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North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

Cumulative track map of all North Indian Ocean cyclones from 1970 to 2005

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Contents

Sub-basinsEdit

The Bay of Bengal, located in the northeast of the Indian Ocean, is responsible for the formation of some of the strongest and deadliest tropical cyclones in the world. The basin is abbreviated BOB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center of the basin. The Bay of Bengal's coast is shared among India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and western part of Thailand. The strongest storm in the bay was the 1999 Odisha cyclone. As the remnants impact Tibet and Yunnan sometimes, the National Meteorological Center of CMA also issues full advisories to cyclonic storms in this basin.[1]

The Arabian Sea is a sea located in the northwest of the Indian Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the basin are abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of the basin. The Arabian Sea's coast is shared among India, Yemen, Oman, Iran, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Somalia.[2] Monsoons are characteristic of the Arabian Sea and responsible for the yearly cycling of its waters. In summer, strong winds blow from the southwest to the northeast, bringing rain to the Indian subcontinent. During the winter, the winds are milder and blow in the opposite direction, from the northeast to the southwest.[2] Cyclones are rare in the Arabian Sea, but the basin can produce strong tropical cyclones. Super Cyclonic Storm Gonu was the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the basin.[3][4] [5] However, storms typically do not reach a high intensity in the Arabian Sea due to the small amount of water, dry air coming from the desert of the Arabian Peninsula, and unfavorable wind shear from the monsoon.[6]

History of the basinEdit

The systematic scientific studies of tropical systems in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea was started during the 19th century by Henry Piddington.[7] Piddington utilised meteorological logs of vessels that navigated the seas and published a series of memoirs, in the “Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal” between 1839 and 1858.[7] These memoirs gave accounts and tracks of individual storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.[7]

During the 2004 post monsoon season the IMD started to name tropical cyclones within the basin, with the first one named Cyclone Onil during September 2004.[8]

During 2015 a modification to the intensity scale took place, with the IMD and WMO calling a system with 3-minute maximum sustained wind speeds between 90 knots (165 km/h; 105 mph) and 120 knots (220 km/h; 140 mph) an extremely severe cyclonic storm.[9]

Water temperatures in the Arabian Sea are typically warm enough to allow for tropical cyclogenesis year round, although strong wind shear from the monsoon trough prevents formation in the summer months and limits intensity other times of the year. An increase in air pollution since the 1930s caused a decrease in the wind shear, allowing storms to have become stronger since 1979.[10]

YearsEdit

Period Seasons
1900s Pre-1980, 1970, 1980-1984, 1985-1988, 1989
90s 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999
2000s 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
2010s 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017

Deadliest cyclonesEdit

Name Total deaths Year Areas affected
1970 Bhola Cyclone 300000-500000 1970 West Bengal, Bangladesh
Hooghly river Cyclone 300000 1737 India,Bangladesh
India cyclone in Coringa 300000 1839 Andhra Pradesh
Backerganj Cyclone, 200,000 1584 Bangladesh
Great Backerganj Cyclone 200000 1877 West Bengal, Bangladesh
Chittagong cyclone 175000 1897 Bangladesh
Cyclone Nargis 140000 2008 Myanmar
1991 Bangladesh cyclone 138000 1991 West Bengal, Bangladesh

[11]

Costliest CyclonesEdit

Cyclone Year Areas affected Amount (in USD)
Cyclone Nargis 2008 Myanmar 12.1 billion
Cyclone Vardah 2016 South India,Sumatra,Thailand,Malaysia 5.7 billion
1999 Odisha cyclone 1999 East India 4.4 billion
Cyclone Gonu 2007 Iran, Oman 4.1 billion
Cyclone Hudhud 2014 South Eastern India 3.6 billion
Cyclone Roanu 2016 East India,Bangladesh,Sri Lanka 2.1 billion
Cyclone Yemyin 2007 India,Pakistan,Afghanistan 2.0 billion
1991 Bangladesh Cyclone 1991 East India, Bangladesh 1.9 billion
Cyclone Sidr 2007 East India,Bangladesh 1.7 billion
Cyclone Mora 2017 East India,Bangladesh 1.35 billion

Most intense tropical cyclonesEdit

Cyclone Season Peak 3-min
sustained winds
Pressure
Two 1963 195 km/h (120 mph) 947 hPa (27.96 inHg)
Three 1963 240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1977 Andhra Pradesh 1977 205 km/h (125 mph) 919 hPa (27.14 inHg)
Gay 1989 230 km/h (145 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg)
1990 Andhra Pradesh 1990 230 km/h (145 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
1991 Bangladesh 1991 240 km/h (150 mph) 918 hPa (27.11 inHg)
1994 BOB 02 1994 215 km/h (135 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
1999 Pakistan 1999 195 km/h (120 mph) 946 hPa (27.94 inHg)
"Paradip" 1999 260 km/h (160 mph) 912 hPa (26.93 inHg)
2001 India 2001 215 km/h (135 mph) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg)
Gonu 2007 240 km/h (150 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg)
Sidr 2007 215 km/h (135 mph) 944 hPa (27.88 inHg)
Giri 2010 195 km/h (120 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Phailin 2013 215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)
Hudhud 2014 185 km/h (115 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Nilofar 2014 205 km/h (125 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg)
Chapala 2015 215 km/h (130 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg)

Tropical Cyclone seasonsEdit

1890sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Notes
1890 10 4 1
1891 13 4 3 Total includes 1 Land Severe Cyclonic Storm
1892 12 7 2
1893 12 10 4
1894 12 6 0
1895 11 5 4
1896 10 8 3
1897 12 6 8
1898 13 7 3
1899 7 3 0
References[12]

1900sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1900 10 3 1
1901 6 3 2
1902 13 7 5
1903 14 8 2
1904 9 4 0
1905 10 6 0
1906 11 7 1
1907 15 8 4
1908 9 6 1
1909 8 8 4
References[12]

1910sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1910 6 5 2
1911 7 5 4
1912 9 6 2
1913 10 6 2
1914 8 4 2
1915 9 6 0
1916 14 8 5
1917 10 3 1
1918 11 5 0
1919 11 6 3
References[12]

1920sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1920 9 5 0
1921 10 4 1
1922 13 6 6
1923 16 4 3
1924 13 6 0
1925 20 7 3
1926 13 10 3
1927 18 7 2
1928 13 7 0
1929 15 6 0
References[12]

1930sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1930 14 10 1
1931 11 5 1
1932 14 6 2
1933 16 8 3
1934 16 5 0
1935 15 6 2
1936 17 6 3
1937 19 6 2
1938 10 4 4
1939 19 7 3
References[12]

1940sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1940 16 8 5
1941 19 8 4
1942 14 5 2
1943 14 7 1
1944 19 8 2
1945 15 3 2
1946 17 5 1
1947 18 4 2
1948 18 6 3
1949 12 1 1
References[12]

1950sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1950 16 4 0
1951 15 4 2
1952 17 4 2
1953 10 1 1
1954 14 1 0
1955 13 6 2
1956 14 4 2
1957 7 4 2
1958 12 5 2
1959 16 6 3
References[12]

1960sEdit

 
This ESSA 3 satellite image was taken on November 3, 1966 at 0819 UTC of a tropical cyclone striking Madras, India
Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1960 15 5 3 Ten 20,299 >$9.4 million Vast majority of the fatalities resulted from two cyclones striking East Pakistan three weeks apart
1961 18 5 4 Three 11,525 Unknown Three land depressions developed this season
1962 13 5 3 Twelve 769 $34.5 million Deadliest storm, Harriet, crossed over from the Western Pacific
1963 17 6 4 Three 11,735 Unknown Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm; had the lowest measured pressure in the basin at the time at 919.9 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg)
1964 16 7 5 Sixteen >1,827 >$150 million Strongest storm was equivalent to a super cyclonic storm
1965 14 6 4
1966 18 8 6
1967 15 6 4
1968 13 7 4
1969 14 6 1
References[12]

1970sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1970 15 7 3 Bhola Cyclone 300,000-500,000 86.4 million The Bhola Cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide
1971 15 7 6
1972 18 7 6
1973 16 6 3
1974 12 7 3
1975 20 7 4
1976 14 10 7
1977 18 5 5
1978 14 5 3
1979 11 5 4
References[12]

1980sEdit

Year D CS SCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
1980 14 3 0
1981 12 6 3
1982 20 5 5
1983 8 3 2
1984 7 3 3
1985 15 7 2
1986 8 1 0
1987 9 5 3
1988 9 3 2 04B 6,740 13 million
1989 10 3 5 Gay 1,785 25.27 Million Gay crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
References[12]

1990sEdit

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes and
References
1990 11 6 2 2 1 1 1 BOB 01 967 $900 million [13][14]
1991 8 4 3 1 1 1 1 BOB 01 >138 000 1.5 billion [14]
1992 12 11 7 2 1 1 0 Forrest 189 124.1 million Forrest crossed over from the West Pacific Basin
1993 4 3 2 2 2 1 0 BOB 03 600
1994 8 4 4 4 2 1 0 ARB 01 285 125 million
1995 8 6 3 2 2 1 0 04B 71
1996 9 7 5 4 2 0 0 BOB 05 1243
1997 9 7 3 2 1 1 0 BOB 01 117
1998 13 10 6 5 4 1 0 ARB 02 >10 212 3 billion
1999 9 6 4 3 3 2 1 BOB 06 15 870 5 billion The Orissa cyclone is the strongest cyclone recorded in the Northern Indian Ocean.
References[12]

2000sEdit

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
2000 7 6 5 2 2 2 0 BOB 05 238 $185 million
2001 6 5 4 1 1 1 0 ARB 01 108 $104 million
2002 7 7 4 1 0 0 0 BOB 04 182 $25 million
2003 7 5 3 3 1 0 0 ARB 06 358 $163 million
2004 10 7 4 3 1 1 0 BOB 01 587 $130 million Cyclone Agni Formed closest to the Equator (0.7N)
2005 12 7 3 0 0 0 0 Pyarr 273 $21.4 million
2006 12 6 3 2 1 1 0 Mala 623 $6.7 million
2007 11 8 4 2 2 2 1 Gonu 16,248 $6.4 billion
2008 10 7 4 1 1 1 0 Nargis >140,422 $14.7 billion
2009 8 6 4 1 0 0 0 Aila 421 $618 million
References[12]

2010sEdit

Year D DD CS SCS VSCS ESCS SuCS[A 1] Strongest
storm
Deaths Damages
(USD)
Notes
2010 8 6 5 4 2 1 0 Giri 402 $2.99 billion
2011 10 6 2 1 1 0 0 Thane 360 277 million
2012 5 5 2 0 0 0 0 Nilam 128 56.7 million The first depression of the year did not develop until October 10
2013 10 6 5 4 3 1 0 Phailin 323 1.5 billion
2014 8 5 3 2 2 2 0 Nilofar 183 3.4 billion
2015 12 9 4 2 2 2 0 Chapala >363 258 million
2016 9 6 4 1 1 0 0 Vardah 403 7.88 billion
2017 7 3 2 1 0 0 0 Mora 640 $4.04 billion The season witnessed the first ever cyclone to make landfall maintaining peak intensity on Myanmar in April.
References[12]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

A study analyzing the spring season of tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal[15] found increases in both premonsoon precipitation and tropical cyclone intensity as a result of enhanced large-scale monsoon circulation after 1979. The deepened monsoon trough in the Bay of Bengal not only affects cyclone frequency and timing, but also acts to direct more cyclones towards Myanmar. Increased anthropogenic aerosols likely contributed to such a regional climate change.

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Each column refers to how many Storms developed during the season with D=Depressions, DD=Deep Depressions, CS=Cyclonic Storms, SCS=Severe Cyclonic Storm, VSCS=Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ESCS=Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm, SUCS=Super Cyclonic Storm. For further details please refer to Tropical cyclone scales

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Wang, Qian. "全球热带气旋监测报告" (in Chinese). National Meteorological Center of CMA. Archived from the original on 29 May 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2017. 
  2. ^ a b http://www.mahalo.com/arabian-sea
  3. ^ http://pakistanweatherportal.com/2011/04/10/history-of-cyclones-in-the-arabian-sea/
  4. ^ http://pakistanweatherportal.com/2011/05/14/super-cyclones-future-of-arabian-sea/
  5. ^ http://www.pakweather.com/2013/05/tropics-that-affected-pakistani-coasts.html
  6. ^ Jon Erdman (October 30, 2014). "Cyclone Nilofar Recap". Weather Underground. Retrieved March 28, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c Best track data of tropical cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. 2009-07-14. Retrieved October 31, 2015. 
  8. ^ RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (January 2005). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2014 (PDF) (Report). p. 2. Archived from the original on November 2, 2015. 
  9. ^ Third Joint Session of Panel on Tropical Cyclones & Typhoon Committee February 9 – 13, 2015 (PDF). Bangkok, Thailand: World Meteorological Organization. p. 10. Archived from the original on November 6, 2015. 
  10. ^ Amato T. Evan; James P. Kossin; Chul ‘Eddy’ Chung; V. Ramanathan (2011). "Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols". Nature. 479: 94–7. Bibcode:2011Natur.479...94E. PMID 22051678. doi:10.1038/nature10552. 
  11. ^ "Deadliest cyclones in the world". August 30, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Unattributed (2010-08-31). "Annual frequency of cyclonic disturbances (Maximum sustained windspeeds of 17 knots or more), Cyclones (34 knots or more) and Severe Cyclones (48 knots or more) over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and land surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  13. ^ Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) - Tropical Cyclones, New Delhi (January 1992). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances (Depressions and Tropical Cyclones) over North Indian Ocean in 1990 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on January 15, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b Unattributed (2008-06-26). "Historical records of Severe Cyclones which formed in the Bay of Bengal and made landfall at the eastern coast of India during the period from 1970-1999". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2011-08-20. 
  15. ^ DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50396 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrd.50396/abstract