of all three branches of the Brazilian Armed Forces – General Edson Leal Pujol (Army), Admiral Ilques Barbosa Junior (Navy), and Brigadier Antonio Carlos Moretti Bermudez (Air Force) – announced their intention to resign from their posts. The collective resignation announcement came less than a day after the dismissal of former Defence Minister Fernando Azevedo e Silva and was allegedly a move to signal the Armed Forces' opposition to any military interference in politics.

The 2021 Brazilian protests were popular demonstrations that took place in different regions of Brazil, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Protests both supporting and opposing government happened.[481] It was also the first time when sectors linked to the two antagonistic sides, such as the left and the right, began to protest against the government over a common goal, holding caravans on January 23 and 24, 2021.[482]


In May and June 2021, the remains of hundreds of Indigenous people, including hundreds of children, were discovered near the former sites of four Canadian Indian residential schools in the provinces of Manitoba, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. In July, Inuk leader Mary Simon was appointed to be the 30th Governor General of Canada, the first Indigenous person to assume this role. Simon succeeded Chief Justice Richard Wagner, who had been acting as Administrator since the resignation of former Governor General Julie Payette in January.[483]


The 2019–2022 Chilean protests were a series of massive demonstrations and severe riots originated in Santiago and spread to all regions of Chile. The protests have been considered the "worst civil unrest" having occurred in Chile since the end of Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship due to the scale of damage to public infrastructure, the number of protesters, and the measures taken by the government.[484] On 25 October 2019, over 1.2 million people took to the streets of Santiago to protest against social inequality, demanding President Piñera's resignation, in what was called as "The biggest march of Chile."[485][486] At least 29 people died,[487] and nearly 2,500 were injured and 2,840 arrested.[486][488]

On 15 November 2019, Chile's National Congress signed an agreement to hold a national referendum that would rewrite the constitution if it were to be approved.[citation needed] The referendum was rescheduled from April to October 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile.[citation needed] On 25 October 2020, Chileans voted 78.28 per cent in favor of a new constitution, while 21.72 per cent rejected the change. Voter turnout was 51 per cent. On 16 May 2021, the election of the 155 Chileans who will form the convention which will draft the new constitution was voted.[489][490] On 21 December 2021, former students leader and constitutional agreement negotiator, 35-year old leftist Gabriel Boric, was elected president of Chile in the 2021 Chilean presidential election with 55,86% of the vote.[491]


The 2019–20 Colombian protests were a collection of protests that began on 21 November 2019. Hundreds of thousands of Colombians demonstrated for various reasons. Some protested against various proposed economic and political reforms proposed by the government of Iván Duque Márquez, others against the few violent protestors and in favor of the Colombian peace process, and other issues.[245] Another series of protests began in Colombia on 28 April 2021 against increased taxes and health care reform proposed by the government of President Márquez.

After the presidential elections on 29 May 2022, with a runoff on 19 June 2022, Gustavo Petro, a senator and former Mayor of Bogota, defeated Rodolfo Hernández Suárez, former Mayor of Bucaramanga, in the runoff election.[492] Petro's victory made him the first left-wing candidate to be elected president of Colombia.[493][494] Petro, a former AD/M-19 member, was chosen as a candidate of the Historic Pact for Colombia alliance. Petro's left-wing platform encompassed support for land reform, universal health care, continuing the Colombian peace process, and expanding social services.[495][496]


At the 8th Congress of the Communist Party, Raúl Castro officially resigned as the First Secretary, the most powerful position in Cuba.[497] Cuban President Miguel Díaz-Canel was officially named First Secretary of the Communist Party following the resignation of Raúl Castro. He is the first person not of the Castro family to hold the position since the 1959 Cuban revolution.[498]

A series of protests against the Cuban government and the ruling Communist Party of Cuba began on 11 July 2021, triggered by the shortage of food and medicine and the government's response to the resurgent COVID-19 pandemic in Cuba.[499][500] The protests have been described as the largest anti-government demonstrations since the Maleconazo in 1994.[501]

Dominican RepublicEdit

In March 2020, massive protests occurred in the Dominican Republic, due to announced postponement of national elections.[502]


On 7 April 2020, The Criminal Court of the National Court of Justice found the former president Rafael Correa guilty of aggravated passive bribery in 2012–2016. He was sentenced to 8 years in prison in absentia for leading the corruption network that between 2012 and 2016 received "undue contributions" at to finance his political movement in exchange for awarding state contracts to businessmen along with Alexis Mera, former Judiciary Secretary of the Presidency, former Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, María de los Angeles Duarte, former congresswoman Viviana Bonilla and former Constitutional Judge and his secretary Pamela Martínez.[503][504][505][506][507][508]

General elections were held in Ecuador on 7 February 2021. Incumbent president Lenín Moreno did not seek reelection. In first round results, Andrés Arauz had a significant lead, but one not large enough to avoid a runoff with Lasso, who had narrowly beaten third-place finisher Yaku Pérez. On 11 April, Lasso defeated Arauz,[509][510][511] which some news outlets called an upset victory.[512][513]

El SalvadorEdit

in the 2020 Salvadoran political crisis on 9 February 2020, the Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele ordered 1,400 Salvadoran soldiers from the Salvadoran Army to enter the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador to coerce the approval of a loan request of 109 million dollars from the United States for Bukele's security plan for El Salvador.[514] After winning a majority in the 2021 Salvadoran legislative election, President Bukele's party Nuevas Ideas voted to sack the country's Attorney General and the five judges of the Constitutional Court.[515]


Alejandro Giammattei became the new president in 2020. Later in the year, the 2020 Guatemalan protests breakout in response to COVID-19 pandemic and Hurricanes Eta and Iota.


The 2021 Haitian protests were a mass protest movement consisting of popular movement and opposition mass street demonstrations and violent protest marches across Haiti that began on 14 January in protest at president Jovenel Moïse's plan to run for one more year in power. The protests and civil unrest that paralysed Haiti hit hard. Since the 14 January protest, hundreds of thousands took part in weekly protests calling for the government to resign.[516][517][518]

President Moïse said he foiled a coup attempt to kill him and overthrow the government in February 2021; at least 23 people were arrested.[519] He was assassinated on 7 July 2021 at 1 a.m. EDT (UTC−04:00) when a group of 28 gunmen stormed his residence and opened fire.[520] First Lady Martine Moïse was also shot multiple times in the attack. Joseph Lambert, the President of the Senate, was nominated as provisional President of Haiti by a group of senators, potentially succeeding Jovenel Moïse.[521]


In 2021, a former cartel leader testified in a New York court that he had bribed President Juan Orlando Hernández with 250,000 US dollars to prevent extradition to the United States.[522] His brother Tony Hernández was sentenced to life in prison on allegations of drug trafficking, with court documents claiming that the two had conspired to engage in "state-sponsored drug trafficking".[523]

The leftist Xiomara Castro became in 2021 the country's first female president, as well as the first president not to be a member of either the Liberal Party or the National Party since democracy was restored in 1982.[524]


As the Fourth Transformation enters its second year, President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) faces challenges involving social violence (particularly drug-related and other killings),[525] corruption, major infrastructure development, universal health care,[526] and decentralization of the government.[527][528] At a news conference on January 15, 2020, journalist Jorge Ramos pointed that during AMLO's first year as president, there were more homicides than under his predecessors; Ramos asked if a change in strategy and/or personal were required. The president assured him that we would see results by December.[529]

Following several notorious cases of femicide, violence against women emerges as a priority concern. Hundreds of thousands march on March 8[530] and millions of women strike on March 9, 2020.[531]


In May 2021, Nicaragua's Supreme Electoral Council revoked the legal status of opposition party the Democratic Restoration Party (PRD).[532] The same week, the Ortega government opened an investigation into Cristiana Chamorro, alleging money laundering,[533] which threatened to disqualify her candidacy as people under investigation are barred from running.[532] The same day, the police also raided the news offices of her brother Carlos's media channel, Confidencial.[532] On 5 June, the Ortega administration arrested Arturo Cruz.[534] On 8 June, the government arrested Félix Maradiaga, a leader of the Blue and White National Unity (UNAB) opposition group.[535] Later the same day they arrested economist Juan Sebastián Chamorro, the fourth pre-candidate to be detained.[536] On 20 June, the government arrested Miguel Mora, a pre-candidate affiliated with the PRD until the government revoked its charter.[537] Peasant leader Medardo Mairena was also arrested on the night of 5 July 2021,[538] On 9 July, law professor and Civic Alliance attorney María Asunción Moreno announced her intention to register as a pre-candidate with the CxL.[539] The following day, she received a summons from the government,[539] and, following information that she would be arrested, went into hiding and later into exile.[540] On 12 July, Luis Fley confirmed he had gone into exile in response to "threats from the dictatorship to arrest me".[541] Later on 24 July, the government announced the investigation and then the arrest of ACxL conservative pre-candidate Noel Vidaurre,[542] Most of those already arrested are accused of violations of Law 1055, "performing acts that undermine independence, sovereignty, and self-determination".[543]

On 15 June, the Permanent Council of the Organization of American States put out a statement saying it "unequivocally condemns the arrest, harassment and arbitrary restriction imposed on potential presidential candidates, political parties and independent media outlets" and called for "the immediate release of potential candidates and all political prisoners."[544] A large majority of member states (26) endorsed the statement;[544] Following Mora's arrest, Mexico and Argentina jointly recalled their ambassadors from Nicaragua for consultation, citing "the worrying political-legal actions carried out by the Nicaraguan government in recent days that have put at risk the integrity and freedom of various opposition figures (including presidential candidates), Nicaraguan activists and businessmen".[545]

United StatesEdit

The impeachment trial of Donald Trump found him not guilty in February 2020. The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries ended up supporting moderate Joe Biden (former Vice President to Barack Obama) as the party's nominee, over more progressive choices such as Bernie Sanders or Elizabeth Warren. The presidential campaign was dominated by the issues of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic fallout. A month before the election, Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg died unexpectedly, leading to the nomination and confirmation of Amy Coney Barrett as her replacement by the sitting President Trump and the Republican-held Senate. The election ended with Biden winning. Trump made numerous false allegations of election fraud and attempted to overturn the election results, but this failed.

George Floyd protestsEdit

The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of protests, lootings, riots, and demonstrations against police brutality and racism in policing. The protests began in the United States in Minneapolis on May 26, 2020,[546] after George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, was murdered by Derek Chauvin, a white police officer. Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for over nine minutes during an arrest the previous day.[547]

The unrest began as local protests in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota before quickly spreading across the entire nation as well as George Floyd protests outside the United States in support of Black Lives Matter. While the majority of protests have been peaceful,[548] demonstrations in some cities descended into riots and widespread looting,[549][550] with some being marked by street skirmishes and strong police reaction, notably against some peaceful protesters and members of the media.[551] At least 200 cities imposed curfews by 3 June, while at least 27 states and Washington, D.C, activated over 74,000 National Guard personnel due to the mass unrest.[552][553][554] From the beginning of the protests to June 3, at least 11,000 people had been arrested,[555] including all four police officers who were present while Floyd was murdered.[556]


During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, President Vizcarra instituted stay-at-home orders and issued relief funds, but existing inequality, overcrowding and a largely informal economy saw Peru being heavily affected by the pandemic. As a result, Peru's gross domestic product declined thirty percent, increasing political pressure on Vizcarra's government. In September 2020, Congress opened impeachment proceedings against Vizcarra on grounds of "moral incapacity", accusing him of influence peddling after audio recordings were released by an opposition legislator, but the process did not receive enough votes to remove him from office.

On 9 November 2020, the Peruvian Congress impeached Vizcarra a second time, after declaring him "morally incompetent"; he was removed from office.[557] The President of Congress, Manuel Merino, succeeded him as President of Peru the following day.[558] Vizcarra's removal from office was seen as a coup by many Peruvians,[559] political analysts[560] and media outlets in the country,[561][562][563][564][565] resulting in the beginning of the 2020 Peruvian protests. Following the deaths of protesters, Merino resigned after only five days.[566] The new president chosen by the legislature was Francisco Sagasti, a former World Bank official characterised as a "centrist technocrat".[567]

After the 2021 Peruvian general election won by Pedro Castillo, the candidate of the Marxist Free Peru party, runner-up Keiko Fujimori disseminated claims of electoral fraud.[568][569] Observers from the Inter-American Union of Electoral Organizations, the Organization of American States, and the Progressive International denied any instances of widespread fraud and praised the accuracy of the elections.[570][571] A letter signed by almost one-hundred retired officers of the Peruvian armed forces was written calling on current military leaders in Peru to refuse recognizing the election of Castillo into the presidency.[572] President Francisco Sagasti condemned the letter, stating: "They want to incite top commanders of the Army, Navy, and Air force to break the rule of law."[572]

Since taking office, Castillo has distanced himself from Free Peru, adopted more moderate left-wing cabinets and was later described as holding conservative or right-wing political positions. Going through four cabinets in a little over six months and his choice of appointing close acquaintances as officials led to his government facing the most unstable beginning in more than twenty years, with questions arising about his apparent inexperience for office. Following failed impeachment proceeding in December 2021 and March 2022, a transportation union leader who previously cooperated with politicians and businessmen to destabilize Castillo's government helped organize a general strike that expanded into the 2022 Peruvian protests.


The Crisis in Venezuela and its presidential crisis continued in 2020.

On 5 January, the 2020 Venezuelan National Assembly Delegated Committee election was disputed between Luis Parra and opposition leader Juan Guaidó.[573] On 19 January, Guaidó left Venezuela and arrived in Colombia, planning to meet with Mike Pompeo, as well as traveling to Europe and the United States later.[574]

On 26 March, the Department of State declared a $15 million bounty on Nicolás Maduro, as well as $10 million each on Diosdado Cabello, Hugo Carvajal, Clíver Alcalá Cordones and Tareck El Aissami, for charges of drug trafficking and narco-terrorism.[575] Following this, Clíver Alcalá, a former general residing in Colombia, published a video claiming responsibility for a stockpile of weapons and military equipment seized in Colombia.[576] According to Alcalá, he had made a contract with Guaidó and "American advisers" in order to buy weapons to remove Maduro.[576] Alcalá did not present any evidence[576] and Guaidó rejected the allegations.[577] After wishing farewell to his family, Alcalá surrendered to US authorities on 27 March.[578]

On 3 May, eight former Venezuelan soldiers were killed and seventeen rebels were captured on 3 May, including two American security contractors, after approximately 60 men landed in Macuto and tried to invade Venezuela. The members of the naval attack force were employed as private military contractors by Silvercorp USA and the operation aimed to depose Maduro from power.[579]



During the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Cabinet was established while Australia received praise during 2020 for being one of the few Western countries to successfully suppress the virus,[580] though the slow pace of the COVID-19 vaccination rollout was criticized.[581] In 2021, the country joined the AUKUS security pact amid increased tensions between Australia and China[582] The Morrison government was defeated at the 2022 Australian federal election, with Scott Morrison subsequently announcing he would resign as the leader of the Liberal Party.[583]

New ZealandEdit

In the 2020 New Zealand general election, the governing Labour Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern won the election in a landslide victory against the National Party, led by Judith Collins.[584] It was the first time a New Zealand political party has secured a majority government under the mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) system introduced in 1996.[585] Labour also achieved the highest percentage of the popular vote (49.1%) for any political party since the 1951 general election (where the then-National Party won 54.0% of the popular vote). Labour also achieved its third-highest ever percentage of the popular vote (49.1%) in its political history, surpassed only by its previous general election victories of 1938 (55.8%) and 1946 (51.3%).[citation needed] Conversely in this election, the National Party obtained the second-lowest ever percentage of the popular vote (26.79%) in its history, second only to the lowest percentage obtained in 2002 (20.93%).[citation needed]


A constitutional crisis began in Samoa on 22 May 2021 when the O le Ao o le Malo (Head of State) Tuimalealiifano Va'aletoa Sualauvi II issued a proclamation purporting to prevent the Legislative Assembly of Samoa from meeting in the wake of the April 2021 Samoan general election.[586] Court rulings had upheld the election results, giving a parliamentary majority to the Faʻatuatua i le Atua Samoa ua Tasi (FAST) party, led by Fiame Naomi Mataʻafa. On 24 May 2021, a makeshift ceremony was held outside of Parliament to swear in Mata'afa as prime minister. On 23 July the Court of Appeal declared that the ceremony was binding and that FAST had been the government since that date.[587][588]

Solomon IslandsEdit

The 2021 Solomon Islands unrest was a series of demonstrations and violent riots in the Solomon Islands, which began on 24 November 2021. Australia responded to the unrest by deploying Australian Federal Police and Australian Defence Force personnel following a request from the Sogavare government under the Australia-Solomon Islands Bilateral Security Treaty.[589]


Gracia Shadrack, Vanuatu's speaker, declared in 2021 that the seats of the prime minister Bob Loughman, the deputy prime minister, and 16 other MPs are vacant after they boycott parliament for three days.[590] Supreme Court of Vanuatu Justice Oliver Saksak placed a stay on speaker Gracia Shadrack's vacation of the 18 seats of parliament until a court could formally consider the dispute.[591]

See alsoEdit

See also


  1. ^ In 2003, during Prime Minister Vajpayee's visit to China, the Special Representatives mechanism for boundary dispute resolution was set up. Since then, the Special Representatives have had 22 rounds of talks till December 2019.[134]
  2. ^ According to ThePrint, "The WMCC is a joint secretary-level platform established in 2012 for border management between the countries and to share views on strengthening communication and cooperation, including between border security personnel."[137]


  1. ^ a b c "COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)". ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 16 August 2022.
  2. ^ "Coronavirus Update (Live): 76,583,060 Cases and 1,691,014 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic - Worldometer". worldometers.info. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  3. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  4. ^ Lee J, Yadav M. "The Rise of Anti-Asian Hate in the Wake of Covid-19". Social Science Research Council. Social Science Research Council. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  5. ^ Ang, Yuen Yuen (2020). "When COVID-19 meets centralized, personalized power". Nature Human Behaviour. 4 (5): 445–447. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0872-3. PMID 32273583. S2CID 215532797.
  6. ^ Stasavage, David (2020). "Democracy, Autocracy, and Emergency Threats: Lessons for COVID-19 From the Last Thousand Years". International Organization. 74: E1–E17. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000338.
  7. ^ Lipscy, Phillip (2020). "COVID-19 and the Politics of Crisis". International Organization. 74: E98–E127. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000375. S2CID 225135699.
  8. ^ Druckman, James; Klar, Samara (2020). "How Affective Polarization Shapes Americans' Political Beliefs: A Study of Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic". Journal of Experimental Political Science. 8 (3): 223–234. doi:10.1017/XPS.2020.28. S2CID 222312130.
  9. ^ Fazal, Tanisha (2020). "Health Diplomacy in Pandemical Times". International Organization. 74: E78–E97. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000326. S2CID 229265358.
  10. ^ McFall-Johnsen, Juliana Kaplan, Lauren Frias, Morgan (14 March 2020). "A third of the global population is on coronavirus lockdown – here's our constantly updated list of countries and restrictions". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  11. ^ The return of Keynesianism? Exploring path dependency and ideational change in post-covid fiscal policy. Policy & Society. Volume 41, Issue 1, January 2022, Pages 68–82
  12. ^ Elliott, Larry (8 October 2019). "Nations must unite to halt global economic slowdown, says new IMF head". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  13. ^ Cox, Jeff (21 November 2019). "The worst of the global economic slowdown may be in the past, Goldman says". CNBC. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  14. ^ Zumbrun, Josh (10 May 2020). "Coronavirus Slump Is Worst Since Great Depression. Will It Be as Painful?". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  15. ^ "World Economic Outlook, April 2020 : The Great Lockdown". IMF. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  16. ^
  17. ^ "World Economic Outlook Update, June 2020: A Crisis Like No Other, An Uncertain Recovery". IMF. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  18. ^ "The Great Lockdown: Worst Economic Downturn Since the Great Depression". IMF Blog. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  19. ^ "COVID-19 to Plunge Global Economy into Worst Recession since World War II". World Bank. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  20. ^ "Unemployment cases jump in the United States". CNBC. 15 October 2020.
  21. ^ Aratani, Lauren (15 April 2020). "'Designed for us to fail': Floridians upset as unemployment system melts down". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  22. ^ "The coronavirus has destroyed the job market. See which states have been hit the hardest". NBC News. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  23. ^ "ILO: COVID-19 causes devastating losses in working hours and employment". 7 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  24. ^ Partington, Richard (14 April 2020). "UK economy could shrink by 35% with 2m job losses, warns OBR". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  25. ^ Sullivan, Kath (13 April 2020). "Unemployment forecast to soar to highest rate in almost 30 years". ABC News. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  26. ^ Amaro, Silvia (15 April 2020). "Spain's jobless rate is set to surge much more than in countries like Italy". CNBC. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  27. ^ "Covid stops many migrants sending money home". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  28. ^ Picheta, Rob. "Coronavirus pandemic will cause global famines of 'biblical proportions,' UN warns". CNN. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  29. ^ Yergin, Daniel (7 April 2020). "The Oil Collapse". Foreign Affairs : An American Quarterly Review. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  30. ^ Dan, Avi. "Consumer Attitudes And Behavior Will Change in the Recession, And Persist When It Ends". Forbes. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  31. ^ "The $1.5 Trillion Global Tourism Industry Faces $450 Billion Collapse in Revenues, Based on Optimistic Assumptions". Wolf Street. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  32. ^ "Energy crunch: How high will oil prices climb?". Al-Jazeera. 27 September 2021.
  33. ^ "Covid is at the center of world's energy crunch, but a cascade of problems is fueling it". NBC News. 8 October 2021.
  34. ^ "Energy Crisis 2021: How Bad Is It, And How Long Will It Last?". Forbes. 19 October 2021.
  35. ^ "Biggest stock slide on Wall Street since '20 as oil surges". AP News (STAN CHOE and ALEX VEIGA). 7 March 2022.
  36. ^ "China says virus pushing US ties to brink of 'Cold War'". The Times of India. May 24, 2020. Archived from the original on 12 December 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  37. ^ President Biden: 'We are not seeking a new Cold War or a world divided'. BBC News. 21 September 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  38. ^ Liptak, Kevin (21 September 2021). "UN General Assembly kicks off in New York City". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  39. ^ "Global Energy Crisis Shows Fragility of Clean-Power Era". Bloomberg.com. 2021-10-05. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  40. ^ "Warning UK energy bills may soar 30% in 2022 – as it happened". The Independent. 2021-10-07. Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  41. ^ "China's Energy Crisis Is Hitting Everything From iPhones to Milk". Bloomberg.com. 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  42. ^ "The Electricity Crisis Was Not Caused By A 'Perfect Storm'". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  43. ^ "Inflation rates". International Monetary Fund via World Bank. Archived from the original on 2021-12-06.
  44. ^ "Strong consumer demand lifts United Spirits net 26.62%". www.thehindubusinessline.com. 2022-01-25. Archived from the original on 2022-06-21.
  45. ^
  46. ^ Weber, Alexander (2 February 2022). "Euro-Zone Inflation Unexpectedly Hits Record, Boosting Rate Bets". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 12 February 2022.
  47. ^ "India's Dec WPI inflation at 13.56% as firms fight rising costs". Reuters. 14 January 2022. Archived from the original on 12 February 2022.
  48. ^ Kihara, Leika (14 January 2022). "Japan's wholesale inflation at near record high on broad price gains". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 February 2022.
  49. ^ Horowitz, Julia (12 March 2022). "War has brought the world to the brink of a food crisis". CNN. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  50. ^ Lynch, Colum. "U.N. to Keep Beasley at WFP as Food Crises Roil the World". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  51. ^ a b McDonough, Siobhan (27 February 2022). "What the Russian invasion of Ukraine could mean for global hunger". Vox. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  52. ^ Nicas, Jack (20 March 2022). "Ukraine War Threatens to Cause a Global Food Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  53. ^ a b c Good, Keith (21 March 2022). ""Global Food Crisis" Possible- - "No Precedent Even Close to This Since World War II" • Farm Policy News". Farm Policy News. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  54. ^ "Food prices jump 20.7% yr/yr to hit record high in Feb, U.N. agency says". Reuters. 5 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  55. ^ a b c Braun, Phillip. "How The Russia-Ukraine War Has Compounded The Global Food Crisis". Forbes. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  56. ^ "Global food security: These are the main challenges to feeding the world – and how we can solve them". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  57. ^ Philpott, Tom. "As Russia's invasion roils supply chains, the world grows hungrier". Mother Jones. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  58. ^ Suleymanova, Radmilla. "Ukraine war 'aggravating' existing global food crisis, UN warns". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  59. ^ "Secretary-General Warns of Grim Post-Pandemic Future, Predicting 'Historic' Hunger, Famine, in Remarks to High-Level Event on Financing for Development – World". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  60. ^ correspondent, Fiona Harvey Environment (2020-04-21). "Coronavirus pandemic 'will cause famine of biblical proportions'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  61. ^ Harvey, Fiona (2020-04-21). "Coronavirus crisis could double number of people suffering acute hunger – UN". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  62. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Rising hunger threatens famines as coronavirus crashes economies, leaves crops to rot in fields | DW | 11.06.2020". DW.COM. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  63. ^ "Famine risk for millions in second locust wave". phys.org. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  64. ^ Correspondent, Richard Spencer, Middle East. "Coronavirus thrives in Yemen, already devastated by war and famine". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
  65. ^ Angel, Maytaal (July 26, 2021). "COVID-19 crisis has led to food crisis, says Italy's Draghi". Reuters.
  66. ^ a b "WFP Chief warns of grave dangers of economic impact of Coronavirus as millions are pushed further into hunger". World Food Programme. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  67. ^ "Global Migration Data Portal". Migration data portal. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  68. ^ "World Bank Predicts Sharpest Decline of Remittances in Recent History". World Bank. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
  69. ^ Gibbs, Stephen. "Venezuelans at risk of famine as price of oil sinks to $1 a barrel". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  70. ^ Okiror, Samuel (9 October 2020). "Aid cuts and Covid force Uganda refugees to brink of starvation". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  71. ^ "Growing numbers of 'newly hungry' forced to use UK food banks". the Guardian. 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
  72. ^ Keane, Daniel; Blake, Elly (14 March 2022). "What is the Homes for Ukraine refugees scheme and how do you apply?". Evening Standard. ISSN 2041-4404. Archived from the original on 14 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  73. ^ Pita, Antonio; Costa, Raúl Sánchez (3 March 2022). "Ukrainian exodus could be Europe's biggest refugee crisis since World War II". El País. ISSN 0213-4608. Archived from the original on 5 April 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  74. ^ "Situation Ukraine Refugee Situation". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  75. ^ "Liz Truss mulls seizure of Russian assets in UK to give to Ukraine". the Guardian. 3 July 2022. Retrieved 4 July 2022.
  76. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca; Clayton, Abené; Gabbatt, Adam; Chao-Fong, Léonie; Lock, Samantha; Ambrose, Tom (19 March 2022). "Biden outlines 'consequences' if China aids Russia – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 1756-3224. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  77. ^ "Ukraine war: Putin being misled by fearful advisers, US says". BBC News. BBC. 31 March 2022. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  78. ^ Barbaro, Michael; Chaturvedi, Asthaa; Szypko, Rob; Quester, Rachel; Johnson, Michael; Baylen, Liz O.; Daniel, Chelsea; Powell, Dan; Lozano, Marion (5 April 2022). "How the War in Ukraine is Creating a Global Food Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  79. ^ "The coming food catastrophe". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 15 June 2022.
  80. ^ Kirby, Jen; Guyer, Jonathan (24 February 2022). "Russia's war in Ukraine, explained". Vox. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  81. ^ "Conflict in Ukraine". Global Conflict Tracker. Council on Foreign Relations. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  82. ^ "Russia's invasion of Ukraine". The Economist. 26 February 2022. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022. Though the target of Mr. Putin's tirade on February 21st was Ukraine, the former Soviet republics now in NATO, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, have cause for alarm over his irredentism.
  83. ^ Perrigo, Billy (22 February 2022). "How Putin's Denial of Ukraine's Statehood Rewrites History". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. OCLC 1311479. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  84. ^ "Putin Says He Does Not Plan to 'Restore Empire'". Moscow Times. 22 February 2022. OCLC 1097137921. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  85. ^ Tabarovsky, Izabella; Finkel, Eugene (27 February 2022). "Statement on the War in Ukraine by Scholars of Genocide, Nazism and World War II". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  86. ^ Abbruzzese, Jason (24 February 2022). "Putin says he is fighting a resurgence of Nazism. That's not true". NBC News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  87. ^ Hernandez, Joe (22 February 2022). "Why Luhansk and Donetsk are key to understanding the latest escalation in Ukraine". NPR. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  88. ^ Hodge, Nathan (22 February 2022). "Russia's Federation Council gives consent to Putin on use of armed forces abroad, Russian agencies report". CNN International. Moscow. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  89. ^ Nikolskaya, Polina; Osborn, Andrew (24 February 2022). "Russia's Putin authorises 'special military operation' against Ukraine". Reuters. Moscow. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  90. ^ Grunau, Andrea; von Hein, Matthias; Theise, Eugen; Weber, Joscha (25 February 2022). "Fact check: Do Vladimir Putin's justifications for going to war against Ukraine add up?". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  91. ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (3 March 2022). "Historians on What Putin Gets Wrong About 'Denazification' in Ukraine". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. OCLC 1311479. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  92. ^ "Russia attacks Ukraine". CNN International. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  93. ^ a b Kirby, Paul (9 March 2022). "Why is Russia invading Ukraine and what does Putin want?". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  94. ^ "Ukrainian president signs decree on general mobilisation of population -Interfax". Reuters. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  95. ^ "Zelensky signs decree declaring general mobilization". Interfax-Ukraine. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  96. ^ "Ukraine rejects Russian demand to surrender port city of Mariupol in exchange for safe passage". CBS News. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  97. ^ "Ukraine refuses to surrender Mariupol as scope of human toll remains unclear". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  98. ^ Balmforth, Tom (4 July 2022). "Analysis: Russia hails capture of Luhansk region, but big Ukraine battles lie ahead". Reuters. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  99. ^ Myre, Greg (26 June 2022). "Russia bombs Kyiv in a weekend missile barrage across Ukraine". NPR. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  100. ^ "Russia hits Lviv again as Putin's campaign of terror focuses on Ukraine's shell-shocked east". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 7 July 2022.
  101. ^ "Ukraine News: Kyiv Intensifies Attacks on Russian Positions in South". The New York Times. 20 July 2022.
  102. ^ "UN resolution against Ukraine invasion: Full text". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022. The General Assembly ... [d]eplores in the strongest terms the aggression by the Russian Federation against Ukraine in violation of Article 2 (4) of the Charter
  103. ^ Chernova, Anna; Cotovio, Vasco; Thompson, Mark (28 February 2022). "Sanctions slams Russian economy". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 28 May 2022.
  104. ^ "NATO to deploy thousands of commandos to nations near Ukraine". Al Jazeera. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  105. ^ Morin, Rebecca; Subramanian, Courtney; Collins, Michael; Garrison, Joey; Groppe, Maureen (24 February 2022). "World leaders condemn Russian invasion of Ukraine; EU promises 'harshest' sanctions – live updates". USA Today. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  106. ^ Stewart, Briar; Seminoff, Corinne; Kozlov, Dmitry (24 February 2022). "More than 1,700 people detained in widespread Russian protests against Ukraine invasion". CBC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
  107. ^ Simon, Scott (5 March 2022). "Russian law bans journalists from calling Ukraine conflict a 'war' or an 'invasion'". NPR. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  108. ^ Corder, Mike (3 March 2022). "ICC prosecutor launches Ukraine war crimes investigation". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 16 April 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2022.
  109. ^ "First-ever treaty to ban nuclear weapons enters into force". news.yahoo.com. AP. January 22, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  110. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (24 May 2020). "Chinese troops challenge India at multiple locations in eastern Ladakh, standoff continues". The Print. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  111. ^ Singh, Sushant (24 May 2020). "Chinese intrusions at 3 places in Ladakh, Army chief takes stock". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  112. ^ "India soldiers killed in clash with Chinese forces". BBC News. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  113. ^ Som, Vishnu (22 June 2020). Ghosh, Deepshikha (ed.). "At Talks, China Confirms Commanding Officer Was Killed in Ladakh: Sources". NDTV.com. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  114. ^ "China suffered 43 casualties during face-off with India in Ladakh: Report". India Today. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  115. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes :20 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  116. ^ Bali, Pawan (20 June 2020). "India also released captured Chinese soldiers in Galwan Valley, claims Gen VK Singh". Deccan Chronicle.
  117. ^ "China denies detaining Indian soldiers after reports say 10 freed". Al Jazeera. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  118. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (8 September 2020). "Shots Fired Along India-China Border for First Time in Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  119. ^ Kaushik, Krishn (9 September 2020). "First time in 45 years, shots fired along LAC as troops foil China's bid to take a key height". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  120. ^ Singh, Vijaita (11 September 2020). "LAC standoff | Officials confirm two incidents of firing at south bank of Pangong Tso". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  121. ^ "India, China complete troop disengagement at three friction points, focus now on Finger area". Hindustan Times. ANI. 25 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  122. ^ Bhalla, Abhishek (19 February 2021). "India, China complete disengagement in Pangong Tso, next round of military talks on Saturday". India Today. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  123. ^ Singh, Sushant (11 August 2021). "Gogra Disengagement Raises More Questions About the Situation in Ladakh". The Wire. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  124. ^ Panag, Lt Gen (Retd) H S (12 August 2021). "Modi government's politics with China is evolving. Gogra disengagement is proof". ThePrint. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  125. ^ Singh, Rahul; Choudhury, Sunetra (31 May 2020). "Amid Ladakh standoff, 12,000 workers to be moved to complete projects near China border". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  126. ^ Ray, Kalyan; Bhaumik, Anirban (1 June 2020). "Amid border tension, India sends out a strong message to China". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  127. ^ Kumar, Rajesh (14 June 2020). "CM flags off train with 1,600 workers for border projects". The Times of India. Ranchi. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  128. ^ Singh, Sushant (26 May 2020). "Indian border infrastructure or Chinese assertiveness? Experts dissect what triggered China border moves". The Indian Express. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  129. ^ "China starts construction activities near Pangong Lake amid border tensions with India". Business Today (India). 27 May 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  130. ^ Desai, Shweta (3 June 2020). "Beyond Ladakh: Here's how China is scaling up its assets along the India-Tibet frontier". Newslaundry. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  131. ^ Krishnan, Ananth (12 June 2020). "Beijing think-tank links scrapping of Article 370 to LAC tensions". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  132. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes :6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  133. ^ Roche, Elizabeth (8 June 2020). "India, China to continue quiet diplomacy on border dispute". LiveMint.com. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  134. ^ Sandhu, P.J.S. (21 July 2020). "It Is Time to Accept How Badly India Misread Chinese Intentions in 1962 – and 2020". The Wire. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  135. ^ Sagar, Pradip R (13 August 2020). "100 days on, India-China border in Ladakh still remains tense". The Week. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  136. ^ Mitra, Devirupa (6 June 2020). "Ahead of Border Talks With China, India Still Unclear of Reason Behind Troops Stand-Off". The Wire (India). Retrieved 6 June 2020. On Saturday, Indian and Chinese military officials of Lieutenant General-rank are likely to meet at a border personnel meeting (BPM) ... The various BPM meetings – led first by colonels, then brigadiers and then finally over three rounds by major general-rank officers – have until now yielded no results.
  137. ^ Philip, Snehesh Alex (12 August 2020). "No progress made in India-China major general-level talks, all eyes now on diplomatic parleys". ThePrint. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  138. ^ Gokhale, Nitin A. (27 April 2021). "Eastern Ladakh: Chinese Formations Undertaking Rotation". Bharat Shakti. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  139. ^ "At SCO meet, Rajnath Singh tells China to restore status quo at LAC". Hindustan Times. 5 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  140. ^ Kaushik, Krishn (14 January 2022). "No breakthrough in 14th round of India-China military talks, but two sides agree to 'meet soon'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  141. ^ Suneja, Kirtika; Agarwal, Surabhi (17 June 2020). "Is This Hindi-Chini Bye Bye on Trade Front? Maybe Not: No immediate impact likely on business relations, say govt officials". The Economic Times. Retrieved 4 July 2020 – via Pressreader.com.
  142. ^ Pandey, Neelam (16 June 2020). "Traders' body calls for boycott of 3,000 Chinese products over 'continued' border clashes". ThePrint. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  143. ^ Ninan, T. N. (20 June 2020). "To hit China, aim carefully. Don't shoot yourself in the foot". ThePrint. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  144. ^ Arnimesh, Shanker (15 June 2020). "RSS affiliate wants Modi govt to cancel Chinese firm's bid for Delhi-Meerut RRTS project". ThePrint. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  145. ^ Dastidar, Avishek G; Tiwari, Ravish (18 June 2020). "Chinese firms to lose India business in Railways, telecom". The Indian Express. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  146. ^ Krishnan, Ananth (25 November 2020). "China slams India's ban on 43 more apps". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  147. ^ "Four die as Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan armies clash on disputed border". The Guardian. Associated Press. 29 April 2021. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  148. ^ "Минздрав Кыргызстана заявил о 31 погибшем в результате пограничного конфликта". Report Information Agency. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  149. ^ "Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan agree to ceasefire". TASS. April 29, 2021. Foreign Ministers of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan agreed to a ceasefire at the border starting on 20:00 local time (17:00 Moscow time) April 29, Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry announced Thursday.
  150. ^ "Deadly fighting on Kyrgyzstan-Tajikistan border kills at least 31". BBC News. 30 April 2021.
  151. ^ "After 9 days of bloody clashes, Hayyaat Tahrir al-Sham with the "jihadi" factions control about 80% of the area of what is left for the opposition factions within Syrian territory". syriahr.com. 9 January 2020.
  152. ^ "Nearly 700,000 Displaced in NW Syria as Regime Fire Spikes". Asharq AL-awsat.
  153. ^ "Russian, Syrian Regime Forces Step Up Attacks on Rebel Stronghold Idlib". Voice of America.
  154. ^ "Turkey bolsters Idlib outposts as Syrian gov't forces make gains". Al Jazeera. 2020-02-07. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  155. ^ "Syrian Attacks Draw Turkey Deeper Into Syrian War". The New York Times. 2020-02-12. Retrieved 2020-03-19.
  156. ^ "Turkey launches Operation Spring Shield". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2020-03-05.
  157. ^ "Turkey launches Operation Spring Shield against regime aggression in Syria". Istanbul: Daily Sabah. 2020-03-01.
  158. ^ Amberin Zaman (2020-03-01). "Turkey launches Operation Spring Shield against Syrian forces". Al-Monitor.
  159. ^ Joe Truzman (2020-03-05). "Turkey's Operation "Spring Shield" delivers blow to Hezbollah". Longwarjournal.org.
  160. ^ "Rusya'dan İdlib açıklaması: Ateşkes düzenlemesine genel olarak uyuluyor" (in Turkish). Ankara: Milliyet. 2020-03-12.
  161. ^ "Suspected Israeli strikes on Iran-linked targets 'kill dozens'". BBC News. 2021-01-13.
  162. ^ "U.S. bombs facilities in Syria used by Iran-backed militia". NBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  163. ^ Romo, Vanessa (25 February 2021). "U.S. Launches Military Airstrikes Against Iranian-Backed Militants In Syria". NPR. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  164. ^ Syria in 2022: Deadlock, violence, and a possible famine, Analysis, Paul McLoughlin, 31 December 2021.
  165. ^ US-led coalition hits rocket launch sites in Syria, January 04, 2022, arabnews website.
  166. ^ "UN calls on humanity to end 'war on nature,' go carbon-free". AP NEWS. 2020-12-02. Retrieved 2020-12-06.
  167. ^ Climate Change United Nations, retrieved 14 Jan 2020
  168. ^ Climate change World Health Organization, 14 Jan 2020
  169. ^ "Facts and figures: Leadership and political participation". UN Women. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  170. ^ "Katerina Sakellaropoulou becomes Greece's first woman president". CNN. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  171. ^ "Austria swears in first female-majority Cabinet". Deutsche Welle. 2020-07-01. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  172. ^ Angela Merkel: Europe should make its own chips and electric car batteries By Charles Riley, CNN Business, 16 Jan 2020
  173. ^ Swiss Crypto AG spying scandal shakes reputation for neutrality BBC World, 16 Feb 2020
  174. ^ Miller, Greg; Cenziper, Debbie; Whoriskey, Peter (3 October 2021). "Pandora Papers – A Global Investigation – Billions Hidden Beyond Reach – Trove of secret files details opaque financial universe where global elite shield riches from taxes, probes and accountability". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  175. ^ Díaz-Struck, Emilia; et al. (3 October 2021). "Pandora Papers: An offshore data tsunami – The Pandora Papers's 11.9 million records arrived from 14 different offshore services firms in a jumble of files and formats – even ink-on-paper – presenting a massive data-management challenge". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  176. ^ a b Pandora Papers reporting team (4 October 2021). "Pandora Papers: A simple guide to the Pandora Papers leak". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  177. ^ "Offshore havens and hidden riches of world leaders and billionaires exposed in unprecedented leak – ICIJ". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. 3 October 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  178. ^ "Pandora Papers: Secret wealth and dealings of world leaders exposed". BBC News. 3 October 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  179. ^ "What are the Panama Papers? A guide to history's biggest data leak". The Guardian. 2016-04-05. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 2021-10-05.
  180. ^ "Bigger than Panama: Several Pakistani names on upcoming Pandora Papers". Samaa TV. 2 October 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  181. ^ "Pandora Papers: Exposé featuring financial secrets of high-profile individuals to be released Sunday". www.geo.tv. 2 October 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  182. ^ "ICIJ set to release Pandora Papers same like Panama Papers". Dunya News. 2 October 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  183. ^ Ghumman, Faisal Ali (2 October 2021). "ICIJ 'to release' Pandora Papers (Panama-2) also involving Pakistanis tomorrow". GNN – Pakistan's Largest News Portal. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  184. ^ The Guardian investigations team (3 October 2021). "Pandora papers: biggest ever leak of offshore data exposes financial secrets of rich and powerful". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  185. ^ Walt, Vivienne (4 October 2021). "Pandora Papers show tax crackdowns are no match for the superrich". Fortune. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  186. ^ Miller, Greg; Cenziper, Debbie; Whoriskey, Peter (3 October 2021). "VIDEO (at 7:12 of 7:43 total) – Pandora Papers – A Global Investigation – Billions Hidden Beyond Reach – Trove of secret files details opaque financial universe where global elite shield riches from taxes, probes and accountability". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  187. ^ Outlook for Global Trade in 2020 Author: Tomasz Brodzicki, Ph.D., Senior Economist II, IHS Markit Maritime & Trade, 2 Jan 2020
  188. ^ "The meaning of RCEP, the world's biggest trade agreement". The Economist. 2020-11-15. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  189. ^ What Can We Expect from Africa in the 2020s? by Alexander Hammond, African Liberty.org, 24 Jan 2020
  190. ^ South American bloc eyes fast-track for EU trade deal by Maximilian Heath, Reuters Business News, 17 July 2019
  191. ^ Capaccio, Anthony (May 18, 2022). "US-Taliban Deal Pushed Afghanistan to Collapse: Watchdog". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  192. ^ Qazi, Shereena (February 29, 2020). "Afghanistan's Taliban, US sign agreement aimed at ending war". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  193. ^ a b Basu, Nayanima (12 September 2020). "India asserts Afghanistan's 'national sovereignty' as peace talks with Taliban start in Qatar". ThePrint. Archived from the original on 4 April 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  194. ^ Borger, Julian (18 May 2022). "US withdrawal triggered catastrophic defeat of Afghan forces, damning watchdog report finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  195. ^ "US withdrawal prompted collapse of Afghan army: Report". Al Jazeera. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  196. ^ "Security Council resolution endorses moves towards long-sought Afghanistan peace". United Nations. 10 March 2020. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  197. ^ Bhattacherjee, Kallol (29 February 2020). "U.S.-Taliban agreement | India hails peace deal in "contiguous neighbour"". The Hindu. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  198. ^ "India Loath to Welcome US-Taliban Agreement but Notes All Afghans Have Hailed Deal". The Wire. March 1, 2020. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  199. ^ Qazi, Shereena (29 February 2020). "Afghanistan's Taliban, US sign agreement aimed at ending war". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 12 September 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  200. ^ Borger, Julian (18 May 2022). "US withdrawal triggered catastrophic defeat of Afghan forces, damning watchdog report finds". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  201. ^ "US withdrawal prompted collapse of Afghan army: Report". Al Jazeera. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  202. ^ Rai, Manish (21 March 2020). "U.S.-Taliban Deal: India should Chalk-out a New Strategy". Oped Column Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  203. ^ Cronk, Terri Moon (14 April 2021). "Biden Announces Full U.S. Troop Withdrawal From Afghanistan by Sept. 11". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2021-08-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  204. ^ "Remarks by President Biden on the Way Forward in Afghanistan". The White House. 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-08-16.
  205. ^ Miller, Zeke; Madhani, Aamer (8 July 2021). "Biden says US war in Afghanistan will end August 31". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 8 July 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  206. ^ Landler, Mark; Shear, Michael D. (25 August 2021). "Biden Sticks to Afghan Deadline, Resisting Pleas to Extend Evacuation". The New York Times.
  207. ^ Cooper, Helene; Rogers, Katie; Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (8 August 2021). "As Taliban Capture Cities, U.S. Says Afghan Forces Must Fend for Themselves". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  208. ^ Swanson, Ian (25 June 2021). "Roughly 650 troops to stay in Afghanistan after withdrawal: report". The Hill. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  209. ^ Satia, Priya (27 April 2021). Felsenthal, Edward (ed.). "History's Warning for the U.S. Withdrawal From Afghanistan". Time. New York City. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  210. ^ Kevin Liptak; Jeff Zeleny; Kaitlan Collins; Jennifer Hansler; Maegan Vazquez (August 16, 2021). "Biden admits Afghanistan's collapse 'did unfold more quickly than we had anticipated'". CNN.
  211. ^ Merchant, Nomaan; Miller, Zeke (18 August 2021). "Misread warnings helped lead to chaotic Afghan evacuation". AP NEWS.
  212. ^ "US sending troops to help evacuate embassy staff in Kabul". Al Jazeera. 12 August 2021. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  213. ^ Martin, David (12 August 2021). "Pentagon sending troops to Kabul to help evacuation of U.S. Embassy". CBS News. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021.
  214. ^ DeYoung, Karen; George, Susannah; Pannett, Rachel; Westfall, Sammy (2021-08-14). "Biden authorizes additional troops to Kabul as Taliban closes in on capital".
  215. ^ Kube, Courtney; Finn, Teaganne (August 15, 2021). "U.S. to send 1,000 more troops to Kabul after Afghan government collapses". NBC News. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  216. ^ Gaouette, Nicole; Hansler, Jennifer; Starr, Barbara; Liebermann, Oren (31 August 2021). "The last US military planes have left Afghanistan, marking the end of the United States' longest war". CNN. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  217. ^ Melissa Eddy and; Thomas Gibbons-Neff (5 September 2021). "U.S. Citizens and Afghans Wait for Evacuation Flights From Country's North". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2021-12-28. Retrieved 6 September 2021. Around 1,000 people, including dozens of American citizens and Afghans holding visas to the United States or other countries, remained stuck in Afghanistan for the fifth day on Sunday as they awaited clearance for the departure from the Taliban
  218. ^ Brown, Matthew (2021-09-05). "GOP Rep. Michael McCaul: Taliban won't let planes of Americans leave Mazar-i-Shari". USA Today. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  219. ^ Chalfant, Morgan (2021-09-28). "Generals contradict Biden, say they advised leaving troops in Afghanistan". The Hill. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  220. ^ "Top military leaders testify on Afghanistan withdrawal". CNN. 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  221. ^ "Dismantling China's Muslim gulag in Xinjiang is not enough". The Economist. 2020-01-09. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  222. ^ Wong, Chun Han; Areddy, James T. (2020-07-01). "China's Security Law Tightens Vise on Hong Kong". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  223. ^ a b c "Hong Kong's legislature has been stripped of a vocal opposition". The Economist. 2020-11-14. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  224. ^ "Joshua Wong faces up to three years in jail over Hong Kong protest". Financial Times. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  225. ^ "China approves plan to veto Hong Kong election candidates". France 24. 11 March 2021.
  226. ^ "Improving Hong Kong's electoral system important for developing high-quality democracy". China Today. 7 March 2021.
  227. ^ "Apple Daily says Hong Kong press freedom 'hanging by a thread' after five arrested in raid". France 24. 2021-06-17. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  228. ^ "國安處搜《立場》辦公室 帶走逾30箱新聞材料 | 獨媒報導". 獨立媒體. 2021-12-29. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  229. ^ Ng, Edmond; Pomfret, James (2021-12-29). "Hong Kong pro-democracy Stand News shuts down after police raid, arrests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  230. ^ Lillis, Joanna (2022-01-03). "Kazakhstan: Gas price hike fuels Zhanaozen protests". eurasianet.org. Archived from the original on 2022-01-04. Retrieved 2022-01-04.
  231. ^ Auyezov, Olzhas (5 January 2022). "Kazakhstan government's resignation fails to quell protests". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  232. ^ "Kazakhstan protests: government resigns amid rare outbreak of unrest". the Guardian. 2022-01-05. Retrieved 2022-01-05.
  233. ^ Jacobs, Harrison (2022-01-06). "Russia-led alliance troops have arrived in Kazakhstan after mass protests". NPR. Retrieved 2022-01-06.
  234. ^ Reuters (2022-03-16). "Kazakh President Tokayev lays out constitutional reform plan". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-03-20.
  235. ^ Pannier, Bruce. "Backlash Against Kyrgyz Parliamentary Election Results Comes Instantly". Radio Free Europe/ Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, Inc. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  236. ^ "Thousands protest over Kyrgyzstan election result". 5 October 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020 – via BBC News.
  237. ^ "Kyrgyzstan election: Sunday's results annulled after mass protests". BBC. 6 October 2020.
  238. ^ "Kyrgyz president declares new state of emergency". AP NEWS. 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  239. ^ "Parliament in Kyrgyzstan endorses state of emergency". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  240. ^ a b Kyrgyzstan to hold constitution referendum on April 11 Interfax, 11 March 2021
  241. ^ "Страница не найдена - ЦИК КР". shailoo.gov.kg. Retrieved 2021-04-16.
  242. ^ "Malaysia recovers US$322 million in stolen 1MDB money: PM's office". CNA. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  243. ^ "1MDB scandal: A timeline". CNA. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  244. ^ "Photos – 1mdb-scandal-timeline – News – msn". www.msn.com. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  245. ^ a b "Colombia protests prompt teargas, curfew and border closures". CNN. 22 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
  246. ^ Tee, Kenneth (28 July 2020). "High Court finds Najib guilty of all seven charges in misappropriation of RM42m SRC International funds".
  247. ^ "Malaysia declares Covid state of emergency amid political turmoil". the Guardian. 2021-01-12. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  248. ^ Kaur, Minderjeet (2021-01-23). "At least 115 MPs reject emergency, claims Anwar". Free Malaysia Today (FMT). Archived from the original on 2021-01-23. Retrieved 2021-01-30.
  249. ^ Arfa Yunus (12 January 2021). "Nazri Aziz withdraws support for Muhyiddin's government". The New Straits Times. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  250. ^ Anand, Ram (8 July 2021). "Umno withdraws support for Malaysia PM Muhyiddin, calls for his resignation". The Straits Times. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  251. ^ "Majority of Umno supreme council disagreed on withdrawing support for Muhyiddin: Ismail Sabri". The Straits Times. 10 July 2021. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  252. ^ Yusof, Amir (8 July 2021). "PM Muhyiddin and Cabinet can still exercise executive powers despite UMNO's withdrawal: Attorney-General". CNA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  253. ^ "Ruling pact scrambles for replacement ahead of Malaysia PM Muhyiddin's resignation". The Straits Times. 2021-08-15. Retrieved 2021-08-15.
  254. ^ "Malaysia's Muhyiddin resigns after troubled 17 months in power". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-08-16.
  255. ^ "Ismail Sabri Yaakob appointed as prime minister of Malaysia". The Independent. 2021-08-20. Archived from the original on 2021-08-20. Retrieved 2021-08-20.
  256. ^ a b Beech, Hannah (31 January 2021). "Myanmar's Leader, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Is Detained Amid Coup". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  257. ^ "Myanmar military seizes power, detains elected leader Aung San Suu Kyi". news.trust.org. Reuters. 1 February 2021.
  258. ^ "'Spring Revolution': Myanmar protests swell despite military junta's threat of force". Associated Press via Global News. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  259. ^ Ratcliffe, Rebecca (22 February 2021). "Myanmar junta warns of lethal force as crowds gather for 'five twos revolution'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 February 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  260. ^ "Anti-Coup Protest on Streets of Myanmar's Second City". US News. 3 February 2021. Archived from the original on 18 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  261. ^ "Daily Briefing in Relation to the Military Coup". Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  262. ^ Nachemson, Andrew (24 May 2021). "Myanmar diaspora in US rally, raise funds in battle against coup". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  263. ^ "Myanmar unity government says it must be part of any ASEAN bid to end crisis". Reuters. 2021-04-18. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  264. ^ Sebastian Strangio (6 May 2021). "Can Myanmar's New 'People's Defense Force' Succeed?". The Diplomat.
  265. ^ "Myanmar junta designates shadow government as 'terrorist' group". Deutsche Welle. 8 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  266. ^ Mongolia: Election for Ulsyn Ikh Khural (Mongolian State Great Hural) IFES
  267. ^ "2020 Race Begins". Mongolia Weekly. Jan 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020-01-19.
  268. ^ "Mongolia's government resigns after a small protest". The Economist. 2021-01-28. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
  269. ^ a b Sharma, Bhadra; Mashal, Mujib (2021-07-12). "Nepal Court Replaces Prime Minister After Months of Turbulence". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  270. ^ Khan, Dawn com | Sanaullah (2022-04-03). "President Alvi dissolves National Assembly on PM Imran's advice". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2022-04-05.
  271. ^ "Key Pakistan leaders behind opposition bid to remove PM Khan". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2022-04-06.
  272. ^ "'Constitutional Coup' Threatened in Pakistan". Human Rights Watch. 2022-04-05. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  273. ^ "Pakistan's PM calls for early election after vote of no confidence thrown out". the Guardian. 2022-04-03. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  274. ^ Bhatti, Haseeb (April 7, 2022). "Supreme Court restores National Assembly, orders no-confidence vote to be held on Saturday". Dawn.
  275. ^ "Pakistan court rules blocking vote to oust Khan unconstitutional". www.aljzeera.com. Retrieved 2022-04-05.
  276. ^ Chaudhry, Fahad (2022-04-09). "Imran Khan loses no-trust vote, prime ministerial term comes to unceremonious end". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2022-04-09.
  277. ^ "Imran Khan becomes first PM to be ousted via no-trust vote". The Express Tribune. 2022-04-09. Retrieved 2022-04-09.
  278. ^ Luke, Daramola (2022-07-19). "EXPLAINER | Sri Lanka's crisis explained in 500 words". The Informant247.
  279. ^ a b "Everything to Know About Sri Lanka's Economic Crisis". Borgen Magazine. 2022-04-23.
  280. ^ "The Powerful Rajapaksa Dynasty Bankrupted Sri Lanka In Just 30 Months". NDTV.com.
  281. ^ "Sri Lanka forex reserves drop to US$1.9bn in March 2022". EconomyNext. 2022-04-07.
  282. ^ "Sri Lanka Faces Wall of Debt Payments Amid Economic Meltdown". Bloomberg.com. 7 April 2022.
  283. ^ "Sri Lanka reserves drop to $1.93 bn in March, $8.6 bn due in payments this year". Hindustan Times. 2022-04-07.
  284. ^ "Sri Lanka suspends debt payments as it struggles to import fuel and food". Washington Post.
  285. ^ "Sri Lanka becomes first Asia-Pacific country in decades to default on foreign debt". NewsWire. 19 May 2022.
  286. ^ "Sri Lanka's PM says its debt-laden economy has 'collapsed'". Sky News. Retrieved 2022-06-22.
  287. ^ "Rajapaksa Clan Losing Grip on Power in Sri Lanka". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  288. ^ "Sri Lanka's cabinet ministers resign as crisis protesters defy curfew". BBC News. 2022-04-03. Retrieved 2022-04-09.
  289. ^ "Cabinet resigns". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  290. ^ "Sri Lanka main SJB slams 'sham' cabinet resignation, says no deal". EconomyNext. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  291. ^ "4 new Ministers sworn in". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  292. ^ "Will our problems be solved by a general election? | Daily FT". www.ft.lk. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  293. ^ Kuruwita, Zaheena Rasheed,Rathindra. "Thousands in Sri Lanka insist Rajapaksa family quit politics". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  294. ^ "Gotabaya Rajapaksa: Economic crisis protesters defy curfew in Sri Lanka". BBC News. 2022-04-03. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  295. ^ "'Go Home, Gota': Huge Protest in Sri Lanka Mounts Pressure on Rajapaksa to Quit". The Wire. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  296. ^ Arulthas, Mario. "Sri Lanka: Gota needs to go – but so does the ethnocratic state". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  297. ^ Wong, Tessa. "Sri Lanka: President Gotabaya Rajapaksa flees the country on military jet". BBC News. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  298. ^ "SJB moves to abolish 20th amendment - Breaking News | Daily Mirror". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 2022-04-10.
  299. ^ Dhillon, Amrit (1 April 2022). "Sri Lanka: 50 injured as protesters try to storm president's house amid economic crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  300. ^ "Main opposition SJB to hold mass protest rally in Colombo". NewsWire. 13 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  301. ^ Nadeera, Dilshan. "The betrayal of the young". The Island. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  302. ^ Perera, Yohan (April 2, 2022). "Carpenters in Moratuwa stage protest". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  303. ^ Srinivasan, Meera (4 April 2022). "Opposition reject Gotabaya call to join cabinet amid crisis". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 April 2022.
  304. ^ "Sri Lanka's Leaderless Protests". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  305. ^ "Sri Lanka: The protesters". The Indian Express. 17 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  306. ^ "Don't play around with this generation". Daily FT. April 12, 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  307. ^ Ranasinghe, Shivanthi (18 April 2022). "'Messed with the Wrong Generation'". Ceylon Today. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  308. ^ Weerasinghe, Tharushi (April 10, 2022). "The youth are marching on". The Sunday Times, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  309. ^ Wijedasa, Namini; Weerasinghe, Tharushi (April 17, 2022). "Diverse but determined; the people keep coming to Galle Face". The Sunday Times, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  310. ^ "Sri Lanka Declared State Of Emergency As Crisis Sparks Protests". Viral Bake. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  311. ^ "Sri Lanka imposes curfew amid food, fuel and power shortage protests". BBC News. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  312. ^ "Sri Lanka imposes curfew after protests over food, fuel shortages". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  313. ^ "ඇදිරිය හා සමාජ මාධ්‍ය තහනම නිසා රජයට ඇති අප්‍රසාදය ඉහළට?". www.ada.lk (in Sinhala). Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  314. ^ "Sri Lankans in NZ, Australia take to the street against govt". dailymirror.lk. Wijeya Newspapers. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2022.
  315. ^ "Social media ban backfires : Anti Govt slogans trends in other countries". NewsWire. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  316. ^ "Sri Lanka lifts social media ban, HRCSL summons officials". NewsWire. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  317. ^ "Sri Lanka's cabinet ministers resign as crisis protesters defy curfew". BBC News. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  318. ^ "Cabinet resigns". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  319. ^ "Sri Lanka main SJB slams 'sham' cabinet resignation, says no deal". EconomyNext. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  320. ^ "4 new Ministers sworn in". www.dailymirror.lk. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  321. ^ "Gotabaya Rajapaksa: Sri Lanka president defies calls for his resignation". BBC News. 6 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  322. ^ "Sri Lanka's Leaderless Protests". The Diplomat. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  323. ^ "Sri Lanka: Protesters 'will occupy palace until leaders go'". BBC News. 2022-07-10. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
  324. ^ Stepansky, Joseph (20 July 2022). "Sri Lanka live news: Ranil Wickremesinghe elected president". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  325. ^ "Turkmenistan holds inauguration of new president (UPDATE)". Trend News Agency. 19 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  326. ^ "Student unions back anti Citizenship Amendment Act protests". thehansindia.com. 16 December 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  327. ^ Citizenship Amendment Bill: India's new 'anti-Muslim' law explained, BBC News, 11 December 2019.
  328. ^ Staff Reporter (15 December 2019). "A dark day for the country, says Jamaat-e-Islami chief". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 17 January 2020. He said Tamil Hindus from Sri Lanka had been persecuted and questioned why they had not been brought under the ambit of the CAA
  329. ^ "Understanding NRC: What it is and if it can be implemented across the country". The Economic Times. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  330. ^ Gringlas, Sam. "India Passes Controversial Citizenship Bill That Would Exclude Muslims". NPR.org.
  331. ^ Pokharel, Krishna (17 December 2019). "India Citizenship Protests Spread to Muslim Area of Capital". WSJ. Retrieved 17 January 2020. Protests against a new citizenship law favoring non-Muslim immigrants erupted in violence in a Muslim-dominated part of the Indian capital [...] "People are opposing this law because it discriminates against Muslims [...]
  332. ^ Saha, Abhishek (20 January 2019). "Explained: Why Assam, Northeast are angry". The Indian Express. Protesters have expressed fears that the prospect of citizenship will encourage migration from Bangladesh. They have cited several grounds for opposing this. Demography: This will change across Northeastern states, protesters say, as has already been happening in Assam and Tripura over decades of migration (see graphs). "Assamese could become the second language. Then there is also the question of loss of political rights and culture of the indigenous people," said former Chief Minister Prafulla Mahanta, who was the face of the Assam Movement (1979-85) against illegal immigration, and one of the signatories to the Assam Accord at the culmination of the movement. (...) Protesters say the Bill goes against the Assam Accord and negates the ongoing update of the National Register of Citizens (NRC).
  333. ^ "India's parliament passes citizenship law, protests flare". Reuters. 11 December 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2020. The bill will take away our rights, language and culture with millions of Bangladeshis getting citizenship (...) people in Assam and surrounding states fear that arriving settlers could increase competition for land and upset the region's demographic balance
  334. ^ "India's Modi fires 12 ministers in reshuffle ahead of state polls". South China Morning Post. 2021-07-07. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  335. ^ "Papua intelligence chief killed in weekend rebel attack". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2021-05-02.
  336. ^ "Man taken into custody after former Japanese PM Abe Shinzo collapses". NHK World. 8 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  337. ^ "Former Japanese PM Abe Shinzo showing no vital signs after apparently being shot". NHK World. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  338. ^ "Former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe shot dead". CNN. 8 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  339. ^ Kim, Chang-Ran (July 8, 2022). "Shinzo Abe shot while making election speech in Japan". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  340. ^ "安倍氏は午後5時3分に死亡確認" [Mr. Abe confirmed dead at 5:03pm] (in Japanese). Kyodo News. 8 July 2022. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  341. ^ "Uzbekistan declares state of emergency in protest-hit Karakalpakstan". ThePrint. 2022-07-03. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  342. ^ alexanderartemyevamnestyorg (2022-07-04). "Uzbekistan: End use of unlawful force against Karakalpakstan protesters". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  343. ^ Almaty, Reuters in (2022-07-04). "Uzbekistan imposes regional state of emergency after deadly unrest". the Guardian. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  344. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2022 Karakalpak protests Eurasianet was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  345. ^ Trevelyan, Mark (20 July 2022). "Uzbekistan lifts state of emergency in Karakalpakstan after protest deaths". Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  346. ^ "Dutch try to calm north-south economic storm over coronavirus". POLITICO. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  347. ^ "Poland, Hungary face growing calls to drop EU budget veto". Deutsche Welle. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  348. ^ "EU leaders back deal to end budget blockade by Hungary and Poland". POLITICO. 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  349. ^ Middle East Eye
  350. ^ TRT World
  351. ^ "Пашинян заявляет о подписании мирного соглашения". BBC Russian Service (in Russian). 10 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  352. ^ "Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia sign Nagorno-Karabakh peace deal". BBC News. 10 November 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  353. ^ "Azerbaijan, Armenia sign peace deal to end conflict". GulfToday. 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  354. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (2020-11-10). "Facing Military Debacle, Armenia Accepts a Deal in Nagorno-Karabakh War". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
  355. ^ "Протестующие в Ереване избили спикера парламента Армении". РИА Новости (in Russian). 2020-11-10. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  356. ^ "Demonstrators seized the building of the Armenian parliament". interfax.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  357. ^ "Armenia's foreign minister resigns week after ceasefire deal with Azerbaijan". Al-Arabiya. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  358. ^ "Armenian defence minister tenders resignation: Report". Al Jazeera. 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  359. ^ "Head of Armenian defense ministry's military control service resigns". Armenpress. 2020-11-18. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  360. ^ "Official representative of Armenia's Defense Ministry resigns". 2020-11-12.
  361. ^ "Sarkissian Defends Opposition To Army Chief's Sacking". Azatutyun. 1 March 2021. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  362. ^ "Armenia's president refuses order to dismiss military chief". ABC News.
  363. ^ "Iran gasoline rationing, price hikes draw street protests". Reuters. 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019. the price of a liter of regular gasoline was increased to 15,000 rials (12.7 U.S. cents) from 10,000 rials and the monthly ration for each private car was set at 60 litres. Additional purchases would cost 30,000 rials per liter.
  364. ^ Fassihi, Farnaz; Gladstone, Rick (15 November 2019). "Iran Abruptly Raises Fuel Prices, and Protests Erupt". Iran Watch. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. The changes increased the price of gas to 15,000 rials per liter (approximately 13 cents) from 10,000 rials, while limiting private cars to 60 liters per month with a price of 30,000 rials per liter for additional purchases.
  365. ^ "Iran starts gasoline rationing, price hikes". IranOilGas. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019. According to the report, the price of one liter of regular gasoline jumped to Rials 15,000 from Rials 10,000, while the monthly ration for each private car has been set at 60 liters per month. Additional purchases would cost Rials 30,000 per liter.
  366. ^ "Iranian security forces are using lethal force to crush protests". Amnesty International. 19 November 2019. Archived from the original on 22 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  367. ^ Gladstone, Rick (December 2019). "With Brutal Crackdown, Iran Is Convulsed by Worst Unrest in 40 Years". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  368. ^ "گسترش اعتراض‌ها به افزایش قیمت بنزین: یک معترض در سیرجان با شلیک ماموران کشته شد". Iran International (in Persian). 15 November 2019. Archived from the original on 20 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  369. ^ "Protests erupt over Iran petrol rationing". 16 November 2019. Archived from the original on 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  370. ^ Williams, Abigail. "U.S. says Iran may have killed up to 1,000 protesters". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 December 2019. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  371. ^ McKenzie, Sheena (3 December 2019). "One of the worst crackdowns in decades is happening in Iran. Here's what we know". CNN. Archived from the original on 3 December 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  372. ^ Berger, Miriam. "Iran finally admits it shot and killed 'rioters.' But it still won't say how many people died in last month's protests". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  373. ^ Fassihi, Farnaz; Gladstone, Rick (2019-12-01). "With Brutal Crackdown, Iran Is Convulsed by Worst Unrest in 40 Years (Published 2019)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-01-13.
  374. ^ 9 questions about the US-Iran crisis you were too embarrassed to ask By Alex Ward and Zack Beauchamp, Vox, 13 Jan 2020
  375. ^ "How America and its allies are keeping tabs on Iran at sea". The Economist. 2020-01-02. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  376. ^ "Iran denies reports of fresh explosion". BBC News. 10 July 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
  377. ^ Ramin Mostaghim, Angela Dewan and Sara Mazloumsaki. "Iran's supreme leader vows revenge after top nuclear scientist apparently assassinated". CNN. Retrieved 2020-11-29.
  378. ^ "گسترش اعتراضات "به اصفهان و بوشهر"؛ وضعیت نامشخص بازداشتی‌های خوزستان". رادیو فردا.
  379. ^ "Protests in Southwest Iran Due To Water Crisis". NCR Iran. 16 July 2021. Archived from the original on 16 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  380. ^ "گسترش اعتراضات "به اصفهان و بوشهر"؛ وضعیت نامشخص بازداشتی‌های خوزستان". رادیو فردا. Archived from the original on 2021-07-22. Retrieved 2022-05-24.
  381. ^ "Iran: Security forces use ruthless force, mass arrests and torture to crush peaceful protests". 11 August 2021. Archived from the original on 30 April 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  382. ^ Soaring Bread Prices Trigger Street Protests In Iran, Radio Free Europe, May 12, 2022, archived from the original on May 14, 2022, retrieved May 14, 2022
  383. ^ Iran Prepares for Protests Amid Fears of Nuclear Negotiations Failure, Al-Awsat, May 5, 2022, archived from the original on May 11, 2022, retrieved May 14, 2022.
  384. ^ Iran raises prices of food staples, stirring panic and anger, Associated Press (published May 12, 2022), 12 May 2022, archived from the original on May 15, 2022, retrieved May 14, 2022
  385. ^ a b c "Protests Ignite In Southern Iran Against Government Price Hikes". Iran International. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  386. ^ "The Ebrahim Raisi government just jacked up food prices. Iranians are understandably angry". Atlantic Council. 2022-05-12. Archived from the original on 2022-05-12. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  387. ^ "Iran Protesters at Risk of Lethal State Violence". Center for Human Rights in Iran. 2022-05-12. Archived from the original on 2022-05-12. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  388. ^ "Iran: Release Detained Teacher Activists". Human Rights Watch. 2022-05-05. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  389. ^ main (2022-04-29). "A Statistical Look at the Situation of Iranian Workers over the Past Year". Hrana. Archived from the original on 2022-04-30. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  390. ^ "As Bread Costs Skyrocket In Iran, So Does The Risk Of Social Unrest". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  391. ^ Motamedi, Maziar. "Nuclear talks: Iran's Raisi launches major economic reform". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  392. ^ "Khuzestan Protests: Fears of Another Bloody Crackdown". Center for Human Rights in Iran. 2022-05-09. Archived from the original on 2022-05-11. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  393. ^ "🔴 تهران، پارك سمرقندی - ساعت ۲۰۴۵ پنجشنبه". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  394. ^ "Iranian protesters in Kermanshah take down a banner of Khamenei". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  395. ^ "Protests in Khuzestan; Iranian forces arrest 50 people - ANHA | HAWARNEWS | English". hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  396. ^ The people & youths have taken to the streets of Ahvaz, Andimeshk, Hamedan, Isfahan, Doroud, Tabriz, Tehran, Izeh, & Shahr-e Kord chanting, "death to Raisi &down with Khamenei." They are engaged in hit-and-run battles with Bassij agents and revolutionary guards., Twitter, archived from the original on 2022-05-13, retrieved 2022-05-14
  397. ^ a b "Iraq power vacuum as political crisis hits PM post". bbc.com. BBC. March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  398. ^ Saadoun, Mustafa (2020-02-24). "Nasiriyah becomes the Iraqi protest capital". al-monitor.com. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  399. ^ "Protester shot dead in fresh Iraq violence". The Times of Israel.
  400. ^ Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Faraj, Murtada (2020-02-23). "Iraqi officials: 1 protester shot dead in fresh violence". 660citynews.com. Retrieved 2020-06-12.
  401. ^ "Iraqi Nurse Spends Her Weekends Stitching Wounds at Protest Site".
  402. ^ "Iraqi students hold anti-government protests".
  403. ^ "Uncertainty looms as Iraqi PM-designate Allawi steps down". Iraq's crisis deepens as Mohammed Tawfiq Allawi halts efforts to form new government amid political infighting. Mar 2, 2020, Al Jazeera.
  404. ^ "Iraq's Allawi bows out as PM-designate, rockets hit Green Zone".
  405. ^ "Iraq's PM-designate Allawi steps down". 2 March 2020.
  406. ^ "Iraq's Prime Minister-designate Mohammed Allawi withdraws from race". Deutsche Welle.
  407. ^ "Iraqi spy chief Mustafa Al Kadhimi rumoured to be prime ministerial contender". The National (Abu Dhabi). 29 December 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  408. ^ "Iraq names its third prime minister in 10 weeks". Reuters. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  409. ^ Aldroubi, Mina (6 May 2020). "Iraqi Parliament confirms Mustafa Al Kadhimi as new Prime Minister". The National. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  410. ^ "Iraq hospitals fear 'losing control' as coronavirus cases surge". Al Jazeera. September 5, 2020.
  411. ^ Staff writer (22 January 2021). "Iraq's general elections pushed to October". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  412. ^ "Backers of Iran-linked militias try to storm Baghdad's Green Zone after election losses". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  413. ^ "Iraq ministry: Scores injured in rally over election results". WTOP News. 5 November 2021.
  414. ^ "Iraqi PM al-Kadhimi survives drone attack on his home". BBC News. 7 November 2021.
  415. ^ Davison, John; Rasheed, Ahmed (7 November 2021). "Iraqi PM safe after drone attack on residence, military says". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  416. ^ "Will Israel's third election in a year at last produce a government?". The Economist. 2020-02-29. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  417. ^ "Netanyahu, Sudanese leader meet in Uganda, agree to start normalizing ties". Haaretz. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  418. ^ "Israel and Saudi Arabia send a clear signal to Iran—and Joe Biden". The Economist. 2020-11-23. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  419. ^ "Abbas delays Palestinian parliamentary polls, blaming Israel". Aljazeera. April 30, 2021. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
  420. ^ "Palestinian parliamentary elections delayed, says Abbas, blaming Israel". Reuters. 29 April 2021.
  421. ^ Nahmias, Roee (16 December 2008). "Report: Abbas won't run for another term". Ynetnews.
  422. ^ "The Final Results for the Electoral Lists" (PDF). 29 October 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2008.
  423. ^ "17 policemen, 200 Palestinians hurt as hundreds riot on Temple Mount". The Times of Israel. 7 May 2021. Archived from the original on 7 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  424. ^ Yair Wallach, 'The violence that began at Jerusalem's ancient holy sites is driven by a distinctly modern zeal,' Archived 14 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian 13 May 2021.
  425. ^ Srivastava, Mehul; Cornish, Chloe (13 May 2021). "Violence flares between Jews and Arabs on streets of Israel". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021. Israeli police stormed the compound, which is sacred to both religions, at least three times in the past week, using rubber bullets, tear gas and stun grenades. At least 600 Palestinians were injured.
  426. ^ "Israeli police storm al-Aqsa mosque ahead of Jerusalem Day march". the Guardian. 10 May 2021. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  427. ^ "TV: Palestinians stocked rocks for Temple Mount riots, police caught unawares". The Times of Israel. 8 May 2021. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  428. ^ Kingsley, Patrick; Kershner, Isabel (10 May 2021). "After Raid on Aqsa Mosque, Rockets From Gaza and Israeli Airstrikes". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  429. ^ "Tel Aviv battered in unprecedented Gaza barrage". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  430. ^ "Israeli bombardment escalates as Gaza death toll rises: Live news". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  431. ^ Alexander Smith, Lawahez Jabari and Paul Goldman (11 May 2021). "33 killed in Israeli airstrikes, Hamas rocket attacks as unrest spreads beyond Jerusalem". NBC News. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  432. ^ "Media demand Israel explain destruction of news offices". AP NEWS. 2021-05-15. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  433. ^ Haltiwanger, John. "Videos show Israeli airstrikes leveling multiple Gaza apartment buildings amid escalating violence". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  434. ^ "Gaza residential tower collapses in Israeli airstrike, witnesses say". Reuters. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  435. ^ Andrew Carey; Hadas Gold; Kareem Khadder; Abeer Salman; Ofri Eshel; Ibrahim Dahman. "At least 35 killed in Gaza as Israel ramps up airstrikes in response to rocket attacks". CNN. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  436. ^ Regencia, Virginia; Pietromarchi, Mersiha; Gadzo, Ted. "Several children killed as Israel pounds Gaza refugee camp". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-05-17.
  437. ^ "Closure, curfew declared over Lod following severe riots". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  438. ^ "Amid Gaza barrages, major rioting and chaos erupt in Lod; Mayor: It's civil war". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  439. ^ "Arab politician warns Israel is 'on the brink of a civil war'". news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  440. ^ "IDF enters Lod as city goes into emergency lockdown". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  441. ^ a b Schneider, Tal (11 May 2021). "Netanyahu declares state of emergency in Lod". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  442. ^ "Lapid informs president he can form government removing Netanyahu from power". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  443. ^ Gadzo, Tamila; Varshalomidze, Mersiha. "Yair Lapid informs Israeli president he can form new government". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-06-06.
  444. ^ "Document signed by 8 parties in intended new government". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  445. ^ דרוקמן, ירון (2021-06-13). "ממשלת בנט-לפיד יוצאת לדרך: הכירו את כל השרים". Ynet (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2022-06-21.
  446. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (2022-06-30). "Israel's Parliament Dissolves, Paving Way for 5th Election in 4 Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-07-02.
  447. ^ Spiro, Amy. "Yair Lapid takes over as Israel's 14th prime minister". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 2022-07-02.
  448. ^ Chehayeb, Kareem. "Lebanon's PM-designate Saad Hariri resigns as crisis escalates". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  449. ^ "Qatar sets Oct. 2 for first legislative elections". Reuters. 22 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  450. ^ Emir: Qatar to hold first legislative elections in 2013 Archived 2014-08-31 at the Wayback Machine Doha News, 1 November 2011
  451. ^ Advisory Council's term extended until 2016 amid government transition Doha News, 2 July 2013
  452. ^ Legislative elections in Qatar postponed until at least 2019 Archived 2017-08-22 at the Wayback Machine Doha News, 17 June 2016
  453. ^ "Qatar intends to hold its first elections for the Shura Council in 2021". Swissinfo (in Arabic). 3 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  454. ^ Mills, Andrew; Barrington, Lisa (2021-10-02). "Qatar's first legislative elections see 63.5% voter turnout". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-10-02.
  455. ^ Is This the End of Rojava? - The Kurdish region of northeast Syria was autonomous for seven years, but had to ask the Syrian government for protection after an invasion by Turkey. By Mireille Court and Chris Den Hond, February 18, 2020, thenation.com.
  456. ^ Sanctions on Syrian government also threaten Washington's Kurdish allies. While US and international sanctions are not specifically targeted at Kurdish-ruled northeast Syria, the area is impacted all the same with trade practically halted and because of the sudden plunge of the Syrian pound. by Jared Szuba, June 9, 2020.
  457. ^ Al-Khalidi, Suleiman (10 June 2020). "Protests hit Druze city in Syria for fourth day". Reuters.
  458. ^ "Syria war: Assad sacks PM as economic crisis sparks protests". BBC News. 11 June 2020.
  459. ^ Syrian pound hits record low ahead of new U.S. sanctions: dealers. The Syrian pound sank to a new record low on Monday as investors scrambled for dollars ahead of new U.S. sanctions later this month, which many fear will tighten the noose around President Bashar al Assad's government, dealers and bankers said. June 8, 2020, Reuters.
  460. ^ Syrian currency collapse throws country into uncertainty The Syrian regime thought it was finally out of the woods in its almost decade-long civil war. By Seth J. Frantzman June 8, 2020, jpost.com.
  461. ^ Syrian currency loses more value as sanctions hit June 11, 2020, Associated Press.
  462. ^ Charting the dramatic collapse of Syria's national currency, by Hugo Goodridge, June 4, 2020. Despite fears of a spill over from Syria affecting neighbouring Lebanon, it was conversely the collapse of the Lebanese pound that plunged Syria deeper into its economic quagmire. Rising Lebanese debts and a lack of financial ability to pay off these debts, with a seeming absence of political will to find a solution, led to capital controls being imposed. Throughout the war in Syria, Lebanon had been used by Syrians as a reliable place to withdraw dollars. "Syrians, who bought a lot of their dollars in Lebanon, suddenly couldn't access dollars, the value of the Syrian pound started to collapse.
  463. ^ Syria approves $5.3bn budget for 2022 as economic crisis hits finances. Sanctions and war continue to hammer the Syrian economy, threatening subsidies on essential goods. By MEE and agencies, Published date: 15 December 2021.
  464. ^ 2022 Look Ahead: No end to suffering in sight for war-weary Syrians, DAVID ROMANO & OUBAI SHAHBANDAR, 02 January 2022, arabnews website.
  465. ^ The future looks grim for beleaguered Syrians, by Chris Doyle, January 4, 2022, arabnews website.
  466. ^ Syria's wheat crisis foreshadows a famine, Nearly 60 percent of Syrians do not know where their next meal will come from, according to United Nations estimates. At the same time, economic reports highlighted that the ability of Syria to feed itself is fast disappearing, and this is evident in spiraling food insecurity across the country. by Zeinab Masri, Hussam al-Mahmoud, Khaled al-Jeratli, December 30, 2021.
  467. ^ US, Russia and Israel support energy supply despite Caesar Act, by Zeinab Masri, Diana Rahima, Hussam al-Mahmoud, November 30, 2021. The U.S., Russia and Israel are gearing up for major gains from delivering natural gas via reviving the Arab Gas Pipeline (AGP), which originates near the city of Arish on Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and extends through Jordan, Syria and into Lebanon. Sidelined from international politics for more than ten years, the Syrian regime is getting involved again in regional deals following the converging of interests between the Syrian regime and influential countries. The regime makes efforts to use these deals and re-establish its presence in the Middle East. The AGP project (that will see Egyptian natural gas piped to Lebanon via Jordan and Syria under a plan to end Lebanon's crippling power crisis) was an encouraging first step for Jordan's King Abdullah II, who took the lead in the Arab initiative for normalization with the Syrian government. Then, the UAE Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed took a similar step by visiting the head of the Syrian regime, Bashar al-Assad, in Damascus, about two weeks ago.
  468. ^ "Turkey is set to send troops to Libya". The Economist. 2020-01-11. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  469. ^ Gall, Carlotta (2020-03-01). "Turkey Declares Major Offensive Against Syrian Government". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  470. ^ "Turkey lets refugees exit towards Europe". BBC News. 2020-02-28. Retrieved 2020-03-02.
  471. ^ Keddie, Patrick. "What's Turkey's role in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2020-12-10.
  472. ^ Orkaby, Asher (25 March 2015). "Houthi Who?". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  473. ^ "Resurgence of the 'Pink Tide'? Revisiting Left Politics in Latin America". EPW Engage. 23 December 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  474. ^ Prashad, Vijay (December 6, 2019). "Latin America: Return of the Pink Tide". Fronteline. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  475. ^ "Luis Arce wins landslide in Bolivian elections". www.aa.com.tr.
  476. ^ Allen, Nicolas (10 June 2021), "Left-Wing Trade Unionist Pedro Castillo Will Be President of Peru", Jacobin, retrieved 21 July 2021
  477. ^ Arsenault, Chris (2021-12-14). "How left-wing forces are regaining ground in Latin America". www.aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 2021-12-14. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  478. ^ Luna, Patricia; Goodman, Joshua (2021-12-19). "Leftist millennial wins election as Chile's next president". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2021-12-19. Retrieved 2021-12-21.
  479. ^ a b "Charges filed against former Argentine President Macri for helping overthrow Evo in Bolivia". MercoPress. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  480. ^ "Barbados elects first ever president ahead of becoming republic". BBC News. 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  481. ^ "Manifestações pró e contra Bolsonaro tomam conta da Esplanada". Metrópoles. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  482. ^ "Thousands take to streets protesting Brazil's Bolsonaro". Associated Press. APNews. January 24, 2021.
  483. ^ "Inuk leader Mary Simon named Canada's 1st Indigenous governor general". CBC News.
  484. ^ "Bloomberg: "Santiago despierta en la devastación"". El Mostrador (in Spanish). 19 October 2019. Archived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  485. ^ ElPais. "Al menos un millón de personas protestan en Santiago contra Piñera y la desigualdad social". Diario EL PAIS Uruguay (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  486. ^ a b Naoim Larsson (26 October 2019). "Chile protests: More than one million bring Santiago to a halt". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  487. ^ "Death toll rises to 29 in Chile protests Archived 29 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Times of India, 28 December 2019.
  488. ^ "At least 18 dead and thousands arrested in Chile protests". CBS News. 24 October 2019. Archived from the original on 25 October 2019. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  489. ^ Bill Chappell (26 October 2020). "Chile celebrates decision to rewrite constitution". NPR. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  490. ^ "Jubilation as Chile votes to rewrite constitution". BBC. 26 October 2020. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  491. ^ "Gabriel Boric: los desafíos del presidente electo de Chile para cumplir su promesa de transformar el país". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  492. ^ "Colombia's presidential race heads to runoff". Al Jazeera. 29 May 2022. Archived from the original on 29 May 2022. Retrieved 29 May 2022.
  493. ^ "Leftist Gustavo Petro wins Colombian presidency". Financial Times. 19 June 2022. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  494. ^ Bocanegra, Nelson; Griffin, Oliver; Vargas, Carlos (19 June 2022). "Colombia elects former guerrilla Petro as first leftist president". Reuters. Archived from the original on 20 June 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  495. ^ Turkewitz, Julie; Glatsky, Genevieve (2022-06-21). "He Promised to Transform Colombia as President. Can He Fulfill That Vow?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-06-23.
  496. ^ Carlsen, Laura; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Dimitroff, Sashe; Guzmán, Sergio; Molina, Marco; Shifter, Michael; Velez de Berliner, Maria (21 June 2022). "What Will Petro's Presidency Mean for Colombia?". The Dialogue. Inter-American Dialogue. Retrieved 25 June 2022.
  497. ^ "Cuba's Raul Castro confirms he's stepping down, says he's 'fulfilled his mission'". NBC News. Retrieved 2021-04-19.
  498. ^ "Cuba leadership: Díaz-Canel named Communist Party chief". BBC News. 2021-04-19. Retrieved 2021-04-26.
  499. ^ "Thousands join rare anti-government protests in Cuba". France 24. 2021-07-11. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  500. ^ Robles, Frances (2021-07-11). "Cubans Denounce 'Misery' in Biggest Protests in Decades". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  501. ^ "Cubans hold biggest anti-government protests in decades; Biden says U.S. stands with people". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  502. ^ Fernandez Geara, Tatiana (March 2, 2020). "Photos: Dominicans Hold Massive #Trabucazo2020 Demonstration For Democracy". latinousa.org.
  503. ^ Cabrera, José María León (2020-04-07). "Ecuador's Former President Convicted on Corruption Charges". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  504. ^ "Ecuador ex-president Correa jailed in absentia". BBC News. 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  505. ^ "L'ex-président de l'Équateur Rafael Correa condamné à huit ans de prison". France 24 (in French). 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  506. ^ "Tribunal sentencia de 8 años para Rafael Correa y Jorge Glas como autores mediatos en caso Sobornos". El Universo (in Spanish). 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  507. ^ "Rafael Correa culpable por cohecho pasivo agravado, 8 años de prisión". Metro Ecuador (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  508. ^ "Rafael Correa, Jorge Glas y otros son sentenciados a 8 años de cárcel por cohecho en caso Sobornos 2012-2016". El Comercio. Retrieved 2020-04-07.
  509. ^ "Ecuador goes with conservative banker in presidential vote". Associated Press. 11 April 2021.
  510. ^ Leon Cabrera, Jose Maria (11 April 2021). "Conservative Ex-Banker Headed to Victory in Presidential Election in Ecuador". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  511. ^ "Guillermo Lasso: Conservative ex-banker elected Ecuador president". BBC World News. 12 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  512. ^ "Ecuador election: former banker Lasso is surprise winner". The Guardian. 11 April 2021.
  513. ^ "Lasso wins Ecuador presidency in upset over socialist rival". Yahoo. 11 April 2021.
  514. ^ "Crisis en El Salvador: cuáles son los motivos de la fuerte tensión entre el presidente Nayib Bukele y el Congreso". BBC News Mundo. 10 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  515. ^ "El Salvador's parliament sacks the country's top judges". The Economist. 2021-05-06. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  516. ^ "Haiti's Protests: Images Reflect Latest Power Struggle". Council of Foreign Relations. March 3, 2021.
  517. ^ "Dispute over Haiti presidential term triggers unrest". BBC News. BBC. 15 February 2021.
  518. ^ "Haiti protests continue despite police crackdown". AfricaNews. 9 February 2021.
  519. ^ "Haiti political turmoil: Judge and police officer among 23 arrested for 'coup attempt'". BBC News. 7 February 2021. Archived from the original on 7 June 2021.
  520. ^ Dupain, Etant; Lemos, Gerardo; Kottasová, Ivana; Hu, Caitlin. "Haiti President Jovenel Moise assassinated in attack on his residence". CNN. Archived from the original on 7 July 2021.
  521. ^ "Haiti senators nominate Joseph Lambert as president". Deutsche Welle. 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  522. ^ "Convicted drug trafficker testifies that he bribed Honduran president". the Guardian. 2021-03-11. Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  523. ^ "Honduras drugs: President's brother gets life in prison". BBC News. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2021-05-10.
  524. ^ Díaz, Bastián (29 November 2021). "Xiomara Castro, la izquierdista que se perfila como la primera mujer Presidenta de Honduras". La Tercera.
  525. ^ Señala AMLO que su reto para 2020 es serenar a México Aristegui Noticias, 2 Jan 2020 Una "reaparición fortalecida" del narco y la presión de Trump: la seguridad será el mayor reto de AMLO en 2020 by Patricia Velez Santiago, Univision Noticias, 2 Jan 2020
  526. ^ Sector salud, el principal reto para el gobierno de AMLO en 2020 El Sol de Mexico, 29 December 2019
  527. ^ "Top 5: Retos de AMLO en 2020" [Top 5: Challenges for AMLO in 2020]. Diario Contrapeso Ciudadano (in Spanish). Jan 8, 2020.
  528. ^ Define AMLO los dos retos por resolver este 2020: Seguridad Pública y Seguridad Social. Billie Parker Noticias, 14 Jan 2020
  529. ^ AMLO responde a Jorge Ramos: en diciembre, resultados sobre seguridad by Sara Pantoja, Proceso, 15 Jan 2020
  530. ^ More than 15,000 march in Monterrey (in Spanish) by Caroline Leon, Milenio, 9 Mar 2020 Thousands of women march on CDMX between slogans, graffiti, and claims for justice (in Spanish) Expansion Politica, 8 Mar 2020
  531. ^ Fury fuels historic women's strike in Mexico By Will Grant BBC News, 9 Mar 2020 "Today, they did not arrive": This is how Mexico looks for # El9NadieSeMueve (in Spanish) by Gustavo Álvarez, 24 Horas, 9 Mar 2020 Women's strike paralyzes the Chamber of Deputies by Fernando Damián, Milenio, 9 Mar 2020 Bank branches closed in response to women's strike (in Spanish) La Jornada, 9 Mar 2020
  532. ^ a b c Kahn, Carrie (20 May 2021). "Ortega Targets Opposition Figures As Nicaraguan Elections Approach". NPR. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  533. ^ "Nicaragua opens probe into presidential hopeful Chamorro". Reuters. 21 May 2021. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  534. ^ "Régimen arresta al precandidato presidencial Arturo Cruz". Confidencial (in Spanish). 2021-06-05. Retrieved 2021-06-05.
  535. ^ "Nicaragua arrests a third potential challenger to Ortega". WRAL.com. 2021-06-08. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  536. ^ "Nicaragua arrests 2 more potential challengers to Ortega". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2021-06-10. Retrieved 2021-06-09.
  537. ^ "Policía Nacional captura a Miguel Mora". Vos TV (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-06-21.
  538. ^ Miranda, Wilfredo (6 July 2021). "Ortega encarcela a líderes estudiantiles y del movimiento campesino en Nicaragua". EL PAÍS (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  539. ^ a b "Fiscalía cita a María Asunción Moreno tras anunciar su precandidatura presidencial". 100noticias.com.ni (in Spanish). July 10, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-25.
  540. ^ "Aspirante presidencial denuncia "persecución" y abandona Nicaragua". CNN (in Spanish). 2021-07-26. Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  541. ^ "Luis Fley, precandidato presidencial, se exilia por amenazas de ser encarcelado por el régimen". La Prensa (in Spanish). 2021-07-12. Archived from the original on July 13, 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-13.
  542. ^ "Régimen de Daniel Ortega arrestó a otro candidato presidencial". Noticias de El Salvador (in Spanish). 2021-07-24. Retrieved 2021-07-24.
  543. ^ "Policía detiene a estudiantes y líderes campesinos en redada nocturna". Confidencial (in Spanish). 6 July 2021. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  544. ^ a b "OAS Condemns Arrests of Opposition in Nicaragua". Confidencial. 2021-06-16. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
  545. ^ "Embajadores de México y Argentina en Nicaragua, a consultas". AP NEWS. 2021-06-21. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  546. ^ Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  547. ^ Rumpf, Sarah (May 29, 2020). "Derek Chauvin Had Knee on George Floyd's Neck for Almost 3 Minutes AFTER Floyd Was Unresponsive: Officials". Mediaite. The defendant had his knee on Mr. Floyd's neck for 8 minutes and 46 seconds in total. Two minutes and 53 seconds of this was after Mr. Floyd was non-responsive, concludes the complaint.
  548. ^ Lovett, Ian (2020-06-04). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  549. ^ Betz, Bradford (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd unrest: Riots, fires, violence escalate in several major cities". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  550. ^ "Widespread unrest as curfe