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2019 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing event in the annual formation of tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere and also the fourth consecutive year of above-average and damaging seasons dating back to 2016, although many of the storms were weak and short-lived. With 18 named storms, the season is tied with 1969 for the fourth-most named storms since reliable records began in 1851. The season officially began on June 1 and will end on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year, as demonstrated by the formation of Subtropical Storm Andrea on May 20, marking the record fifth year in a row where a tropical or subtropical cyclone developed before the official start of the season, breaking the previous record of four years set in 1951–1954.[1] This was also the second year in a row in which no tropical cyclones formed during the month of June.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season
2019 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 20, 2019
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameDorian
 • Maximum winds185 mph (295 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure910 mbar (hPa; 26.87 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions20
Total storms18
Hurricanes6
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
3
Total fatalities≥ 98 total
Total damage> $11.98 billion (2019 USD)
Related articles
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021

The season's first hurricane, Barry, formed in mid-July in the northern Gulf of Mexico and struck Louisiana. After five weeks of inactivity, the tropics began to ramp up in late August with a few storms developing, including Hurricane Dorian, which struck the Windward Islands and United States Virgin Islands as a strengthening tropical cyclone. Dorian then rapidly intensified into a Category 5 hurricane on approach to the Bahamas, where it devastated Great Abaco, Grand Bahama and surrounding Islands before proceeding up the Eastern Seaboard, where it also caused considerable damage.

In September, Hurricane Humberto brought heavy rains and hurricane-force winds to Bermuda, Tropical Storm Imelda quickly formed over the Gulf of Mexico before it made landfall in Texas, causing catastrophic flooding. Lorenzo became the easternmost Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record, and the French ship Bourbon Rhode sank after sailing through it. With Dorian and Lorenzo, the season became the fourth consecutive season to feature at least one Category 5 hurricane (Matthew in 2016; Irma and Maria in 2017 and Michael in 2018). It also became one of seven seasons to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes.

Seasonal forecastsEdit

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2019 season
Source Date Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Average (1981–2010)[2] 12.1 6.4 2.7
Record high activity 28 15 7
Record low activity 4 2 0
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
TSR[3] December 11, 2018 12 5 2
CSU[4] April 4, 2019 13 5 2
TSR[5] April 5, 2019 12 5 2
NCSU[6] April 16, 2019 13–16 5–7 2–3
TWC[7] May 6, 2019 14 7 3
UKMO[8] May 21, 2019 13* 7* 3*
NOAA[9] May 23, 2019 9–15 4–8 2–4
TSR[10] May 30, 2019 12 6 2
CSU[11] June 4, 2019 14 6 2
UA[12] June 11, 2019 16 8 3
TSR[13] July 4, 2019 12 6 2
CSU[14] July 9, 2019 14 6 2
CSU[15] August 5, 2019 14 7 2
TSR[16] August 6, 2019 13 6 2
NOAA[17] August 8, 2019 10–17 5–9 2–4
–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––
Actual activity 18 6 3
* June–November only.
† Most recent of several such occurrences. (See all)

Ahead of and during the season, several national meteorological services and scientific agencies forecast how many named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes (Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale) will form during a season and/or how many tropical cyclones will affect a particular country. These agencies include the Tropical Storm Risk (TSR) Consortium of University College London, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Colorado State University (CSU). The forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in significant factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year. Some of these forecasts also take into consideration what happened in previous seasons and the state of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). On average, an Atlantic hurricane season between 1981 and 2010 contained twelve tropical storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes, with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index of between 66 and 103 units.[2]

Pre-season outlooksEdit

The first forecast for the year was released by TSR on December 11, 2018, which predicted a slightly below-average season in 2019, with a total of 12 named storms, 5 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes, due to the anticipated presence of El Niño conditions during the season.[3] On April 4, 2019, CSU released its forecast, predicting a near-average season of 13 named storms, 5 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes.[4] On April 5, TSR released an updated forecast that reiterated its earlier predictions.[5] North Carolina State University released their forecast on April 16, predicting slightly-above average activity with 13–16 named storms, 5–7 hurricanes and 2–3 major hurricanes.[6] On May 6, the Weather Company predicted a slightly-above average season, with 14 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes.[7] The UK Met Office released their forecast May 21, predicting 13 named storms, 7 hurricanes, 3 major hurricanes and an accumulated cyclone energy of 109 units.[8] On May 23, NOAA released their first prediction, calling for a near-normal season with 9–15 named systems, 4–8 hurricanes, and 2–4 major hurricanes.[9] On May 30, TSR released an updated forecast which increased the number of forecast hurricanes from 5 to 6.[10]

Mid-season outlooksEdit

On June 4, CSU updated their forecast to include a total of 14 named storms, 6 hurricanes and 2 major hurricanes, including Subtropical Storm Andrea.[11] On June 11, University of Arizona (UA) predicted above-average activities: 16 named storms, 8 hurricanes, 3 major hurricanes, and accumulated cyclone energy index of 150 units.[12] On July 4, the TSR released their first mid-season outlook, still retaining their numbers from the previous forecast.[13] On July 9, CSU released their second mid-season outlook with the same remaining numbers from their previous forecast.[14] On August 5, the CSU released their third mid-season outlook, still retaining the same numbers from their previous forecast except the slight increase of the number of hurricanes.[15] On August 6, the TSR released their second and final mid-season outlook, with the only changes of increasing the number of named storms from 12 to 13.[16] On August 8, NOAA released their second prediction with increasing the chances for 10–17 named storms, 5–9 hurricanes, and 2–4 major hurricanes,[17] suggesting above-average activity.

Seasonal summaryEdit

Hurricane Lorenzo (2019)Tropical Storm ImeldaHurricane Humberto (2019)Tropical Storm Fernand (2019)Hurricane DorianHurricane Barry (2019)Saffir–Simpson scale 

For a record fifth consecutive year, activity began before the official start of the season when Subtropical Storm Andrea formed on May 20. No storms formed in the month of June,[18] but activity resumed in July when Hurricane Barry formed. Tropical Depression Three formed soon afterwards. After the dissipation of Three less than 24 hours later, activity paused again.[19] However, nearly a month later, on August 21, Tropical Storm Chantal formed, making the 2019 hurricane season the second latest starting season of the 21st century.[citation needed] Early on August 24, Chantal dissipated. Later that day, the tropical depression that would become Hurricane Dorian formed. On August 26, a tropical depression formed off the coast of North Carolina. It would intensify into Tropical Storm Erin late next night.[20] On September 3, Tropical Storm Fernand and Tropical Storm Gabrielle formed. Gabrielle would go on to become extratropical temporarily, then regenerate into a tropical storm, before becoming extratropical again and dissipating. Soon after Gabrielle became extratropical for the second and final time, a potential tropical cyclone formed which would later become Hurricane Humberto.[21]

On September 17, two tropical depressions formed in a boom of activity in multiple cyclone basins: one in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly developed into Tropical Storm Imelda shortly before making landfall in Texas, and the other one was named Jerry on September 18. Another duo of tropical cyclones formed on September 22. One was Tropical Storm Karen in the Caribbean Sea. The other one was Tropical Depression Thirteen which eventually became Tropical Storm Lorenzo on the next day.[21] On September 28, Hurricane Lorenzo became the easternmost Category 5 hurricane on record, which also made 2019 the seventh hurricane season to feature multiple Category 5 hurricanes.[citation needed] On October 11, Subtropical Storm Melissa formed, which later developed into a tropical storm before it dissipated several days later on October 14. That same day, a short-lived tropical depression developed off the coast of Africa, and degenerated into a trough on October 16. Meanwhile, a disturbance in the Caribbean Sea emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on October 17 and was designated Potential Tropical Cyclone Sixteen, which later developed into Tropical Storm Nestor on October 18. An unusual amount of activity occurred in late October with the formation of two tropical cyclones on October 25: Olga in the Gulf of Mexico, and Pablo near the Azores. Olga proceeded to be absorbed by a cold front, lasting only 6 hours as a named tropical storm, its remnants bringing heavy rain and tornadoes to the U.S. Meanwhile, Tropical Storm Pablo intensified into the sixth hurricane of the season, becoming the easternmost cyclone to do so, breaking the record set in 2005 by Hurricane Vince. Shortly after Pablo became post-tropical, on October 30, Subtropical Storm Rebekah formed west of the Azores, before becoming extratropical two days later.[22] On November 19, Tropical Storm Sebastien developed northeast of the Leeward Islands.

The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season, as of 09:00 UTC November 20, is 125.4025 units.[nb 1] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. It is only calculated for full advisories on specific tropical and subtropical systems reaching or exceeding wind speeds of 39 mph (63 km/h). Therefore, tropical depressions are not included in the season's total ACE count.

SystemsEdit

Subtropical Storm AndreaEdit

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationMay 20 – May 21
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

An upper-level trough originating in the mid-latitudes cut off into a broad upper-level low over Florida on May 17. The low moved eastward over the western Atlantic during the next day as a large area of cloudiness and showers developed to its east, and on May 19, it began to interact with low-level vorticity along the western edge of a dissipating cold front. The two systems had coalesced into a broad area of low pressure by 12:00 UTC on May 20, and convection associated with the low became better organized throughout that day as the system moved northward. By 22:00 UTC, an Air Force reconnaissance flight found that the system had acquired a well-defined center of circulation, and was producing gale-force winds well away from the center. Based on the aircraft data and the structure of the system, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) estimated that the system became Subtropical Storm Andrea at 18:00 UTC on May 20. However, the cyclone soon began to entrain dry air into its circulation while southwesterly wind shear increased, resulting in a rapid waning of the convection. By 12:00 UTC on May 21, Andrea's convection had dissipated, and the cyclone degenerated into a remnant low. The remnant low moved east-northeastward through the following day until at was absorbed by a cold front at 12:00 UTC on May 22.[23]

Hurricane BarryEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 11 – July 15
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  993 mbar (hPa)

A trough of low pressure in the Midwest began moving south, towards the Gulf of Mexico.[24] On July 6, the NHC began monitoring it over the Tennessee Valley and forecast it to move southwards, emerge into the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, and potentially develop into a tropical cyclone within the next several days.[25][26][27] Over the next few days, the trough drifted southward, due to the steering influence of a ridge of high pressure, and the trough developed a broad area of low pressure on July 9, shortly before the system entered the Gulf of Mexico from the Florida Panhandle.[28] The low-pressure system, while still lacking a well-defined center of circulation, became a little better defined on the following day. As the system had a high potential of producing tropical storm conditions and storm surge along the coast of Louisiana within the next couple of days, the NHC initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Two at 15:00 UTC on July 10.[29] The system subsequently organized into a tropical storm at 15:00 UTC on July 11, receiving the name Barry.[30] The system slowly moved westward, affecting the U.S. Gulf Coast. The system finally strengthened into a hurricane at 15:00 UTC on July 13, making it the first of the season.[31] However, three hours later, at 18:00 UTC, wind shear began to increase, causing the system to begin weakening. Around that time, Barry made landfall on Intracoastal City, Louisiana, as a Category 1 hurricane, before weakening to tropical storm status afterward,[31][32] causing extensive damage to Lafayette, Lake Charles, and Baton Rouge. Barry gradually weakened while slowly moving inland, weakening into a tropical depression at 21:00 UTC on July 14.[33] At 21:00 UTC on July 15, Barry weakened into a remnant low over northern Arkansas.[34] During the next several days, Barry's remnant moved eastward while gradually weakening,[35] before being absorbed into another frontal system off the coast of New Jersey on July 19.[36]

Barry caused one fatality, with a man killed by a rip current off the coast of the Florida Panhandle on July 15.[37] Damage from the storm is currently at >$600 million (2019 USD).[38]

Tropical Depression ThreeEdit

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 22 – July 23
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1013 mbar (hPa)

Early on July 21, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave located about 300 miles east of the Bahamas for potential tropical cyclone development.[39] Despite the disturbance having a low chance of tropical cyclone formation, rapid organization ensued on the following day, with a closed low-level circulation developing, as deep convection increased in association with the small low-pressure system. Subsequently, at 21:00 UTC on July 22, the NHC classified the system as Tropical Depression Three.[40] However, deep convection associated with the tropical depression soon dissipated, and although convection redeveloped early on July 23, the cyclone remained disorganized.[41] An Air Force reconnaissance aircraft investigating the system that morning found no evidence of a surface circulation, and at 15:00 UTC that day, the tropical depression degenerated into a trough of low pressure while located off the east coast of Florida.[42] The storm's remnants continued to move northward, before being absorbed by a frontal system several hours later, early on the next day. The impacts were very minimal,[43] with only 1–3 inches (25–76 mm) of rainfall in South Florida and the Bahamas.[44]

Tropical Storm ChantalEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 20 – August 23
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1007 mbar (hPa)

Late on August 16, the NHC began monitoring a surface trough located over Jacksonville, Florida for tropical cyclone development.[45] A small low pressure system developed in association with the trough as it moved northeastward along the East Coast of the United States, although the system's proximity to the coast prevented significant development at that time. Although environmental conditions were not forecast to favor significant development, thunderstorm activity associated with the system became better organized on August 20, and the circulation became better defined.[46] By 03:00 UTC on August 21, the system had developed a well-defined surface circulation and was producing tropical storm-force winds to the south of its center, resulting in the classification of Tropical Storm Chantal over the far northern Atlantic.[47] Chantal lasted 24 hours as a tropical storm before weakening into a tropical depression. Soon afterward, Chantal degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone over the northern Atlantic.[48][49]

Hurricane DorianEdit

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 24 – September 7
Peak intensity185 mph (295 km/h) (1-min)  910 mbar (hPa)

On August 23, a low-pressure area developed in association with a tropical wave over the open Atlantic Ocean, between the Cape Verde Islands and the Lesser Antilles.[50] The system quickly organized overnight and on August 24, it was classified as a tropical depression several hundred miles east-southeast of Barbados.[51] That same day, it achieved tropical storm status and was given the name Dorian.[52] At first, the system remained small and weak; however, on August 25, it began to strengthen and expand in size.[53] At 1800 UTC on August 28, Dorian reached hurricane status at landfall on the US Virgin Islands. A weather station reported winds of 82 mph (132 km/h) and a gust of 111 mph (179 km/h).[54] There was some dry air still in the system after moving to the north. Eventually, the dry air was expelled from the system, which promoted rapid intensification; Dorian reached Category 3 major hurricane strength on August 30.[55] Rapid intensification continued thereafter, and Dorian reached Category 4 intensity that night, having intensified from a Category 2 hurricane to a Category 4 hurricane in just over 9 hours.[56][57] Dorian strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane on September 1. This made 2019 the record fourth consecutive year to feature a Category 5 hurricane, surpassing the three-year period from 2003–2005.[58] The system continued to strengthen rapidly throughout the day, becoming the strongest hurricane to impact the northwestern Bahamas since modern records began. Dorian made landfall on Elbow Cay at 16:40 UTC that day with 1-minute sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h); the storm continued strengthening during landfall, with its minimum central pressure bottoming out at 910 millibars (26.87 inHg) a few hours later, reaching peak intensity.[59][60] At 02:00 UTC on the next day, Dorian made landfall on Grand Bahama near the same intensity, with the same sustained wind speed.[61] A few hours later, Dorian stalled just north of Grand Bahama island, as the Bermuda High situated to the northeast of the storm collapsed.[62][63] Around the same time, the combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and upwelling of cold water caused Dorian to begin weakening.[64] Hurricane Dorian weakened to a Category 2 hurricane on September 3, before beginning to move northwestward at 15:00 UTC, parallel to the east coast of Florida; Dorian's wind field expanded during this time.[65] At 06:00 UTC on September 5, Dorian moved over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream and completed its eyewall replacement cycle, reintensifying into a Category 3 hurricane.[66] However, several hours later, Dorian moved into a more hostile environment, encountering more wind shear and dry air, which caused the storm to weaken to a Category 2 hurricane, and later to Category 1 intensity, early on September 6.[67] At 12:35 UTC that day, Dorian made landfall on Cape Hatteras, North Carolina as a Category 1 hurricane.[68] On September 7, Dorian transitioned into an extratropical cyclone. At 18:00 UTC that day, Dorian intensified into a Category 2-equivalent extratropical storm, due to baroclinic forcing.[69] Several hours later, at 7:05 p.m. AST on September 7, Dorian made landfall in Sambro Creek, Nova Scotia as a Category 2-equivalent extratropical storm,[70] before making another landfall on the northern part of Newfoundland several hours later.[71] Early on September 9, Dorian weakened and moved away from Atlantic Canada, and the NHC issued their final advisory on the storm.[72]

Hurricane Dorian killed more than 70 people and caused more than $8.3 billion (2019 USD) in damage, with the vast majority of the deaths and damage occurring in the Bahamas, which was the hardest-hit area by the storm.[73][74][75][76][77]

Tropical Storm ErinEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 26 – August 29
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

Early on August 21, the NHC started to monitor a disturbance over the Bahamas for potential development.[78] The disturbance continued northwestward, and briefly moved over Florida. The system weakened, and then it re-emerged over the Atlantic. A few days later, after having moved northeastward away from Florida, the system was still poorly organized, but a closed circulation prompted the NHC to initiate advisories on Tropical Depression Six at 2100 UTC August 26.[79] Due to northwesterly wind shear, convection was displaced to the south-east quadrant of the center, and so the system struggled to strengthen for a while.[80] However, the center soon moved closer to the convection, which then began to envelop it. This prompted the National Hurricane Center to upgrade the depression to Tropical Storm Erin.[81] Wind shear displaced convection from the storm's center of circulation a few hours later, weakening the system back to a tropical depression.[82] A day later, Erin transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, and the NHC discontinued advisories on the system.[83]

In Nova Scotia, precipitation from the remnants of Erin was higher than for all of July and August combined before the storm. According to the Meteorological Service of Canada, the Annapolis Valley and the Bay of Fundy region received the most precipitation with a maximum of 162 mm at Parrsboro and 127 mm at Greenwood. Elsewhere, 53 mm fell in Halifax, 79 mm in Yarmouth, and at the peak of precipitation, several stations reported rates greater than 30 mm per hour, resulting in increased runoff, causing flash floods and the wash out of roads.[84]

On the New Brunswick side, rain affected the southern part of the province with maximums of 56 mm in Fredericton, 50 mm in Moncton and 44 mm in Saint John.[85] In Prince Edward Island, accumulations ranged from 30 to 60 mm with a maximum of 66 mm in Summerside.[86] However, volunteers' weather stations reported up to 111 mm at Jolicure/Sackville in New Brunswick and up to 95 mm at Borden-Carleton on Prince Edward Island, along the same axis as the Nova Scotia maximums. In Quebec, regions near the Gulf of St. Lawrence also received about 50 mm of rain.[87]

Tropical Storm FernandEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 3 – September 5
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

A broad area of low pressure began to be monitored over the southeast Gulf of Mexico on August 31 for potential tropical cyclone development.[88] The system gradually developed while moving slowly westward. On September 2, the satellite imagery showed that the surface circulation became better defined, and that the system was more concentrated.[89] On September 3, the disturbance was designated as Potential Tropical Cyclone Seven, with a virtually certain chance of tropical cyclone development.[90] Six hours later, the system organized into the seventh tropical depression of the season[91] and rapidly developed into Tropical Storm Fernand.[92] Fernand made landfall just north of La Pesca in Tamaulipas, Mexico, on September 4, bringing heavy rainfall and storm surge.[93] The storm weakened rapidly and dissipated within 12 hours of landfall.[94]

Fernand brought torrential rainfall to the Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosí. Fernand also dumped heavy rainfall over South Texas. In preparation for the storm, the Mexican government activated Plan DN-III-E, sending 4,000 troops to the northeastern states to assist in disaster relief. In Nuevo León, schools and public transport lines were closed on September 5 but resumed operations the next day. Of the states, Nuevo León was the hardest hit, suffering at least MX$4.2 billion (US$213 million) in damage. In some places, six months of rain fell in six hours. Landslides were reported near the state's capital, Monterrey. Homes, roads, bridges, and at least 400 schools were damaged. In García, a Venezuelan man died after he was swept away by floodwaters while attempting to clear a drain; the two people he was working with managed to escape. On September 7, governor of Nuevo León, Jaime Rodríguez Calderón, declared a state of emergency to request for state funds to address the damage. Elsewhere, in Tamaulipas, 12 in (300 mm) of rain fell in 48 hours, leading to some coastal flooding.[95][96]

Tropical Storm GabrielleEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 3 – September 10
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

On August 30, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave emerging from the west coast of Africa.[97] Over the next few days, the disturbance slowly organized while moving westward, and the system strengthened into the eighth tropical depression of the season late on September 3, before intensifying further into Tropical Storm Gabrielle overnight.[98][99] The system remained poorly organized, and Gabrielle encountered high wind shear and dry air soon afterward, causing the storm to degenerate into a remnant low at 03:00 UTC on September 6.[100] However, convection began to appear on the northern part of the center within six hours, marking Gabrielle's regeneration into a tropical storm.[101] Soon afterward, Gabrielle began tracking westward, before turning northeastward and leaving the northern part of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, on September 9.[102] On the next day, Gabrielle degenerated into an extratropical cyclone. Gabrielle's remnants later struck the British Isles on September 12.[103]

Hurricane HumbertoEdit

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 13 – September 20
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  951 mbar (hPa)

Early on September 8, at 03:00 UTC, the NHC began monitoring a disturbance to the northeast of the Lesser Antilles for potential tropical cyclone development.[104] During the few days, the disturbance moved westward while remaining disorganized.[105] On September 12, the disturbance rapidly organized over the southeastern Bahamas,[106] and as the system posed an imminent threat to land areas, the NHC initiated advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Nine at 21:00 UTC that day.[107] 24 hours later, the system developed into a tropical depression, while moving northwestward.[108] before strengthening further into Tropical Storm Humberto later that day.[109] On September 14, Humberto passed to the east of the Abaco Islands staying just off the eastern coastline.[110] On September 16, at 03:00 UTC, Humberto intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, while turning to the northeast.[111] Humberto further intensified into a Category 3 major hurricane at 00:00 UTC on the next day.[112] It passed just north of Bermuda and brought hurricane-force winds on the island. After passing Bermuda, Humberto slightly strengthened, then weakened, and finally became an extratropical cyclone at 03:00 UTC on September 20.[113]

Hurricane JerryEdit

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 25
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min)  976 mbar (hPa)

On September 9, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa and emerged into the Atlantic, and the NHC began to monitor the system for potential tropical development.[114] Tracking slowly westward across the Atlantic, the tropical wave remained disorganized until September 16, when the system's organization significantly increased.[115] On September 17, the disturbance organized into Tropical Depression Ten.[116] Early on September 18, the tropical depression strengthened into a tropical storm and received the name Jerry.[117] The next day, Jerry intensified into a Category 1 hurricane, and 12 hours later, it further intensified to a Category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 90 kn (105 mph; 165 km/h).[118] A slight increase in upper-level winds caused the storm to weaken back to a tropical storm about 24 hours later.[119] Jerry slowly weakened as it approached the island of Bermuda, and early on September 25, Jerry finally transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone.

Tropical Storm ImeldaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 19
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1005 mbar (hPa)

On September 14, the NHC began monitoring an upper-level low off the west coast of Florida for possible tropical development.[120] During the next several days, the system moved westward across the Gulf of Mexico, though the NHC gave the disturbance only a low chance of development. By September 17, the system had reached the east coast of Texas.[121] Soon afterward, organization in the system rapidly increased, and at 17:00 UTC that day, the system organized into Tropical Depression 11, just off the coast of Texas.[122] The storm continued strengthening while approaching land, becoming Tropical Storm Imelda at 17:45 UTC.[123] Shortly thereafter, at 18:30 UTC, Imelda made landfall near Freeport, Texas at peak intensity, with maximum 1-minute sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 1,005 millibars (29.7 inHg).[124] Imelda weakened after landfall, becoming a tropical depression at 03:00 UTC on the next day. At that time, the NHC passed on the responsibility for issuing advisories to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC).[125]

Imelda brought catastrophic flooding to Southeast Texas, with more than 40 inches of rain in some areas. It is the fifth-wettest tropical cyclone to strike the continental United States.[126] Total damages from Imelda are expected to exceed US$2 billion.[77]

Tropical Storm KarenEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 22 – September 27
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1002 mbar (hPa)

On September 18, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave midway between Cape Verde and the Lesser Antilles for possible tropical cyclone development.[127] On September 22, the system developed a closed center of circulation and was named Karen just east of Tobago.[128] After crossing the Lesser Antilles and emerging into the Caribbean Sea, Karen weakened to a depression as it turned northwards, heading for Puerto Rico.[129] The next day, it reintensified back to a tropical storm just south of the island.[130] Despite repeated predictions of intensification, the storm remained weak over the next few days due to unfavorable conditions, before the circulation of Karen opened up into a trough on September 27 well to the southeast of Bermuda.

With the formation of Karen, tropical storm warnings and red alerts were issued for Trinidad and Tobago.[131] Karen brought severe flash floods to Tobago, trapping some people in their houses, as well as uprooting trees and causing several power outages.[132] Several roads were blocked due to mudslides and downed trees. In addition, seven boats in Plymouth sank after a jetty broke.[133] It was also announced that all schools would be closed on Monday, September 23.[134] Swells generated by Karen caused flooding and power outages in Caracas and La Guaira.[135] Tropical storm watches were issued for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands as Karen was forecasted to move toward those islands.[136] The governor of Puerto Rico declared a state of emergency on September 23 and ordered schools and government offices to close as Karen advances. The Virgin Islands also closed their schools as the storm approached.[137] People who were living in flood-prone areas were asked to seek shelter.[138] Mudslides and power outages were reported in the U.S. Virgin Islands as Karen passed the islands; more than 29,000 people lost power due to the storm in Puerto Rico.[137][139]

Hurricane LorenzoEdit

Category 5 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 23 – October 2
Peak intensity160 mph (260 km/h) (1-min)  925 mbar (hPa)

On September 19, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave that was forecast to emerge from the west coast of Africa. On September 22, the tropical wave emerged into the Atlantic Ocean.[140] The system quickly organized afterward, and at 03:00 UTC on the next day, the NHC initiated advisories on Tropical Depression Thirteen.[141] Twelve hours later, the tropical depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Lorenzo over the far eastern Atlantic Ocean.[142] Early on September 25, the storm reached hurricane strength.[143] On the morning of September 26, the storm underwent a period of extremely rapid intensification; Lorenzo's maximum sustained winds increased 35 mph (55 km/h) in just six hours and brought the storm to Category 4 major hurricane status. As Lorenzo began to turn slowly northward, it weakened with the onset of an eyewall replacement cycle on September 27.[144] However, after bottoming out as a low-end Category 3 hurricane, Lorenzo completed its eyewall replacement cycle and began another period of rapid intensification, strengthening into a Category 5 hurricane early on September 29. This made Lorenzo the easternmost Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on record.[145]

After reaching peak intensity, Lorenzo began to weaken again due to a third eyewall replacement cycle, the upwelling of the cold water beneath the hurricane and rapidly increasing southwesterly wind shear. Lorenzo dropped back to Category 2 strength late on September 29, as it approached the Azores. Lorenzo slowly weakened as it passed the islands, and its windfield continued to expand as it began its extratropical transition.[146] Lorenzo became fully extratropical at 16:00 UTC October 2.[147] On October 3 and 4, as an extratropical cyclone, the system battered the British Isles with tropical storm-force winds, causing some damage.

On September 27, a French ship Bourbon Rhode, with 14 crew members onboard, sank in the outer rain bands of Lorenzo. Three of them were rescued on a lifeboat; but 7 remain missing.[148] Four of the missing crew have been confirmed dead as of October 2.[149] Additionally, four people drowned after being caught in rip currents in North Carolina.[150] In New York City, three people were swept away by strong waves. One of them was rescued later, but the other two were confirmed dead.[151]

Tropical Storm MelissaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 11 – October 14
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

On October 10, a weak non-tropical low-pressure system that had been tracking slowly up the eastern coast of the United States merged with an expansive storm-force nor'easter situated southeast of New England.[152][153] Contrary to forecasts, the system began to show signs of development on the morning of October 11, with shower and thunderstorm activity increasing in organization around the extratropical cyclone's center.[154] Visible satellite imagery showed a large convective rainband in the northern semicircle of the circulation as well as an eye-like feature, indicating that the system was acquiring subtropical characteristics. Development continued in the ensuing hours, leading the National Hurricane Center to initiate advisories on the system at 15:00 UTC, designating it as Subtropical Storm Melissa while the system was at its peak strength.[155] The storm began to weaken slightly, yet at 21:00 the next day, satellite imagery revealed Melissa had convection wrapped around the center, indicating that Melissa made the transition from a subtropical to a tropical storm.[156] Melissa rapidly degenerated over the next day, significantly decreasing in size before becoming extratropical on October 14.

The nor'easter and subsequent (sub)tropical storm caused heavy surf and storm surge along the coast of the Mid-Atlantic States. In Maryland, flooding from increased high tides from the storm forced street closures in Crisfield and Salisbury.[157] In Delaware, waves from the storm caused beach erosion and flooded streets in Bethany Beach while homes and streets were flooded in Dewey Beach.[158][159] Waves from the storm caused coastal flooding in various parts of the Jersey Shore including Long Beach Island and Atlantic City. The flooding forced the cancellation of the first day of the LBI International Kite Festival.[160]

Tropical Depression FifteenEdit

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 14 – October 16
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

On October 11, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave that would emerge off of the coast of Africa early next week. The wave was described as “vigorous” and quickly organized. By October 14, the low-pressure system became organized enough to be designated Tropical Depression Fifteen at 20.2°W.[161] The depression quickly lost its organized structure and did not intensify into a tropical storm, in contrast to the forecast. On October 16, the system degenerated into a trough,[162] but its remnants lasted multiple days according to satellite imagery.

Tropical Storm NestorEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 18 – October 19
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min)  996 mbar (hPa)

At 00:00 UTC October 11, the NHC began tracking a broad area of low pressure that was expected to emerge into the southwestern Caribbean Sea over the weekend.[163] On October 14, the disturbance moved inland over Central America, briefly disorganized and brought heavy rains, then emerged off the Bay of Campeche on October 16.[164] The system quickly re-organized as it passed over the warm waters of the Southern Gulf of Mexico, and, due to its threat to the southeastern United States, was designated as Potential Tropical Cyclone Sixteen at 13:00 UTC the next day.[165] Sixteen then quickly intensified the next day, having maximum sustained winds of 50 kn (60 mph; 95 km/h), becoming one of the strongest potential tropical cyclones designated by the National Hurricane Center.[166] It was upgraded to Tropical Storm Nestor soon after.[167] Much of the strong convective thunderstorms related to the storm were displaced to the east and north of the center, giving Nestor an asymmetrical appearance. Nestor then transitioned into an extratropical cyclone early on October 19, after only lasting a mere 18 hours as a tropical cyclone. The NHC continued advisories on Nestor until it moved inland over the Florida Panhandle later the same day.[168]

Rainfall and storm surge from Nestor caused coastal flooding and flash flooding across the Florida Panhandle, with some areas experiencing over 3 inches of rainfall.[169] Nestor brought moderate damage to the Florida Panhandle, mainly due to the much stronger Hurricane Michael striking the same area the previous season.[170] The outer bands produced several tornadoes. The strongest was rated EF2 and was on the ground for 9 miles (14 km)—an uncommonly long track for the region—through western Polk County, from Lakeland Linder International Airport to northwest Polk County, between 10:59PM and 11:29PM on October 18, causing modest damage to homes, overturning a semi truck and sending debris into vehicles as it crossed Interstate 4, and tearing a large portion of roof off of a middle school.[171][172][173][174] An EF0 tornado briefly touched down in central Pinellas County earlier in the evening, causing minor damage and knocking out power, and an EF1 tornado briefly touched down in Cape Coral on Saturday morning.[173][175] Heavy rains from Nestor caused a car crash in South Carolina, which killed three people and left five injured.[176]

Tropical Storm OlgaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 25 – October 26
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  998 mbar (hPa)

At 00:00 UTC on October 23, the NHC began to monitor a tropical wave located over Belize. The wave entered the Bay of Campeche the next day and unexpectedly underwent rapid organization, being designated Tropical Depression Seventeen the day after that. The depression continued to strengthen and organize, becoming Tropical Storm Olga on October 25.[177] A mere six hours after being named, however, Olga merged with a cold front and became post-tropical. The remnants of Olga caused many tornadoes across the Mobile Area. In Louisiana, over 130,000 customers lost power, including Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport.[178] Later, its remnants accelerated northeast and eventually hit Canada, bringing heavy rain and gusty winds to Ontario. Olga's winds also caused Lake Erie to experience a seiche, with water levels at the eastern end of the lake rising by 7.5 ft (2.3 m). Olga's remnants soon dissipated over Quebec.[179]

Hurricane PabloEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 25 – October 28
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  977 mbar (hPa)

On October 25, the NHC identified an area of concentrated thunderstorms embedded within an extratropical cyclone southwest of the Azores. The small area rapidly organized, and gained tropical characteristics nine hours later, becoming Tropical Storm Pablo. Pablo's small size allowed it to easily gain deep convection, as well as an eye-like feature for about 4 hours, even while over cooler sea temperatures. Pablo began to intensify more as it passed near the Eastern Azores on the 26th. The following day, cloud tops around the small eye suddenly cooled and wind speeds increased, leading the NHC to designate Pablo a Category 1 hurricane on October 27 at 15:00 UTC.[180] Upon doing so, Pablo broke the record for becoming a hurricane this far east, at 18.3°W, breaking Hurricane Vince of 2005's record of 18.9°W.[181] After achieving its peak intensity, Pablo finally weakened due to the very cold waters it was traversing. Pablo weakened back to a tropical storm at 03:00 UTC the next day, and continued to weaken as it crawled northward.[182][183] Pablo became devoid of deep convection and was declared post-tropical at 15:00 UTC on October 28.[184]

Subtropical Storm RebekahEdit

Subtropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 30 – November 1
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  987 mbar (hPa)

On October 28, the NHC began to monitor a hurricane-force extratropical cyclone about 400 miles (640 km) west of the Azores. The disturbance moved south and weakened, but subsequently began to acquire subtropical characteristics. On October 30, convection had appeared to wrap around the storm's center, suggesting the extratropical storm had made a subtropical transition. As a result, the NHC deemed it as Subtropical Storm Rebekah.[185] It reached peak intensity later that day, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h). The storm stayed at this exact intensity with little weakening for most of its lifetime. However, due to hostile conditions enhanced by cold sea surface temperatures, Rebekah rapidly weakened on the night of October 31 and became post-tropical early on November 1, as it was moving to the north of the Azores.

Tropical Storm SebastienEdit

Tropical Storm Sebastien 
Current storm status
Tropical storm (1-min mean)
 
Satellite image
 
Forecast map
As of:5:00 a.m. AST (09:00 UTC) November 20
Location:21°00′N 61°00′W / 21.0°N 61.0°W / 21.0; -61.0 (Tropical Storm Sebastien) ± 30 nm
About 235 mi (380 km) NE of the Northern Leeward Islands
Sustained winds:45 kn (85 km/h; 50 mph) (1-min mean)
gusting to 55 kn (100 km/h; 65 mph)
Pressure:1002 hPa (29.59 inHg)
Movement:NW at 7 kn (13 km/h; 8.1 mph)
See more detailed information.

At 00:00 UTC November 17, the NHC began monitoring a large area of thunderstorms, associated with the interaction of an upper-level low and a surface trough. This led to the development of a broad area of low-pressure over the central Atlantic 24 hours later.[186] The system gradually organized, acquiring a surface circulation early on November 19, and after developing a defined center, the system was designated Tropical Storm Sebastien at 15:00 UTC that day.[187]

Current storm informationEdit

As of 5:00 a.m. AST (09:00 UTC) November 20, Tropical Storm Sebastien is located within 30 nautical miles of 21°00′N 61°00′W / 21.0°N 61.0°W / 21.0; -61.0 (Sebastien), about 235 mi (380 km) northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands. Maximum sustained winds are 45 kn (50 mph; 85 km/h), with gusts to 55 kn (65 mph; 100 km/h). The minimum barometric pressure is 1002 mbar (29.59 inHg), and the system is moving northwest at 7 kn (8 mph; 13 km/h). Tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 150 miles (240 km) from the center of Sebastien.

For latest official information see:

Storm namesEdit

The following list of names that is used for named storms that form in the North Atlantic in 2019. Retired names, if any, will be announced by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 2020. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2025 season. This is the same list used in the 2013 season, with the exception of the name Imelda, which replaced Ingrid. The names Imelda, Nestor, and Rebekah were used for the first time this year. The name Nestor replaced Noel after 2007, but was not used in 2013 while the name Rebekah replaced Roxanne after 1995, but was not used in previous seasons.[188]

  • Olga
  • Pablo
  • Rebekah
  • Sebastien (active)
  • Tanya (unused)
  • Van (unused)
  • Wendy (unused)

Season effectsEdit

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2019 Atlantic hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in USD. Potential tropical cyclones are not included in this table.

2019 North Atlantic tropical cyclone season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


Andrea May 20 – 21 Subtropical storm 40 (65) 1006 Bermuda None None
Barry July 11 – 15 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 993 Midwestern United States, Eastern United States, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Great Lakes region >$600 million 0 (1) [37][38]
Three July 22 – 23 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1013 The Bahamas, Florida None None
Chantal August 20 – 23 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1007 East Coast of the United States None None
Dorian August 24 – September 7  Category 5 hurricane 185 (295) 910 Windward Islands, Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, The Northwestern Bahamas, East Coast of the United States, Eastern Canada >$8.28 billion 63 (7) [189][73][74][76][75][77]
Erin August 26 – 29 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1002 Cuba, The Bahamas, East Coast of the United States, Atlantic Canada Minimal None
Fernand September 3 – 5 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1000 Northeastern Mexico, South Texas $213 million 1 [95][96]
Gabrielle September 3 – 10 Tropical storm 65 (100) 995 Cape Verde, Ireland, United Kingdom None None
Humberto September 13 – 20 Category 3 hurricane 125 (205) 951 Hispaniola, Cuba, Bahamas, Southeastern United States, Bermuda, Atlantic Canada, Ireland, United Kingdom >$1 million 1 [190][77]
Jerry September 17 – 25 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 976 Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Bermuda None None
Imelda September 17 – 19 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1005 Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Arkansas >$2 billion 4 (1) [191][75][77]
Karen September 22 – 27 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1002 Windward Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico Minimal None
Lorenzo September 23 – October 2 Category 5 hurricane 160 (260) 925 West Africa, Cape Verde, Azores, Ireland, United Kingdom $362 million 16 [149][150][151]
Melissa October 11 – 14 Tropical storm 65 (100) 995[nb 2] Mid-Atlantic States, New England, Nova Scotia Minimal None
Fifteen October 14 – 16 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1006 West Africa, Cape Verde None None
Nestor October 18 – 19 Tropical storm 60 (95) 996 Central America, Mexico, Southeastern United States >$150 million 0 (3) [192]
Olga October 25 – 26 Tropical storm 40 (65) 998 United States Gulf Coast, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi >$100 million 1 [192]
Pablo October 25 – 28 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 977 Azores None None
Rebekah October 30 – November 1  Subtropical storm 45 (75) 987 Azores None None
Sebastien November 19 – present Tropical storm 50 (85) 1002 Leeward Islands None None
Season Aggregates
20 systems May 20 – present   185 (295) 910 >$11.98 billion ≥ 86 (12)  

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The totals represent the sum of the squares for every (sub)tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2019 Atlantic hurricane season/ACE calcs.
  2. ^ Melissa reached its peak intensity of 65 mph (100 km/h) and 995 mbar as a subtropical storm but later became fully tropical.

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