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2019 Pacific typhoon season

The 2019 Pacific typhoon season is currently the second-costliest Pacific typhoon season on record, only behind the previous year.[1] It is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season runs throughout most of the year, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October.

2019 Pacific typhoon season
2019 Pacific typhoon season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedDecember 31, 2018
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameHalong
 • Maximum winds215 km/h (130 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure905 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions51
Total storms28
Typhoons16
Super typhoons4 (unofficial)
Total fatalities310 total
Total damage$27.8 billion (2019 USD)
(Second-costliest Pacific typhoon season on record)
Related articles
Pacific typhoon seasons
2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021

The season was an average but notable season since 2004. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, reached tropical storm status on January 1, becoming the earliest-forming tropical storm of the western Pacific Ocean on record, breaking the previous record that was held by Typhoon Alice in 1979. The season's first typhoon, Wutip, reached typhoon status on February 20. Wutip further intensified into a super typhoon on February 23, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record,[2] and the strongest tropical cyclone recorded in February in the Northern Hemisphere. Another notable storm, Typhoon Lekima, became the second costliest typhoon in Chinese history, behind Typhoon Fitow of 2013. Typhoon Hagibis became one of the costliest tropical cyclones in Japanese history. Typhoon Halong became the strongest typhoon of the season and also the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide in 2019.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, while the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E–115°E and between 5°N–25°N regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

Seasonal forecasts

TSR forecasts
Date
Tropical
storms
Total
Typhoons
Intense
TCs
ACE Ref.
Average (1965–2018) 26 16 9 295 [3]
May 7, 2019 27 17 10 354 [3]
July 5, 2019 25 15 8 260 [4]
August 7, 2019 26 16 8 270 [5]
Other forecasts
Date
Forecast
Center
Period Systems Ref.
February 7, 2019 PAGASA January–March 1–2 tropical cyclones [6]
February 7, 2019 PAGASA April–June 2–4 tropical cyclones [6]
July 15, 2019 PAGASA July–September 6–9 tropical cyclones [7]
July 15, 2019 PAGASA October–December 3–5 tropical cyclones [7]
2019 season Forecast
Center
Tropical
cyclones
Tropical
storms
Typhoons Ref.
Actual activity: JMA 51 28 16
Actual activity: JTWC 29 26 15
Actual activity: PAGASA 20 14 6

During the year, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many tropical cyclones, tropical storms, and typhoons will form during a season and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies included the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of University College London, PAGASA and Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau. The first forecast of the year was released by PAGASA on February 7, within its seasonal climate outlook for the period January–June.[6] The outlook noted that one to two tropical cyclones were expected between January and March, while two to four were expected to develop or enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility between April and June. Moreover, PAGASA predicts an 80% chance of a weak El Niño presence during February–March–April period.[6] On May 7, the TSR issued their first forecast for the season, predicting that the 2019 season would be a slightly above average season, producing 27 named storms, 17 typhoons, and ten intense typhoons.[3] One of the factors behind this is due to the possible development of a moderate El Niño anticipated within the third quarter of the year.[3]

On July 5, the TSR released their second forecast for the season, now lowering their numbers and predicting that the season would be a below-average season with 25 named storms, 15 typhoons, and eight intense typhoons.[4] The PAGASA issued their second forecast for the season on July 15, predicting six to nine tropical cyclones expected to develop or enter their area between July and September and about three to five tropical cyclones by September to December. The agency also predicted that the weak El Niño was expected to weaken towards neutral conditions by August and September 2019.[7] On August 7, the TSR released their final forecast for the season, predicting a near-normal season with 26 named storms, 16 typhoons and eight intense typhoons.[5]

Season summary

Typhoon Kammuri (2019)Typhoon Hagibis (2019)Typhoon Faxai (2019)Typhoon Lekima (2019)Typhoon Wutip (2019)Tropical Storm Pabuk (2019) 

The first half of 2019 was considerably inactive, with 2019 opening with Tropical Depression 36W active just to the south of Vietnam. The system, shortly thereafter, strengthened into Tropical Storm Pabuk, which became the first named storm of the season. Four days later, Pabuk make landfall in Thailand and exited the basin and into the Bay of Bengal. In that same month, Tropical Depression 01W (Amang) affected eastern Philippines bringing torrential rainfall. The next named storm, Typhoon Wutip, strengthened into a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon and became the most powerful February typhoon on record, surpassing Typhoon Higos in 2015.[8][2] Several tropical depressions have developed during the months from March through to May, however none have strengthened into named storms. The month of June was unusually quiet with the next named storm, Sepat, only peaking as a tropical storm, affected mainland Japan bringing gusty winds and a tornado.[9] Tropical Storm Sepat, however, was only classified as a subtropical storm by the JTWC.[10]

On July, four named storms developed and affected land: Mun, which affected South China, Danas and Nari, which affected mainland Japan, and Wipha which also affected South China. None of the storms, however, reached typhoon intensity, which is very rare for the month of July. By August, tropical activity began to increase with the development of three simultaneous typhoons. Typhoon Francisco affected Japan and the Korean Peninsula. Typhoon Lekima reached Category 4-equivalent super typhoon intensity east of Taiwan and made landfall in Zhejiang of eastern China. Lekima brought total damages of $9.28 billion, making it the fifth costliest typhoon and the costliest typhoon in China.[11] Typhoon Krosa formed as a Category 3 typhoon and made landfall in Japan as a severe tropical storm. Tropical Storms Bailu and Podul impacted Taiwan and the Philippines respectively as well as southern China but caused minimal damage.

In late August, two typhoons formed, both of them persisting into September. They both affected land and both reached category-4 equivalent intensity. One of them was Lingling which struck the Korean Peninsula. The other one was Faxai which caused catastrophic damage when it made landfall in Japan. Damage cost is estimated to be $7 billion.

Several other depressions formed in September, but only one of them was officially named "Peipah" by the JMA. The storm stayed out at sea. Another depression was named Marilyn by the PAGASA, but was not named by the JMA. In mid September, another typhoon formed and was named "Tapah". The system affected Taiwan, South Korea, and western Japan, but caused minor damage. In late September, Mitag also intensified to a typhoon, impacted Taiwan and South Korea, and caused moderate damage.

In early October, Typhoon Hagibis formed and eventually intensified to a category 5-equivalent super typhoon. The storm struck Japan and worsened the situation even more as the country was recovering for Faxai. Damage cost reached $9 billion, making it one of the costliest typhoons to ever hit the nation. In mid-October, tropical storms Neoguri and Bualoi formed, and both became typhoons. Original forecasts for Neoguri was only for it to reach tropical depression status, but favorable conditions allowed it to peak to a Category 2. Bualoi also entered favorable waters and peaked into a Category 4 storm.

In November, Severe Tropical Storm Matmo formed in the South China Sea, then regenerating in the North Indian Ocean as Cyclone Bulbul. Then the strongest typhoon formed named as "Halong" near Micronesia, but it never hit land. Typhoon Nakri brought lots of rain to the Philippines, flooding the state of Isabela. Typhoon Fengshen formed but never affected land. Typhoon Kalmaegi was an erratic typhoon which brought more misery in the Philippines after Nakri, and alongside formed Severe Tropical Storm Fung-wong, but never affected land. After Fung-wong dissipated, a new system became Tropical Storm Kammuri, and rapidly intensified to become a typhoon.

Systems

Tropical Storm Pabuk

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationDecember 31, 2018 – January 4, 2019 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

A tropical disturbance formed over the southern portion of the South China Sea on December 28, 2018,[12] which absorbed the remnants of Tropical Depression 35W (Usman) on December 30.[13] Under high vertical wind shear, the low-pressure area remained disorganized until December 31 when it was upgraded to a tropical depression by both the JMA and the JTWC.[14] As it was designated 36W by the JTWC, it was unofficially the last system of the 2018 typhoon season.[15] At around 06:00 UTC on January 1, 2019, the system was upgraded to the first tropical storm of the 2019 typhoon season and named Pabuk by the JMA, surpassing Typhoon Alice in 1979 to become the earliest-forming tropical storm of the northwest Pacific Ocean on record.[16] At that time, Pabuk was about 650 km (405 miles) southeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and drifted westward slowly with a partially exposed low-level circulation center.[17]

Under marginal conditions including warm sea surface temperatures, excellent poleward outflow but strong vertical wind shear, Pabuk struggled to intensify further for over two days until it accelerated west-northwestward and entered the Gulf of Thailand on January 3, where vertical wind shear was slightly weaker. It became the first tropical storm over the gulf since Muifa in 2004.[18] Moreover, it tried to form an eye revealed by microwave imagery.[19] On January 4, the Thai Meteorological Department reported that Pabuk had made landfall over Pak Phanang, Nakhon Si Thammarat at 12:45 ICT (05:45 UTC), although other agencies indicated a landfall at peak intensity between 06:00 and 12:00 UTC.[20] Pabuk became the first tropical storm to make landfall over southern Thailand since Linda in 1997. Shortly after 12:00 UTC, the JMA issued the last full advisory for Pabuk as it exited the basin into the North Indian Ocean.[21][22]

One of the islands in the south of Thailand, Koh Samui, appeared to have been spared much of the brunt of the storm with no confirmed deaths. Beaches were closed, but even with the bad weather approaching, tourists on the popular island in the Gulf of Thailand continued to visit bars and restaurants catering to them.[23]

In Vietnam, Pabuk caused one death,[24] and the losses were estimated at 27.87 billion (US$1.2 million).[25] Eight people in Thailand were killed,[26][27] and the losses in the country were estimated to be 5 billion bahts (US$156 million).[28] Pabuk also killed one person in Malaysia.[29]

Tropical Depression 01W (Amang)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationJanuary 4 – January 22
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1004 hPa (mbar)

The JTWC upgraded a disturbance north of Bairiki to a tropical depression with the designation 01W late on January 4 and expected some intensification,[30] but it failed to develop and the JTWC downgraded it back to a disturbance on January 6.[31] The system continued drifting westwards for two weeks without development. On January 19, the JMA upgraded the low-pressure area to a tropical depression when it was already located about 200 km (120 mi) west of Palau.[32] The tropical depression entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility, being given the name Amang by PAGASA.[33] Amang moved west-northwestward until it made landfall over Siargao at 11:00 Philippine Standard Time (PST), January 20.[34] Amang changed course after the landfall, turning northward the next day until weakening over Samar the same day.[35] Amang then weakened into a low pressure area before dissipating shortly afterwards, which then PAGASA issued their final advisories.[36]

The depression indirectly triggered landslides and flash floods in Davao Oriental and Agusan del Norte, killing 10 people.[37] Damage in Davao were at 318.99 million (US$6.04 million).[35][38][39]

Typhoon Wutip (Betty)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationFebruary 18 – March 2
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

A low-pressure area formed just south of the Marshall Islands on February 16. It then began to gradually organize while moving westward, just south of Federated States of Micronesia.[40] The system was upgraded to a tropical depression by the JMA on February 18, with the JTWC following suit on the following day, assigning the storm the identifier 02W. On February 20, the tropical depression intensified into a tropical storm and received the name Wutip from the JMA. On February 21, Wutip strengthened into a severe tropical storm, before intensifying further into a typhoon later that day.[citation needed] On February 23, Wutip intensified further, reaching its initial peak intensity as a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and a minimum pressure of 925 hPa (mbar), while passing to the southwest of Guam, surpassing Typhoon Higos from 2015 as the strongest February typhoon on record.[2] Wutip underwent an eyewall replacement cycle shortly thereafter, weakening in intensity as it did so while turning to the northwest. The typhoon finished its eyewall replacement cycle on February 24 and resumed strengthening;[citation needed] early on February 25, Wutip reached its peak intensity as a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon, with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (121 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 920 hPa (27 inHg). This made Wutip the first Category 5-equivalent super typhoon recorded in the month of February.[8] This also made Wutip the strongest typhoon ever recorded in February in the Northern hemisphere[citation needed]. On February 26, Wutip entered a hostile environment with moderate wind shear and began to weaken, concurrently making another turn westward. On February 28, Wutip weakened into a tropical depression and lost most of its convection. On the same day, Wutip was given the name "Betty" by the PAGASA as the storm entered the Philippine Sea. Soon afterward, Wutip entered a more hostile environment, with very high vertical wind shear (40–50 knots or 74–93 km/h or 46–58 mph) and lower sea surface temperatures, and the storm rapidly weakened until it dissipated on March 2.[citation needed]

Preliminary estimates of damage in Guam and Micronesia were at $3.3 million.[41][42]

Tropical Depression 03W (Chedeng)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationMarch 14 – March 20
Peak intensity<55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1006 hPa (mbar)

On March 14, Tropical Depression 03W formed over the Federated States of Micronesia. Over the next couple of days, the system drifted westward, while gradually organizing. Early on March 17, the tropical depression entered the PAGASA's area of responsibility in the Philippine Sea, and consequently, the agency assigned the name Chedeng to the storm, shortly before it made landfall on Palau.[citation needed] At 5:30 PST on March 19, Chedeng made landfall on Malita, Davao Occidental.[43] Chedeng rapidly weakened after making landfall in the Philippines, degenerating into a remnant low on March 19. Chedeng's remnants continued weakening while moving westward, dissipating over the southern Sulu Sea on March 20.[citation needed]

Infrastructural damage in Davao Region were at Php1.2 million (US$23,000).[44]

Tropical Storm Sepat (Dodong)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 24 – June 28
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

On June 24, the JMA began monitoring on a tropical depression that had formed well to the east of Luzon from the remnants of a separate system. On June 25, the system began curving towards the northeast; the PAGASA also began to issue warnings on the formative disturbance.[45] Rounding the periphery of a subtropical ridge of high pressure, the depression tracked towards the east-northeast through the East China Sea, intensifying some as it encountered an area of high sea surface temperatures and low wind shear.[46][47] On June 26, the cyclone left the PAGASA's area of responsibility.[48] Curved banding developed later that day as the center passed east of Okinawa.[49] Tracing the northwestern periphery of the ridge, the system curved towards the east-northeast, paralleling the southern coast of the main Japanese islands. Supported by favorable sea surface temperatures and outflow, the system was upgraded to a tropical storm at 09:00 UTC on June 27, gaining the name Sepat.[50] A peak intensity with 75 km/h (47 mph) 10-minute sustained winds was attained later that day while Sepat began to acquire extratropical characteristics.[51][52] The next day, the storm fully transitioned into an extratropical system while accelerating eastward 580 km (360 mi) east of Hitachinaka, Japan.[53] Sepat's extratropical remnants continued accelerating towards the northeast, moving into the western Bering Sea on July 1, before eventually dissipating over the Arctic Ocean early on July 5.[citation needed]

This system was not tracked by the JTWC; however, the agency classified the system as a subtropical storm, with 1-minute sustained winds at 75 km/h (45 mph).[10] Some ferry routes and bullet trains were suspended as the storm passed near Tokyo on June 28, dropping heavy rainfall.[54] Evacuations were advised for most districts in Kagoshima due to an increased risk of landslides. In Hioki, Kagoshima, 164 mm (6.5 in) of rain fell in a six-hour period on the morning of June 28;[55] 240 mm (9.4 in) fell in Kamikatsu, Tokushima, in a 24-hour period.[56] An EF0 tornado damaged 17 structures in Gifu and Ginan.[9][57]

Tropical Depression 04W (Egay)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 27 – July 1
Peak intensity<55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Early on June 27, a tropical depression formed to the southwest of the Mariana Islands. At around 21:00 Philippine Standard Time (09:00 UTC), the tropical depression entered the PAGASA's area of responsibility in the Philippine Sea, though PAGASA did not recognize the system as a tropical cyclone at the time. On June 28, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and gave it the identifier 04W. On the next day, PAGASA named the tropical depression “Egay” and the JTWC initiated advisories on Egay as a tropical storm. On June 30, Tropical Depression Egay encountered high wind shear in the Philippine Sea and began weakening soon afterward. On July 1, Egay turned to the north-northwest and reached the southern coast of Taiwan, and both the PAGASA and the JTWC issued their final warnings on the weakening storm; Egay degenerated into a remnant low late that day. Afterward, Egay passed over northern Taiwan and continued its northward motion, before dissipating on the next day, just off the coast of China.[citation needed]

Tropical Storm Mun

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 1 – July 4
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

On July 1, an area of low pressure organized into a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea, near Hainan and the Paracel Islands. The system gradually organized while drifting eastward. On the next day, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named the storm Mun. Later that day, Tropical Storm Mun made landfall on the island of Hainan. However, the JTWC still recognized Mun as a monsoon depression and didn’t upgrade it into a tropical cyclone for another day. Late on July 3, after the storm had nearly crossed the Gulf of Tonkin to the coast of Vietnam, the JTWC upgraded the storm to tropical storm status and initiated advisories on the system, stating that Mun had organized enough to be considered a tropical cyclone.[citation needed] Between 4:30–5:00 a.m. ICT on July 4 (21:30–22:00 UTC on July 3), Mun made landfall in Thái Bình Province in northern Vietnam.[58] Afterward, Mun moved inland while weakening, before dissipating late on July 4.[citation needed]

A bridge in Tĩnh Gia District was damaged by the storm, which killed 2 people and left 3 injured. Damage of an electric pole in Trấn Yên District were at 5.6 billion (US$240,000).[58]

Tropical Storm Danas (Falcon)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 14 – July 21
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On July 12, an area of low pressure formed near the Mariana Islands. During the next couple of days, the system slowly drifted westward while gradually organizing. Early on July 14, the low-pressure area organized into a tropical depression to the southwest of the Mariana Islands. Later that day, the tropical depression entered the Philippine area of responsibility, and the PAGASA gave the system the name Falcon. Afterward, the system continued organizing while approaching Luzon. On July 16, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named the system Danas. Shortly afterward, at 12:00 UTC that day, the JTWC upgraded Danas to a tropical storm. At 12:30 a.m. on July 17 (PST), PAGASA reported that Danas (Falcon) had made landfall at Gattaran, Cagayan and looped over the landmass. However, Danas's center of circulation still remained off the coast of Luzon, and the JMA and JTWC both stated that Danas did not make landfall at all. Northeasterly wind shear had displaced much of Danas' convection to the west, and an area of low pressure had formed to the east of Luzon. This led to the formation of another area of low pressure over the western Philippines. This low would later develop into Tropical Depression Goring. On July 19, the JMA reported that Danas has reached its peak intensity with winds of 85 km/h (50 mph). Later that day, Danas began to weaken. On July 20, around 13:00 UTC, Danas made landfall on North Jeolla Province, South Korea, before weakening into a tropical depression soon afterward. At 12:45 UTC on July 21, Danas transitioned into an extratropical low in the Sea of Japan, and the JMA issued their final advisory on the storm.[citation needed]

In Philippines, four people were killed after Danas triggered flooding in the country.[59] Agricultural damage in Negros Occidental were calculated at P19 million (US$372,000),[60] while agricultural damage in Lanao Norte reached P277.8 million (US$5.44 million).[61] Danas caused stormy weather across South Korea; however, its effects were relatively minor. Heavy rains amounted to 329.5 mm (12.97 in) in Geomun-do.[62] A man died after being swept away by strong waves in Geochang County.[63] Damage in South Jeolla Province were at W395 million (US$336,000),[64] while damage in Jeju Island up to W322 million (US$274,000).[65] Additionally, Danas also triggered flash flooding in Kyushu. A 11-year-old boy was killed.[66]

Tropical Depression Goring

Tropical depression (JMA)
DurationJuly 17 – July 19
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On July 17, a tropical depression formed from the western part of Tropical Storm Danas after it was battered by northeast wind shear, over the eastern part of the South China Sea, just off the coast of Luzon. Over the next couple of days, the system moved northeastward, and re-entered the PAGASA's Philippine Area of Responsibility, and was named Goring while the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on Goring. Goring reached southern Taiwan early on July 19.[citation needed] However, the storm made landfall on Taiwan soon afterward and weakened; as a result, the JTWC cancelled the TCFA and has lowered Goring's chance for development to 'medium'.[67] Goring dissipated by 18:00 UTC on July 19 (July 20 PST), with PAGASA declaring that Goring had degenerated into a low-pressure area and discontinued advisories on the storm, and the JMA ceased advisories as well. The remnant of Goring was then merged with a new low pressure system which would eventually become a Tropical Storm Nari. Goring's outflow was then re-absorbed by Danas.[citation needed]

Tropical Storm Nari

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 24 – July 27
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  998 hPa (mbar)

On July 21, the JTWC started tracking an area of low pressure associated with remnant of Tropical Depression Goring for the potential formation of a tropical cyclone. Under favorable conditions, the system organized itself in the next several days. At 00:00 UTC on July 24, it developed into a tropical depression to the west of the Bonin Islands. The storm gradually became more organized while moving north-northwestward. Early on July 25, the JTWC initiated advisories on the storm and gave it the identification "07W". Early on July 26, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm, and the JMA named it Nari while it moved northwards. The storm approached southern Japan and as it moved inland, it weakened into a tropical depression. Several hours later, it degenerated into a remnant low. Thus, the JTWC and JMA issued their final advisories on the system.[citation needed]

Tropical Storm Wipha

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 30 – August 4
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On July 30, a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea near Paracel Islands and Hainan. On the next day, it strengthened into a tropical storm, and JMA named it Wipha. By July 31, JTWC upgraded Wipha to a tropical storm. Wipha then made landfall in Vietnam on August 2, and dissipated fully the next day.[citation needed]

In Vietnam, at least 27 people were killed. Thanh Hóa Province was the worst hit province within the nation, with 16 people died alone,[68] and the losses were amounted to 1 trillion đồng (US$43.1 million).[69] Damage in Sơn La Province reached 28 billion đồng (US$1.21 million).[70]

Typhoon Francisco

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 1 – August 8
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

On August 1, a tropical depression formed to the east of Mariana Islands. By midnight on August 1, the depression rapidly intensified to be Tropical Storm Francisco. Over the next few days, Francisco gradually strengthened and became a severe tropical storm on August 3. It then became a typhoon 12 hours later.[citation needed]

In anticipation of coastal flooding, 20,020 people were evacuated from Kokuraminami-ku and Moji-ku.[71] Transportation in the affected region was disrupted, with 130 flights cancelled and the Kyushu Railway Company suspending train service.[72] Striking Kyushu as a typhoon, Francisco brought heavy rain and strong winds to much of the island. Rainfall accumulations exceeded 120 mm (4.7 in) in Nobeoka and 110 mm (4.3 in) in Saiki.[73] Nobeoka observed a local hourly rainfall record of 95.5 mm (3.76 in).[72] A maximum wind gust of 143 km/h (89 mph) was observed at Miyazaki Airport,[74] the highest August wind gust on record for the city. One person drowned in a flooded river in Kokonoe.[72] Two people suffered injury after being knocked over by strong winds.[71]

Typhoon Lekima (Hanna)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 2 – August 13
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

On August 2, the JMA began monitoring a tropical depression that had developed in the Philippine Sea. It was named Hanna by PAGASA. Tropical Depression Hanna strengthened into a tropical storm a day later, and was given the international name Lekima. Lekima soon started to intensify as it moves west-northwestwards, becoming a severe tropical storm on August 4, and rapidly intensifying in the favorable waters, which allowed Lekima reach Category 3-equivalent typhoon intensity on August 7, and the storm underwent rapid intensification, and soon becoming a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon within just 2 hours.[citation needed]

The typhoon underwent an eyewall replacement cycle by the following morning, and began to weaken as it did so, as the South China Sea was not favorable for further intensification. Lekima made landfall in Wenling, Zhejiang at 12:30 a.m. CST August 10 (16:30 UTC August 9).

The system continued to weaken as it moved inland. Lekima then changed its trajectory from west-northwest to north, battering East China. The system kept moving inland and weakened to a tropical depression.[citation needed] Soon afterward, Lekima started to undergo an extratropical transition, with the JTWC discontinuing advisories on the storm.[75] The remnants of Lekima made their way to the Korean Peninsula as an extratropical storm.[citation needed]

Though Lekima, known to them as Hanna in the Philippines, did not directly affect the Philippines, the storm enhanced the southwest monsoon, which caused heavy rain in the nation. Three boats sank in Guimaras Strait; 31 people died and three were missing.[76]

In China, Lekima was the 2nd costliest storm in Chinese history, only behind Fitow of 2013, as flooding from Lekima washed away farms and houses in mainland China after its landfall, as it still was a Category 3 by its landfall.

Typhoon Krosa

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 5 – August 16
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression formed near Mariana Islands on August 5. By August 6, it intensified into a tropical storm, and was named Krosa by the JMA. Tropical Storm Krosa soon became a typhoon, and rapidly intensified to become a category 3-equivalent typhoon on August 8. Upwelling of cooler waters induced weakening thereafter; by August 13, Krosa weakened below typhoon intensity. Krosa continued moving, albeit slowly, towards Japan with little change in intensity. Moderately conducive conditions were unable to aid Krosa in strengthening, and it stayed the same intensity before landfall in Japan. On August 14, Krosa emerged in the Sea of Japan and a few days later on August 16 Krosa transitioned into an extratropical low.[citation needed]

The typhoon brought torrential rain to parts of Shikoku and Honshu, with accumulations peaking at 869.5 mm (34.23 in) at Yanase in Kochi Prefecture. Wind gusts reached 151 km/h (94 mph) in Muroto. Rough seas produced by the storm killed two people while flooding killed one other.[77] Fifty-five people were injured in various incidents.[78] Damage in Japan amounted to be ¥2.177 billion (US$20.5 million).[79]

Severe Tropical Storm Bailu (Ineng)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 19 – August 26
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On August 20, a tropical depression formed to the west of Mariana Islands. The PAGASA later upgraded the system to Tropical Depression Ineng. On the next day, the JMA designated Tropical Depression Ineng as Tropical Storm Bailu, and the JTWC classified the system as Tropical Depression 12W. Bailu gradually intensified over the Philippine Sea, and later intensifying into a Severe Tropical Storm.[citation needed] At 13:00 TST (05:00 UTC) on August 24, Bailu made landfall over Manzhou Township, Pingtung County, Taiwan.[80] Bailu weakened a little before making landfall in Fujian, China and dissipating late on August 26.[citation needed]

Though Bailu did not made landfall in the Philippines, two people were killed and state of calamity was declared in Ilocos Norte due to flooding,[81] and left Php1.1 billion (US$21 million) damage in the province.[82] Bailu also killed one person, and injured nine others in Taiwan.[83] Institutional damage were calculated to be TWD 2.31 million (US$74,000),[84] while agricultural damage reached TWD 175 million (US$5.63 million).[85] Damage in Fujian reached ¥10.49 million (US$1.5 million).[86]

Tropical Storm Podul (Jenny)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 24 – August 31
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

On August 25, the Japan Meteorological Agency began to track a tropical depression near Ifalik. On the next day, PAGASA named the storm Jenny, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center designated the storm as 13W. On August 27, the system intensified to become a tropical storm, and was given the name Podul.[citation needed] Podul made landfall in Casiguran, Aurora at 10:40 p.m. PST (14:40 UTC).[87] It then emerged over the South China Sea, and headed for Vietnam. Podul then intensified a bit further, before making landfall there.[citation needed]

In Negros Oriental, a person was swept away by strong waves, he was later found dead.[88] Agricultural damage in Antique amounted to 4.5 million (US$86,000).[89] Podul triggered tornado in Hainan, which killed eight people and left two others injured.[90] Damage of this tornado reached ¥16.22 million (US$2.27 million).[91] In Vietnam, the storm left six dead and two missing.[92] Losses in Sơn La Province exceeds 1.8 billion đồng (US$77,000).[93]

Tropical Storm Kajiki (Kabayan)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 30 – September 6
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

On August 30, a tropical depression formed to the east of Luzon. On the same day, it briefly weakened into a low pressure area and regenerated six hours later into a tropical depression at midnight on August 31.[citation needed] It passed through the Batanes Islands, and PAGASA upgraded the system to a tropical depression, naming it Kabayan;[94] however, the system exited their area of responsibility shortly thereafter.[95] In the same time the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) for Kabayan.[96] Kabayan made landfall in Hainan by September 1, and re-emerged over the South China Sea later, and was upgraded by the JTWC to a monsoon depression. By late September 2, the JTWC began issuing advisories on the system, giving the identifier 16W, while the JMA upgraded the system to a tropical storm, naming it Kajiki. Shortly thereafter, Kajiki made landfall over Vietnam. Kajiki then re-emerged on the South China Sea, interacting with a weak tropical depression in Hainan, and then exhibiting to re-intensify once more, as it was absorbing the tropical depression to its northeast. However, Kajiki remained its intensity as a weak tropical depression after it had recurved backed over open waters. The system meandered in a slow northeastward direction until it had weakened and was last noticed on September 7.[citation needed]

Because of the slow movement over Vietnam, Kajiki brought heavy rains and triggered flooding. Rainfall were recorded to as high as 530 mm within the regions. The storm killed six people and nine others remained missing.[97] Agricultural losses were estimated to be 300 billion (US$12.9 million).[98]

Typhoon Lingling (Liwayway)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 31 – September 7
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  940 hPa (mbar)

On August 31, three tropical depressions formed, one of which was east of Mindanao. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center then issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for the system.[99] On September 1, the Philippines agency PAGASA upgraded the system and named it Liwayway.[100] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center then gave Liwayway the designation 15W. Liwayway then began to organize itself while in the Philippine Sea. Early on September 2, the Japan Meteorological Agency reported that Liwayway intensified into a tropical storm, and named the system Lingling. Lingling then continued to organize itself, and soon later, the JTWC upgraded Lingling to a tropical storm. Lingling then formed an eye, as the JMA upgraded it to a severe tropical storm. Lingling then became a Category 1 typhoon late on September 3. Typhoon Lingling (Liwayway) then strengthened piece-by-piece, and the eye began to slowly consolidate around the center of the eye, and PAGASA, removed the Tropical Cyclone Wind Signals on Batanes after the storm slowly moved away, hence, it was enhancing the Southwest Monsoon, and causing rains in many parts of the country, while floods in other areas have still not subsided from the previous storms that passed the Extreme Northern Luzon area. Lingling then underwent rapid intensification from favorable conditions near the South China Sea and soon became a Category 2, and later a Category 4 on the Saffir–Simpson scale, as it was east of Taiwan. The eye became clear and wide as Lingling intensified even further. Lingling, moved out of the Philippine Area of Responsibility, and PAGASA issued its final advisory on Lingling. Lingling then made landfall as a Category 4 on Miyako-jima, then continued to intensify, and reaching its peak intensity as a super typhoon, since Lekima a month earlier. It gradually weakened as it was east of China.[citation needed] At 2:30 p.m. KST (05:30 UTC), Lingling made landfall in South Hwanghae Province, North Korea with winds of 130 km/h (80 mph),[101] becoming the first typhoon and the strongest storm to strike the country.[102] On September 8, Lingling weakened to a minimal tropical storm. It moved away from North Korea and the center moved to Russia, weakening even further.[citation needed]

Passing east of the Philippines, Lingling caused flooding in Luzon. Agricultural damage in Pampanga were amounted to 5 million (US$96,000).[103] Economic loss in Okinawa Prefecture were at JP¥533 million (US$4.98 million).[104][105] Passing west of South Korea, Lingling killed three people and injured ten others. Wind gusts reached 196 km/h (122 mph) in Heuksando, the strongest wind observed in the country since Maemi in 2003. About 161,000 households had experienced power outages.[106] Damage nationwide were amounted to 28.76 billion (US$24.1 million).[107] In North Korea, five people were dead with three others injured. The typhoon damaged 475 houses and buildings, as well as 46,200 ha (114,000 acres) of farmland.[108] Lingling also passed through the Northeast China, damage were calculated at CN¥930 million (US$131 million).[109] Moreover, Lingling's extratropical remnants caused flooding in the Russian Far East, with damage in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast amounting to 2 billion (US$30.4 million).[110]

Typhoon Faxai

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 2 – September 9
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

At 18:00 UTC on August 29, a tropical depression formed just east of the International Date Line. It moved west across the Pacific Ocean the next day. It was then designated 14W by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center after they initiated advisories. By September 2, the JTWC upgraded 14W to a tropical storm, and maintained its intensity for a couple of days. Three days later, the Japan Meteorological Agency finally upgraded the system to a tropical storm, and named it Faxai. Faxai gradually intensified, reaching typhoon status on September 6. Faxai rapidly intensified into a Category 4 storm on September 8 and reaching its peak intensity. Faxai weakened slightly before making landfall in Chiba City shortly before 5:00 a.m. JST September 9.[111]

Faxai was the first storm to strike the Kantō region since Mindulle in 2016, and the strongest storm to hit the region since Ma-on in 2004. Three people were killed and 147 others were injured. More than 390,000 people were urged to be evacuated. Faxai left 934,000 households without power. Trains service in JR East were cancelled due to the storm.[112] Two people died from heatstroke because of the power outage.[113] Damage in Japan was extremely severe, reaching ¥883.21 billion (US$8.12 billion).[114]

Tropical Depression Marilyn

Tropical depression (JMA)
Monsoon depression
DurationSeptember 10 – September 13
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

A new low pressure system formed west of Guam on September 10 in the Philippine Sea. The Japan Meteorological Agency upgraded the system to a tropical depression. The system gradually developed by the next day. On the same day, the JTWC upgraded the system into a monsoon depression, due to the broad and disorganized nature of the system. JMA also raised a gale warning for the depression around the same time. By September 12, the depression entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility, and was named Marilyn.[citation needed]

Later that day, JMA cancelled the gale warning.[115] By the next day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system, which will later cancel the next day.[116] Marilyn then dissipated as it exited the Philippine Area of Responsibility, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center cancelled the Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for Marilyn. The remnants of Marilyn drifted northeast, then southwest, back into the Philippine Area of Responsibility from an interaction with nearby Tropical Storm Peipah. However due to its "monsoonal gyre" structure, the system produced a new vortex that soon developed into another tropical depression, which eventually developed into Tropical Storm Tapah, while the main circulation of Marilyn interacted with another non-warning tropical depression southeast of Japan. The JTWC, however, treated them as the same system.[citation needed]

High surf from Tropical Depression Marilyn in Puerto Princesa capsized 6 boats at sea.[117]

Tropical Storm Peipah

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 12 – September 17
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

On September 14, a tropical depression formed. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center later issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert, and as it gradually developed, it was given the designation 17W. Despite the high wind shear, the depression soon intensified to a tropical storm and was named Peipah. Peipah sustained itself for 12 hours before weakening again into a tropical depression by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical Storm Peipah struggled, and soon lost the battle against the high wind shear, and after six hours Peipah weakened into a remnant low.[citation needed]

Typhoon Tapah (Nimfa)

Typhoon (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 22
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

On September 17, a tropical depression formed from the remnants of Tropical Depression Marilyn east of Batanes.[citation needed] PAGASA later named the tropical cyclone as "Nimfa", as the JTWC issued a medium warning for Nimfa.[118] Tropical Depression Nimfa was later given a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert but still classified it as a monsoon depression by JTWC. The JTWC later designated Nimfa as 18W. Tropical Depression Nimfa was upgraded by the Japan Meteorological Agency into a tropical storm, and was named Tapah.[citation needed] A non-warning tropical depression in the South China Sea merged with the circulation of Tapah on Thursday, September 19.[119] Tapah still had a disorganized and mostly exposed center on September 19. Tapah later re-organized itself, and further intensified into a severe tropical storm.[citation needed]

Early morning on September 21 (PST), Tapah exited the PAR, and then the PAGASA gave its last advisory on it. It even intensified further as it passed the Ryukyu Islands. Tapah then intensified into a typhoon as per the JMA, Tapah weakened into a severe tropical storm, as its diameter explosively expanded. Tapah then rapidly weakened into an extratropical storm on 00:00 UTC of September 23.[citation needed]

During the passage of Tapah, three people were killed in Japan,[120][121][122] and the agricultural damage were amounted to be ¥583 million (US$5.42 million).[123][124] Damage in South Korea were at 2.96 billion (US$2.48 million).[125][126] Though three deaths were reported during the storm, officials said that they were not related to Tapah.[127]

Typhoon Mitag (Onyok)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 25 – October 3
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

A new low pressure system formed in the outer parts of the Western Pacific near the Micronesia Islands near-mid September. The system gradually organized and the Japan Meteorological Agency upgraded it to a tropical depression on September 25. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center then issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on it. The JTWC later upgraded the system to a tropical depression and designated it 19W.[citation needed] The PAGASA named the system "Onyok" as it entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility,[128] and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded it to Tropical Storm Onyok. On September 28, the Japan Meteorological Agency upgraded Onyok to a tropical storm, and named it Mitag. Mitag began to organize itself, clearly forming a visible circulation while it was east of Luzon. Later that day the JMA upgraded Mitag to a severe tropical storm. Mitag further strengthened into a typhoon by September 29.[citation needed]

Mitag then further intensified, becoming a Category 2 typhoon by evening on September 30, with a small eye developed. On October 1, Mitag weakened below typhoon intensity, before making landfall in Zhoushan, Zhejiang at 20:30 CST (12:30 UTC). On the next day,the storm made landfall on South Korea.[citation needed]

In Taiwan, 12 people were injured during the typhoon.[129] The Nanfang'ao Bridge collapsed following the passage of Mitag, leaving six dead and 12 injured; the specific cause of the collapse is still being investigated.[130] Agricultural damage in Yaeyama Islands were at JP¥84.41 million (US$781,000).[131] In Zhoushan, three people were killed, and the economic loss reached CN¥1.856 billion (US$260 million).[132] Mitag also killed 13 people and left 2 missing in South Korea.[133] Damage nationwide were amounted to be 181.9 billion (US$151 million).[134][135]

Typhoon Hagibis

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 4 – October 13
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  915 hPa (mbar)

On October 2, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began monitoring a tropical disturbance that was situated north of the Marshall Islands. On the next day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert. On October 4, both the JTWC and the Japan Meteorological Agency began issuing advisories on Tropical Depression 20W.

On October 5, the depression rapidly intensified into a tropical storm, and was issued the name "Hagibis" by the JMA. Sea surface temperatures and low wind shear allowed Hagibis to strengthen further, and on October 6, Hagibis became a severe tropical storm. On October 7, while continuing to move west, Hagibis explosively intensified and became a super typhoon in the space of only a few hours, developing a pinhole eye. As it approached the uninhabited areas of the Mariana Islands, strong convective activity as a result of extremely favourable conditions saw Hagibis became a very powerful Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, with one-minute sustained wind speeds of 260 km/h (160 mph). The National Weather Service also began issuing advisories for its areas of responsibility, with a typhoon warning issued for Garapan and Tinian, and tropical storm advisories issued for Sinapalo and Hagåtña.[136] Hagibis passed over the Mariana Islands at 15:30 UTC on October 7 at peak intensity, with 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph) and a central pressure of 915 hPa (27.02 inHg).

After passing the Mariana Islands, Hagibis began an eyewall replacement cycle, which caused the rapid intensification phase to end. As the primary eyewall began to erode,[137] the JTWC downgraded the system slightly to a high-end Category 4 system at 00:00 UTC on October 8. Several hours later, Hagibis re-intensified into a Category 5 equivalent system upon completing the eyewall replacement cycle. Hagibis began to weaken on October 10. Hagibis made landfall on the Izu Peninsula of southeastern Honshu just after 09:00 UTC on October 12. Upon crossing the coast, the system had 10-minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) and one-minute sustained winds of 155 km/h (100 mph), equivalent to a Category 2 hurricane.[138][139]

By 13:30 UTC on October 10, the expected impacts in parts of Japan were such that the organisers of the 2019 Rugby World Cup decided to cancel at least two matches scheduled to be played over the weekend. On October 12 a third match was cancelled[140] Japan Rail, Japan Airlines, and All Nippon Airways all announced suspended services.[141]

On October 11, Formula One announced that they are cancelling all Saturday planned events that were initially scheduled as part of the 2019 Japanese Grand Prix. This includes the third practice session and qualifying, the latter of which was rescheduled to take place on Sunday morning, a few hours before the race.[142] The F4 Japanese Championship had previously announced the previous day that they will be cancelling the double header round at Suzuka that was initially scheduled to take place as a supporting event for the Japanese Grand Prix.[143]

Typhoon Neoguri (Perla)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 15 – October 21
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

A new area of low pressure formed on October 15. Later, the PAGASA classified the system as Tropical Depression Perla, while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on Perla. On the next day, the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical depression and designated it 21W. On October 17, the JMA classified Tropical Depression Perla as a tropical storm and named it Neoguri. Later, the PAGASA and JTWC also upgraded Neoguri into a tropical storm.[citation needed]

On October 19, JMA upgraded Neoguri to a severe tropical storm. Six hours later, JTWC upgraded it to a Category 1 Typhoon, soon JMA also upgraded Neoguri to a typhoon.[citation needed]

On October 20, Neoguri reached its peak intensity of Category 2 Typhoon according to JTWC. Later, Neoguri started weakening, JMA and JTWC downgraded Neoguri to a severe tropical storm and tropical storm respectively.[citation needed]

On October 21, JMA stated that Neoguri has transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. The next day, JTWC issued its final warning for Neoguri.[citation needed]


Typhoon Bualoi

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 18 – October 25
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  935 hPa (mbar)

On October 17, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began monitoring a disturbance situated a couple hundred miles east of the Marshall Islands, and on October 19, the disturbance quickly organised into Tropical Depression 22W. Advisories began to be issued on the system as a conducive environment with very warm sea surface temperatures and low wind shear allowed 22W to strengthen. By October 19, it became Tropical Storm Bualoi and on the next day, it entered a period of rapid intensification. Bualoi quickly became a severe tropical storm and then a typhoon soon afterwards. The rate of strengthening slowed until October 21, at which point Bualoi became a Category 2-equivalent typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale. The system then recommenced its rapid intensification, strengthening to Category 3 six hours later, and proceeded to steadily intensify further to Category 4 later the same day. Bualoi reached its peak intensity during October 22, with 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) and one-minute sustained winds of 230 km/h (145 mph), equivalent to a mid-range Category 4 major hurricane. The system began to rapidly weaken the following day, dropping to a category 3-equivalent typhoon.

Severe Tropical Storm Matmo

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 28 – November 2
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression formed near Palau on October 28 and made landfall in Vietnam on October 30 as it intensified to a tropical storm and was named "Matmo". [144] The storm brought rainfall to Cambodia and Thailand, while the heaviest rainfall occurred in Vietnam, causing flooding and road closures.[145][146] The storm quickly weakened to tropical depression status and dissipated, with its remnants later emerging into the North Indian Ocean on November 2.[147] The remnants soon developed into Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Bulbul.[148]

Typhoon Halong

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 2 – November 10
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (10-min)  905 hPa (mbar)

On November 2, a well-organized low pressure system rapidly organized into a tropical depression several hundred miles east of the Northern Mariana Islands. The depression strengthened quickly and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Halong the same day. The storm continued strengthening over the open waters, reaching typhoon status. As Halong cleared out its eye, explosive intensification ensued on November 4, and Halong became a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon on November 5. On November 6, Halong began to undergo an eyewall replacement cycle and decreasing sea surface temperatures coupled with dry air intrusion began to take its toll on the system, and its circulation was heavily affected and it weakened to a Category 4-equivalent typhoon on 18:00 UTC. On November 8, Halong dropped below typhoon intensity, and finally became extratropical on the following day.

Typhoon Nakri (Quiel)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 4 – November 11
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

On November 5, a depression off the coast of the Philippines developed into Tropical Depression Quiel. Quiel intensified to become the twenty fourth tropical storm of the season and was named Nakri by JMA. Original forecasts showed it hitting Vietnam as a minor tropical storm, or a depression. However, on November 7, unexpected strengthening occurred, and the storm intensified into a typhoon. On November 9, Nakri began to weaken as it dropped below typhoon intensity because of the strong wind shear.[citation needed] In Luzon, torrential rain was caused by the combined effects of Nakri and the cold front, causing widespread flooding. At least six people have died due to rains generated by Typhoon Nakri, while three remain injured.

Typhoon Fengshen

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 10 – November 18
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

On November 9, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began monitoring a disturbance located in the open waters of the Western Pacific, several hundred miles east of the Mariana Islands. On November 10 the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert, and later that day, it developed into a tropical depression, prompting the Japanese Meteorological Agency to give it the name "Fengshen". On November 12, the system slowly developed into a tropical storm as it continued to move westward. Over the next three days, Fengshen strengthened into a category 3 typhoon and showed a formative eye feature as it passed over the uninhabited area of the Marshall Islands, but on November 16, Fengshen began to be offset by vertical wind shear as it gained latitude and it began rapidly weakening.[citation needed]

Typhoon Kalmaegi (Ramon)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 11 – November 21
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

On November 11, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center began monitoring a disturbance situated only a couple hundred miles off the coast of the Philippines. Despite initial models suggesting it would be short lived and move towards land, it quickly organized as sea surface temperatures became very conducive for development, and the JTWC issued a tropical cyclone formation alert late on November 11. Later, it developed into Tropical Depression 27W, and subsequently issued the name Ramon. Ramon intensified into a tropical storm by November 13, and was given the name Kalmaegi by the JMA. Up until November 16, Ramon appeared very disorganised as its low-level circulation center was exposed to high amounts of wind shear and dry air intrusion restricted any strengthening.[149]

On November 17, Kalmaegi entered favorable waters and then intensified into a severe tropical storm. By the next day, Kalmaegi intensified into a Category 1 typhoon, forecasted to hit the Ilocos region. On November 20, it hit Santa Ana, Cagayan instead of the Ilocos Region, and rapidly dissipated inland, as about to be absorbed by nearby Tropical Storm Fung-wong east of it.

Severe Tropical Storm Fung-wong (Sarah)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 18 – November 23
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  990 hPa (mbar)

A tropical depression formed in November 18 as the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a TCFA for the system. By the next day, PAGASA named the storm Sarah.

On November 19, Sarah intensified into a tropical storm, and was given the international name of Fung-wong. Tropical Storm Fung-wong then strengthened into a severe tropical storm east of Luzon, and for the JTWC, developed into a minimal Category 1 typhoon.

Soon, Fung-wong was hindered by northeasterly wind shear, and began to weaken rapidly while moving northeast, and dissipated into a remnant Low Pressure Area (LPA) west of Okinawa, Japan.

Typhoon Kammuri (Tisoy)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 24 – Present
Peak intensity165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

On November 23, a low pressure system developed to the southeast of Guam. It then began to show signs of development and earned a defined circulation, developing into a tropical depression on 25 November, with the JTWC assigning it as 29W. The depression then began to develop banding features to the northeast of its center. The storm then intensified slightly, earning the name Kammuri, which is the Japanese word for the constellation Corona Borealis. Kammuri then passed south of Guam, and further intensified into a severe tropical storm on November 27, and then into a typhoon the next day. Upwelling of itself due to its quasi-stationary movement combined with moderate wind shear hindered significant intensification of Kammuri over the next three days as it moved into the Philippine Area of Responsibility, with PAGASA subsequently assigning the typhoon the name Tisoy[150]. Kammuri began to show signs of rapid intensification again on December 1st, ultimately intensifying to a Category 4 typhoon the next day. It made landfall at peak intensity on that day in the Bicol Region and began to weaken, weakening to a Category 3 typhoon that evening. On November 30, Kammuri produced one of the coldest known cloud tops at -109.4°C (-164.9°F)[151].

Tropical Depression

Tropical depression (JMA)
  
DurationNovember 29 – December 1
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1002 hPa (mbar)

Other systems

During May 7, the JMA reported that two tropical depressions had developed over the basin.[152] The first was located to the south of Palau and remained near stationary, before it was last noted during the next day.[152] The second system developed near the Federal States of Micronesia and slowly moved westwards over the next few days before it was last noted as tropical depression during May 11.[152] During May 10, a third tropical depression developed to the south of Palau.

 
A tropical depression southeast of Japan on September 15

On June 17, the JMA began monitoring a westward-tracking tropical depression near the Caroline Islands.[153] The system was initially slow moving, and its barometric pressure deepened only slightly the following few days as it drifted towards the west-northwest.[154][155][156] On June 24, the JMA, however, stated that the system got absorbed by another developing LLCC that eventually developed into a new system that would become Tropical Storm Sepat.[citation needed] On June 26, a tropical depression briefly formed in the East China Sea, near the Ryukyu Islands. Later that day, the storm was absorbed into the circulation of a nearby system which would eventually become Tropical Storm Sepat.[citation needed]

On August 6, a tropical depression formed in the South China Sea, to the west of Luzon. On August 8, the tropical depression degenerated into a remnant low, and was absorbed by larger Typhoon Lekima to its east.[citation needed] 2 tropical depressions were monitored by JMA, to the Taiwan Strait and out in the North Pacific.[citation needed] On August 17, another depression formed and the JMA started monitoring it. However, a day later, it degenerated to a remnant low.[citation needed] A tropical depression formed to the southwest of Luzon on September 1. Slowly moving northwards, the system slowly intensified and was later designated as a TCFA by the JTWC. However by 18:00 UTC of September 2, the system rapidly deteriorated as it was getting absorbed by the outflow of the nearby Tropical Storm Kajiki.[citation needed] Another depression formed on September 4 but soon dissipated in the next day.[citation needed]

On September 7, the JMA began monitoring on a weak tropical depression that had developed to the east of Taiwan. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded this system to a subtropical depression. The system gradually intensified, however by September 10, the JMA downgraded the system a low-pressure area as it neared the Korean Peninsula.[citation needed] On September 15, another tropical depression briefly existed just to the south of Japan before it quickly transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, but not before interacting with the remnants of Marilyn, along with Tropical Storm Peipah, they pushed Marilyn back into the Philippine Area of Responsibility.[citation needed] Another tropical depression briefly existed on September 17 in the South China Sea, making landfall in east Luzon before being absorbed by the outflow of the developing Tropical Storm Tapah.[citation needed] On October 1, the JMA began to track a weak tropical depression that had developed in the Philippine Sea. The system moved westward while remaining very weak and disorganized until it was last noticed on October 3, to the northeast of Luzon.[citation needed] On October 22, a weak tropical depression briefly existed well north of the island of Palau.[citation needed]

On November 22, the JMA began tracking a weak tropical depression that had developed from the remnant energy of Typhoon Kalmaegi, located to the southeast of Vietnam. Another tropical depression formed on November 26 east of Typhoon Kammuri, and dissipated on November 28.

Storm names

Within the Northwest Pacific Ocean, both the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assign names to tropical cyclones that develop in the Western Pacific, which can result in a tropical cyclone having two names.[157] The Japan Meteorological Agency's RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center assigns international names to tropical cyclones on behalf of the World Meteorological Organization's Typhoon Committee, should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[158] PAGASA names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°N and 25°N even if the cyclone has had an international name assigned to it.[157] The names of significant tropical cyclones are retired, by both PAGASA and the Typhoon Committee.[158] Should the list of names for the Philippine region be exhausted then names will be taken from an auxiliary list of which the first ten are published each season. Unused names are marked in gray.

International names

A tropical cyclone is named when it is judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 65 km/h (40 mph).[159] The JMA selected the names from a list of 140 names, that had been developed by the 14 members nations and territories of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee.[160] Retired names, if any, will be announced by the WMO in 2020, though replacement names will be announced in 2021. The next 32 names on the naming list are listed here along with their international numeric designation, if they are used. During the season, the names Mun, Bailu and Bualoi were used for the first time, after they replaced the names Fitow, Haiyan and Rammasun which were retired after the 2013 and 2014 seasons, respectively.

  • Pabuk (1901)
  • Wutip (1902)
  • Sepat (1903)
  • Mun (1904)
  • Danas (1905)
  • Nari (1906)
  • Wipha (1907)
  • Francisco (1908)
  • Lekima (1909)
  • Krosa (1910)
  • Bailu (1911)
  • Podul (1912)
  • Lingling (1913)
  • Kajiki (1914)
  • Faxai (1915)
  • Peipah (1916)
  • Tapah (1917)
  • Mitag (1918)
  • Hagibis (1919)
  • Neoguri (1920)
  • Bualoi (1921)
  • Matmo (1922)
  • Halong (1923)
  • Nakri (1924)
  • Fengshen (1925)
  • Kalmaegi (1926)
  • Fung-wong (1927)
  • Kammuri (1928) (active)
  • Phanfone (unused)
  • Vongfong (unused)
  • Nuri (unused)
  • Sinlaku (unused)

Philippines

This season, PAGASA will use its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones that either develop within or move into their self-defined area of responsibility.[161] The names were taken from a list of names last used during 2015 and are scheduled to be used again during 2023.[161] All of the names are the same except Liwayway and Nimfa, replacing the names Lando and Nona after these were retired.[161] The names Liwayway, Nimfa, Perla and Sarah were used for the first time.

  • Amang
  • Betty (1902)
  • Chedeng
  • Dodong (1903)
  • Egay
  • Falcon (1905)
  • Goring
  • Hanna (1909)
  • Ineng (1911)
  • Jenny (1912)
  • Kabayan (1914)
  • Liwayway (1913)
  • Marilyn
  • Nimfa (1917)
  • Onyok (1918)
  • Perla (1920)
  • Quiel (1924)
  • Ramon (1926)
  • Sarah (1927)
  • Tisoy (1928) (active)
  • Ursula (unused)
  • Viring (unused)
  • Weng (unused)
  • Yoyoy (unused)
  • Zigzag (unused)
Auxiliary list
  • Abe (unused)
  • Berto (unused)
  • Charo (unused)
  • Dado (unused)
  • Estoy (unused)
  • Felion (unused)
  • Gening (unused)
  • Herman (unused)
  • Irma (unused)
  • Jaime (unused)

Season effects

This table summarizes all the systems that developed within or moved into the North Pacific Ocean, to the west of the International Date Line during 2019. The tables also provide an overview of a systems intensity, duration, land areas affected and any deaths or damages associated with the system.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Pabuk December 31, 2018 – January 4, 2019 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Natuna Islands, Vietnam, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar $157 million 10 [24][26]
[27][29]
01W (Amang) January 4 – 22 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Philippines $6.04 million 10 [37][39]
Wutip (Betty) February 18 – March 2 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands $3.3 million None
03W (Chedeng) March 14 – 19 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Caroline Islands, Philippines $23 thousand None [44]
TD May 7 – 8 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Yap, Palau None None
TD May 7 – 11 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
TD May 10 – 15 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
Sepat (Dodong) June 24 – 28 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Japan, Aleutian Islands, Russian Far East None None
TD June 26 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula None None
04W (Egay) June 27 – July 1 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Yap, Philippines, Taiwan, East China None None
Mun July 1 – 4 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) South China, Vietnam, Laos $240 thousand 2 [58]
Danas (Falcon) July 14 – 21 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Yap, Philippines, Taiwan, East China, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East $6.42 million 6
Goring July 17 – 19 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands None None
Nari July 24 – 27 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Japan None None
Wipha July 30 – August 4 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) South China, Vietnam, Laos $44.3 million 27
Francisco August 1 – 8 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula Unknown 1 [72]
Lekima (Hanna) August 2 – 13 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Caroline Islands, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, South Korea, China $9.28 billion 90 [162][163]
[164][165]
Krosa August 5 – 16 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 965 hPa (28.50 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russian Far East $20.5 million 3
TD August 6 – 8 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines None None
TD August 17 – 18 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None
TD August 19 – 21 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, East China None None
Bailu (Ineng) August 19 – 26 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, South China $28.2 million 3
Podul (Jenny) August 24 – 31 Tropical storm 75 km/h (40 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Yap, Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia $2.43 million 15
Kajiki (Kabayan) August 30 – September 6 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines, South China, Vietnam, Laos $12.9 million 6
Lingling (Liwayway) August 31 – September 7 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Philippines, Ryukyu Islands, Korean Peninsula, Northeast China, Russian Far East $236 million 8
TD September 1 – 2 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Philippines None None
Faxai September 2 – 9 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Japan $8.12 billion 3 [166]
TD September 4 – 5 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
TD September 7 – 10 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Ryukyu Islands, Korean Peninsula None None
Marilyn September 10 – 13 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) None None None
Peipah September 12 – 16 Tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Mariana Islands, Bonin Islands None None
TD September 15 Tropical depression Not specified 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Japan None None
Tapah (Nimfa) September 17 – 22 Typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Taiwan, East China, Japan, South Korea $7.9 million 3
TD September 17 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Philippines None None
Mitag (Onyok) September 25 – October 3 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 965 hPa (28.50 inHg) Mariana Islands, Taiwan, Japan, East China, South Korea >$816 million 22 [167]
TD October 1 – 3 Tropical depression Not specified 1010 hPa (29.83 inHg) None None None
Hagibis October 4 – 13 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan, South Korea, Russian Far East, Aleutian Islands, Alaska >$9 billion 95 [167]
Neoguri (Perla) October 15 – 21 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Japan None None
Bualoi October 18 – 25 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands None None
TD October 22 Tropical depression Not specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) None None None
Matmo October 28 – November 1 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 992 hPa (29.35 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand $53 million None
Halong November 2 – 9 Typhoon 215 km/h (130 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) None None None
Nakri (Quiel) November 4 – 11 Typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam Unknown 6
Fengshen November 10 – 18 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 965 hPa (28.50 inHg) Marshall Islands, Marianas Islands None None
Kalmaegi (Ramon) November 11 – 21 Typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Philippines Unknown None
Fung-wong (Sarah) November 18 – 23 Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph) 990 hPa (29.29 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands None None
TD November 22 – 23 Tropical depression Not specified 1010 hPa (29.83 inHg) None None None
Kammuri (Tisoy) November 24 – Present Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines $9.82 million 2
TD November 26 – 28 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
TD November 29 – December 1 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
Season aggregates
51 systems December 31, 2018 –
Season ongoing
215 km/h (130 mph) 905 hPa (26.72 inHg) $27.8 billion 310

See also

Notes

References

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