Open main menu

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with two peaks in activity in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. The season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record. The second cyclone of the season, Cyclone Fani, was the strongest tropical cyclone in the Bay of Bengal by 3-minute maximum sustained wind speed and minimum barometric pressure since the 1999 Odisha cyclone (While being equal in terms of maximum 3-minute sustained wind speed to Cyclone Sidr of the record breaking 2007 season and Phailin of the 2013 season).

2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 4, 2019
(record earliest, tied with 2014)
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameFani
 • Maximum winds215 km/h (130 mph)
(3-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure932 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Depressions6
Deep depressions5
Cyclonic storms4
Severe cyclonic storms3
Very severe cyclonic storms3
Total fatalities101 total
Total damage> $8.1 billion (2019 USD)
Related articles
North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone seasons
2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021

The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD.

The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the National Meteorological Center of CMA (NMC) unofficially release full advisories. On average, three to four cyclonic storms form in this basin every season.[1][2]

Season summaryEdit

Cyclone VayuCyclone FaniTropical Storm Pabuk (2019) 

Amid a weak El Niño event, the season's first named storm, Pabuk, entered the basin on January 4, becoming the earliest-forming cyclonic storm of the North Indian Ocean on record, tying with the 2014 season. The second cyclonic storm of the season, Fani, formed on April 26. Fani became an extremely severe cyclonic storm on April 30, reaching the equivalent of Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson scale, then made landfall in India killing 89 people between Odisha and Bangladesh; Fani caused $1.812 billion in damage. In early June, a strong pulse of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) led to the development of the third cyclonic storm, Vayu, which formed June 10 in the Arabian Sea near the Maldives. The storm subsequently intensified into a very severe cyclonic storm on June 12, after moving northwestward towards northwestern India and Pakistan. No tropical cyclones were formed in the month of July. The Deep Depression BOB 03 was formed on August 7 before strike between East India and Bangladesh and the Deep Depression ARB 02 was formed near Gujarat on late-September. It later intensified into the fourth cyclonic storm of the season.

SystemsEdit

Cyclonic Storm PabukEdit

Cyclonic storm (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJanuary 4 (Entered basin) – January 7
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (3-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

Originally a tropical storm that formed over the South China Sea on January 1, Pabuk entered the Gulf of Thailand two days later. Shortly afterward, Pabuk made landfall over southern Thailand on January 4 and crossed into the Andaman Sea, and the IMD initiated advisories on the storm, making Pabuk the earliest-forming cyclonic storm for this basin, surpassing Hibaru in 2005, as well as the first cyclonic storm with a name originally assigned by RSMC Tokyo.[3] Over the few days of days, Pabuk continued moving west-northwestward, before weakening into a well-marked low on January 7. The system's remnant low then turned to the northeast, subsequently dissipating on January 8.

Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm FaniEdit

Extremely severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
DurationApril 26 – May 4
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (3-min)  932 hPa (mbar)

On April 26, a depression formed to the west of Sumatra, with the IMD giving the storm the identifier BOB 02. The system slowly organized while curving towards the northeast. On April 27, at 00:00 UTC, the IMD upgraded the system to a deep depression.[4] Later that day, the system intensified into Cyclonic Storm Fani, while shifting to the northwest. Development of the system proceeded very slowly for several days, with the cyclone struggling to intensify against the influence of moderate vertical wind shear.[5] At 12:00 UTC on 29 April, Fani was upgraded to a severe cyclonic storm, with the system beginning to undergo rapid intensification.[6][7] Fani continued rapidly intensifying, becoming an extremely severe cyclonic storm at 17:00 UTC on April 30.[8] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) upgraded the system to a Category 5 tropical cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson scale at 06:00 UTC on May 2, following which, rapid intensification resumed. The pressure decreased to 932 hPa (27.52 inHg),[9] three-minute sustained winds increased to 220 km/h (140 mph), and one-minute sustained winds to 260 km/h (165mph), making the system the equivalent of a high-end Category 4 major hurricane. On May 3, at 02:30 UTC (8:00 a.m. IST) Fani made landfall on Puri, in Odisha,[10][11] weakening to a Category 1-equivalent very severe cyclonic storm soon after landfall, subsequently weakening to a cyclonic storm several hours later.[12] On May 4, Fani weakened into a deep depression and moved into Bangladesh.[13] Later that day, Fani degenerated into a well-marked low,[14] before dissipating on the next day.

Very Severe Cyclonic Storm VayuEdit

Very severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
DurationJune 10 – June 17
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (3-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

In early June, a strong pulse of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) tracked eastwards into the tropical Indian Ocean, leading to increased cloudiness and rainfall across the region.[15] On June 9, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) noted the development of a low-pressure area over the southeastern Arabian Sea, to the north of the Maldives. Early on June 10, a depression formed in the Arabian Sea, just northwest of the Maldives, and the IMD gave the storm the identifier ARB 01. As the system moved northward, it gradually strengthened, becoming a deep depression, before intensifying further into Cyclonic Storm Vayu later that day. After being upgraded by the IMD to a severe cyclonic storm on June 11, and concurrently by the JTWC to a Category 1 tropical cyclone on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), the system began a period of rapid intensification. Vayu strengthened into a very severe cyclonic storm soon afterward, and became a Category 2-equivalent very severe cyclonic storm on June 12. On June 13, the influence of a strengthening subtropical ridge over Saudi Arabia caused Vayu to gradually slow down and turn to the west, as it approached the coastline of the state of Gujarat in northwestern India.[16][17] Later that day, at 06:00 UTC, Vayu reached its peak intensity as a very severe tropical cyclone, with three-minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 970 hPa (28.64 inHg).[18] On June 14, Vayu began to weaken, as it tracked slowly westward, away from the Gujarat coastline due to strong wind shear.[19] On June 16, an approaching mid-latitude trough weakened the areas of high pressure centered to the west and northeast,[20] which recurved Vayu sharply to the northeast.[21] Upon weakening further to a cyclonic storm, strong low-level southwesterly flow caused the system to accelerate northeastwards through the break in the blocking high-pressure ridge, back towards the Gujarat coast.[20][22] At 03:00 UTC on 17 June, Vayu weakened into a deep depression,[23][24] before weakening further to a depression six hours later.[25] Soon afterward, Vayu weakened into a well-marked low, just off the coast of Gujarat.[26] Very early on June 18, Vayu's remnants crossed over the Gujarat coast and moved inland for another day, before dissipating on June 19.

Deep Depression BOB 03Edit

Deep depression (IMD)
DurationAugust 6 – August 11
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min)  988 hPa (mbar)

On August 6, a depression formed over the northwestern Bay of Bengal, with the IMD giving the storm the identifier BOB 03. Soon afterward, the system intensified into a deep depression, while approaching the north Odisha coastline. On August 7, around 08:00–09:00 UTC, the deep depression made landfall along the north Odisha-West Bengal coastline. Early on August 11, it dissipated.

Heavy rains battered much of Odisha, with accumulations peaking at 382.6 mm (15.06 in) in Lanjigarh.[27] Flooding across the state killed three people, left two missing, and affected 130,000 others. A total of 2,081 homes suffered damage, and 14,332 people required evacuation.[28]

Very Severe Cyclonic Storm HikaaEdit

Very severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 22 – September 25
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (3-min)  978 hPa (mbar)

A depression formed in the Arabian Sea and soon intensified into a cyclonic storm and was named Hikaa. The system gradually intensified into a severe cyclonic storm and then reached its peak intensity as a very severe cyclonic storm with 90mph and a category 2 equivalent on the SSHWS. Hikaa weakened due to dry air infecting it and made landfall on Oman as a severe tropical cyclone. Hikaa quickly weakened after moving inland and later dissipated.

One person went missing after his boat sank off Duqm.[29] An Indian fisherman was found dead after his fishing boat sank, while ten other fishermen went missing.[30]

DepressionEdit

Depression (IMD)
  
DurationSeptember 30 – October 1
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 

A depression formed over Gulf of Kutch and neighborhood Gujarat coast close to Kandla on September 30.[31][32] It weakened into a well-marked low pressure system at 00:00 UTC on October 1.[33]

Storm namesEdit

Within this basin, a tropical cyclone is assigned a name when it is judged to have reached Cyclonic Storm intensity with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph). The names were selected by members of the ESCAP/WMO Panel on Tropical Cyclones between 2000 and May 2004, before the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in New Delhi started to assign names in September 2004. There is no retirement of tropical cyclone names in this basin as the list of names is only scheduled to be used once before a new list of names is drawn up. Should a named tropical cyclone move into the basin from the Western Pacific, it will retain its original name. The next six available names from the List of North Indian Ocean storm names are below.

  • Hikaa
  • Kyarr (unused)
  • Maha (unused)
  • Bulbul (unused)

Pabuk entered the basin from the Gulf of Thailand as a cyclonic storm; its name was assigned by the Japan Meteorological Agency.

Season effectsEdit

This is a table of all storms in the 2019 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. It mentions all of the season's storms and their names, duration, peak intensities (according to the IMD storm scale), damage, and death totals. Damage and death totals include the damage and deaths caused when that storm was a precursor wave or extratropical low, and all of the damage figures are in 2019 USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Pabuk January 4 – 7 Cyclonic storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Thailand, Myanmar, Andaman Islands None None
Fani April 26 – May 4 Extremely severe cyclonic storm 215 km/h (130 mph) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg) Sumatra, Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, East India, Bangladesh, Bhutan $8.1 billion 89 [34][35][36][37][38]
Vayu June 10 – 17 Very severe cyclonic storm 150 km/h (90 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) North Maldives, India, South Pakistan, East Oman $140 thousand 8 [39][40][41]
BOB 03 August 6 – 11 Deep depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 988 hPa (29.18 inHg) East India, Bangladesh Unknown 3 [28]
Hikaa September 22 – 25 Very severe cyclonic storm 140 km/h (85 mph) 978 hPa (28.88 inHg) Gujarat, Oman, Saudi Arabia Unknown 1
Depression September 30 – October 1 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) Not specified Gujarat None None
Season aggregates
6 systems January 4 –
Season ongoing
215 km/h (130 mph) 932 hPa (27.52 inHg) $8.1 billion 101

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Annual Frequency of Cyclonic Disturbances (Maximum Wind Speed of 17 Knots or More), Cyclones (34 Knots or More) and Severe Cyclones (48 Knots or More) Over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), Arabian Sea (AS) and Land Surface of India" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  2. ^ RSMC — Tropical Cyclones New Delhi (2010). Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2009 (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-04. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
  3. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin No. 1" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. 4 January 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  4. ^ TC Advisory 1. India Meteorological Department (Report). 27 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  5. ^ TC Advisory 4. India Meteorological Department (Report). 28 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  6. ^ TC Advisory 11. India Meteorological Department (Report). 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  7. ^ Tropical Cyclone 01B (Fani) Warning 012. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (Report). Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  8. ^ TC Advisory 15. India Meteorological Department (Report). 30 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  9. ^ Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm “FANI” over eastcentral equatorial Indian Ocean and adjoining southeast Bay of Bengal (26 April – 04 May, 2019): Summary (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  10. ^ "Cyclone Fani makes landfall in India". Deutsche Welle. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Cyclone Fani to Make Landfall Near Puri Today, Odisha Moves 11 Lakh People to Safety". CNN-News18. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  12. ^ TC Advisory 28. India Meteorological Department (Report). 3 May 2019. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  13. ^ TC Advisory 30. India Meteorological Department (Report). Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  14. ^ Bulletin 65 (PDF). India Meteorological Department (Report). 4 May 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  15. ^ http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/tropical-note/
  16. ^ Gopal, Neetha (13 June 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin #18" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  17. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning #12 (06Z)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. 13 June 2019. Archived from the original on 13 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  18. ^ Very Severe Cyclonic Storm “VAYU” over southeast & adjoining eastcentral Arabian Sea and Lakshadweep (10 June – 17 June, 2019): Summary (PDF) (Report). India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  19. ^ Devi, Sunitha (14 June 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin #25 (03Z)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  20. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Warning #16". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. 14 June 2019. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  21. ^ Kumar, Naresh (16 June 2019). "National Bulletin #53" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  22. ^ Kumar, Naresh (16 June 2019). "Tropical Cyclone Advisory Bulletin #47" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  23. ^ Devi, Sunitha (17 June 2019). "National Bulletin #56" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Warning #27". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. 17 June 2019. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  25. ^ Devi, Sunitha (17 June 2019). "National Bulletin #58" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
  26. ^ Pattanaik, D. R. (17 June 2019). "National Bulletin #61 (18Z)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  27. ^ "Heavy rain batters Odisha; a flood-like situation in some areas". India Today. Press Trust of India. August 7, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  28. ^ a b "3 killed, 2 missing in Odisha due to floods". Odisha Sun Times. August 8, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  29. ^ "Person missing at sea after boat sinks in Oman". Times of Oman. September 25, 2019. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  30. ^ Ananth, M. K. (September 30, 2019). "Missing fishermen: Body of Kanyakumari captain of capsized boat found". Times of India. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  31. ^ "Tropical Weather Outlook". India Meteorological Department. September 30, 2019. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  32. ^ "IWB (Evening) Dated 30-09-2019". India Meteorological Department. September 30, 2019. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  33. ^ "IWB (EVENING) DATED 01-10-2019". India Meteorological Department. September 30, 2019. Archived from the original on October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  34. ^ Ahmad, Adil. "India: Death toll from cyclone Fani climbs to 64". AA.com. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  35. ^ "Lightning kills 8 in Uttar Pradesh". New Indian Express. 3 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  36. ^ "Cyclone Fani leaves trail of destruction in Bangladesh; 17 dead, several hurt". Northeast Now. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  37. ^ "Odisha estimates loss at ₹12,000 Cr due to cyclone Fani". The Hindu Business Line. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  38. ^ "Global Catastrophe Recap: First Half of 2019" (PDF). Aon Benfield. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  39. ^ "Rains and strong winds hit Mumbai; 1 killed, 2 injured as portion of cladding collapses at Churchgate Railway Station". Mumbai Mirror. 12 June 2019. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  40. ^ Saiyed, Kamal; Mohanty, Aishwarya (13 June 2019). "Gujarat: Six killed, 2 injured in 3 districts ahead of Vayu landfall". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  41. ^ Waqar Bhatti, M. (15 June 2019). "Elderly man apparently dies due to heat stroke as weathermen predicts another very hot, humid day on Sunday". The News International. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2019.

External linksEdit