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2019 Pacific hurricane season

The 2019 Pacific hurricane season was a moderately active season which produced nineteen named storms, though most were rather weak and short-lived. Only seven hurricanes formed, the fewest since 2010. The season officially began on May 15 in the East Pacific Ocean, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; they ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Pacific basin. However, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year.

2019 Pacific hurricane season
2019 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJune 25, 2019
Last system dissipatedNovember 18, 2019
Strongest storm
NameBarbara
 • Maximum winds155 mph (250 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure930 mbar (hPa; 27.46 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions21
Total storms19
Hurricanes7
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
4
Total fatalities11 total
Total damage$16.1 million (2019 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021

The season had a slow start, with no tropical cyclones forming in the basin during the month of May for the first time since 2016 (though Hurricane Pali formed in January 2016), and the first time that no storms formed before the month of June since 2011. The season became the latest-starting Pacific hurricane season on record since reliable records began in 1971 with the first tropical depression, which eventually became Hurricane Alvin, forming on June 25.[1] The strongest hurricane of the season, Barbara, formed on June 30 and peaked as a high-end Category 4 hurricane on July 3. August was rather quiet with no hurricanes forming during the month, a first for a season since 1973. September was much more active with six systems developing, of which three became hurricanes. With the formation of Ema on October 12, 2019 became the first season since 2016 in which more than one tropical cyclone was named in the Central Pacific Ocean. Activity decreased appreciably in October and November as most of the storms remained weak.

Land impact was relatively minimal. The remnants of Barbara caused power outages in Hawaii in early July. Hurricanes Erick and Flossie both threatened Hawaii, but the systems weakened significantly before reaching the islands. Tropical Storm Ivo and Hurricane Juliette both brought strong winds to Clarion Island. In late September, Hurricane Lorena made landfall in southwestern Mexico and Baja California Sur, and its remnant moisture entered the southwestern United States. Lorena was responsible for one death and damages worth US$910,000. Tropical Storm Narda took a nearly identical track a week later, killing six and causing US$15.2 million in damage. Overall, this season was significantly less active and destructive than the previous year, causing about $16.1 million in damages and eleven fatalities.

Seasonal forecastsEdit

Record Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1981–2010): 15.4 7.6 3.2 [2]
Record high activity: 1992: 27 2015: 16 2015: 11 [3]
Record low activity: 2010: 8 2010: 3 2003: 0 [3]
Date Source Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
May 15, 2019 SMN 19 11 6 [4]
May 23, 2019 NOAA 15–22 8–13 4–8 [5]
Area Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
Actual activity: EPAC 17 7 4
Actual activity: CPAC 2 0 0
Actual activity: 19 7 4

On May 15, 2019, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) issued its first forecast for the season, predicting a total of 19 named storms, 11 hurricanes, and six major hurricanes to develop.[4] On May 23, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration released its annual forecast, predicting a 70% chance of a near- to above-average season in both the Eastern and Central Pacific basins, with a total of 15–22 named storms, 8–13 hurricanes, and 4–8 major hurricanes.[5] The reason for their outlook was the forecast of an El Niño to continue through the season, which reduces vertical wind shear across the basin and increases sea surface temperatures, favoring increased tropical cyclone activity. In addition, many global computer models expected a positive Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), a phase of a multi-decade cycle that favored much warmer than average sea surface temperatures that had been ongoing since 2014 to continue, in contrast to the 1995–2013 period, which generally featured below-normal activity.[6]

Seasonal summaryEdit

Tropical Storm Narda (2019)Hurricane Lorena (2019)Saffir–Simpson scale 
 
Three simultaneous tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific on September 20, Kiko (left), Mario (center) and Lorena (right)

The season officially began on May 15 in Eastern Pacific and on June 1 in Central Pacific; both will end on November 30.[7] Initial activity was slow, with the first tropical depression forming on June 25. The strongest storm of the season so far, hurricane Barbara, reached peak intensity on July 2 as a high-end category 4 hurricane. The season became more active in July, with five tropical cyclones forming, including two storms that intensified into hurricanes. Among them was Hurricane Erick, which reached Category 4 status on July 31.[8] This level of activity came to a halt in August, with only three named storms forming, none of which reached hurricane strength.

On the first day of September, Hurricane Juliette formed, becoming the third major hurricane of the season.[9] Moreover, tropical activity also began in the Central Pacific with the formation of Tropical Storm Akoni on September 3, which dissipated two days later. There were no tropical cyclones for five days until the formation of Hurricane Kiko on September 12 and the formation of Tropical Storm Mario and Hurricane Lorena five days later. In late September, Tropical Storm Narda became the sixth named storm to form during the month, tying the record for the most active September with the seasons of 1966, 1992, 1994, 1997 and 2005.

Three tropical storms formed in the month of October, the first one was Tropical Storm Ema which formed on October 12 in the Central Pacific, becoming the first such occurrence since 2016 in which more than one tropical cyclone was named in the basin. The second named storm of the month, Octave, formed on October 17 and dissipated two days later without threatening land. Priscilla formed on October 20 and later dissipated the next day while it brushed Western Mexico. In mid-November, Tropical Storm Raymond formed on November 15, just fifteen days before the season officially ends.

The Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) index for the 2019 Pacific hurricane season, as of 15:00 UTC November 17, is 83.115 units in the Eastern Pacific and 14.0325 units in the Central Pacific. The total ACE in the basin is 97.1475 units.[nb 1]

SystemsEdit

Hurricane AlvinEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJune 25 – June 29
Peak intensity75 mph (120 km/h) (1-min)  992 mbar (hPa)

On June 19, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) began to forecast the formation of a low-pressure area off the southwestern coast of Mexico within the next several days.[10] An area of disorganized showers and thunderstorms, associated with a westward-moving tropical wave, developed in the region on June 22, with a low-pressure system forming in association with the system on the following day.[11] During the next few days, the system gradually organized as it moved west-northwestward, away from the coast of Mexico. By 12:00 UTC on June 25, the disturbance had developed sufficiently organized convection as well as a sufficiently-defined center of circulation to be classified as a tropical depression, the first of the 2019 Pacific hurricane season.[12] The tropical depression slowly strengthened while moving westward, becoming a tropical storm and receiving the name Alvin approximately a day later.[13] Warm sea surface temperatures, low vertical wind shear, and high relative humidity provided a generally favorable environment for Alvin to strengthen over the next couple of days, as it was steered westward to the south of a subtropical ridge.[14] Early on June 28, by 00:00 UTC, Alvin reached its peak intensity and strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane, becoming the first hurricane of the season. Microwave imagery revealed that Alvin possessed a small inner core, with an eye around 11.5 miles (18.5 km) in diameter.[15] However, just six hours later, southwesterly wind shear began to increase as Alvin turned northwestwards, causing the cyclone to weaken back to a tropical storm.[16] Rapid weakening commenced thereafter, as strong southeasterly wind shear and cooler ocean waters began to take their toll, and the cyclone weakened to a tropical depression early on June 29.[17] At 15:00 UTC that day, Alvin degenerated into a post-tropical remnant low, after losing its remaining convection.[18]

Hurricane BarbaraEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJune 30 – July 5
Peak intensity155 mph (250 km/h) (1-min)  930 mbar (hPa)

On June 26, the NHC began to forecast the formation of an area of low pressure several hundred miles southwest of the southern coast of Mexico, within the next several days.[19] The next day, a tropical wave—accompanied by a broad area of disorganized showers and thunderstorms—moved into the region. The disturbance gradually became better organized over the next few days as it moved westward to west-northwestward.[20] On the afternoon of June 30, after satellite imagery indicated that the disturbance had become better organized and had gale-force winds east of a well-defined center of circulation, the NHC upgraded the system to a tropical storm and named it Barbara.[21]

Barbara continued to move towards the west-northwest, with convection around the center of the storm increasing as conditions remained favorable for further strengthening. At 21:00 UTC on July 1, Barbara intensified into a category 1 hurricane while located roughly 970 miles (1,560 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.[22] The storm then began a period of rapid intensification, developing a robust inner core intensifying into a Category 4 major hurricane by 12:30 UTC on July 2.[23][24] Early the next morning, Barbara reached its peak intensity as a high-end Category 4 hurricane, with a minimum central pressure of 930 millibars (27 inHg) and maximum 1-minute sustained winds of 155 mph (250 km/h).[25]

Soon after reaching peak intensity, the storm began an eyewall replacement cycle,[26] and encountered cooler waters, causing the storm to weaken.[27] This weakening trend accelerated as southwesterly wind shear increased, with the storm weakening to a Category 2 hurricane by 21:00 UTC on July 4.[28] Early the next morning, Barbara weakened into a tropical storm;[29] the storm gradually lost its remaining convection and degenerated into a remnant low at 00:00 UTC on July 6.[30] Barbara's remnants passed 120 mi (190 km) south of Hawai'i on July 8, producing showers over the windward regions of the island and nearby Maui.[31] The storms generated by Barbara's remnants were cited by Hawaiian Electric Industries as the likely cause of power outages affecting 45,000 electricity customers.[32]

Tropical Storm CosmeEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 6 – July 7
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1001 mbar (hPa)

On June 28, the NHC began forecasting the development of a tropical disturbance to the south of Mexico within the next several days.[33] Early on July 3, a tropical disturbance associated with a tropical wave formed several hundred miles south of the southern coast of Mexico.[34] Moving into favorable conditions, the disturbance continued to organize slowly, as it was in the vicinity of Hurricane Barbara. On July 6, the disturbance organized into a tropical storm and was named Cosme, becoming the third named system of the East Pacific hurricane season.[35][36] However, a day after the storm was named, Cosme started weakening due to dry air intrusion.[37] At 03:00 UTC on July 8, Cosme weakened into a tropical depression, before degenerating into a convectionless remnant low later that day, after succumbing to a combination of low sea surface temperatures, dry air, and westerly wind shear.[38][39]

Tropical Depression Four-EEdit

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 12 – July 13
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

At 00:00 UTC on July 6, the NHC began to forecast the potential formation of an area of low pressure, which had the potential to develop into a tropical cyclone within several days.[40] Two days later, thunderstorms formed in association with a tropical wave within the area.[41] Afterward, the system quickly organized and was classified as Tropical Depression Four-E at 21:00 UTC on July 12.[42][43] The system then proceeded to slowly move west-northwestward. However, the storm failed to intensify further, due to dry air and wind shear in the region. Late on July 13, wind shear took its toll on the storm, and Four-E lost almost all of its deep convection, though a few cells continued to persist near the center of the storm.[44] At 15:00 UTC on July 14, the system degenerated into a remnant low.[45]

Tropical Storm DalilaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 22 – July 25
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

On July 14, the NHC began to forecast the potential formation of an area of low pressure off the coast of Costa Rica.[46] Twelve hours later, thunderstorms associated with a tropical wave developed, as expected.[47] The system gradually organized and intensified as it moved slowly toward the west-northwest. On July 20, the NHC began to forecast a high chance of tropical cyclone development for the system.[48] On July 22, the disturbance developed a well-defined center of circulation about 600 nautical miles (690 mi; 1100 km) southwest of Baja California, allowing it to be classified as a tropical depression.[49] On the next day, satellite estimates indicated that the system began to produce tropical storm-force winds. As a result, the system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Dalila at 09:00 UTC on July 23, as it moved north-northwestward.[50] Eventually, Dalila emerged into an area of low sea surface temperatures a day later, causing it to weaken to tropical depression status.[51] Dalila encountered even more unfavorable conditions as it continued moving northwestward, causing the storm to degenerate into a remnant low at 15:00 UTC on July 25.[52]

Hurricane ErickEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 27 – August 5
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  952 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began to forecast the potential formation of a tropical disturbance on July 22.[53] Just twelve hours later, thunderstorms formed within the area.[54] The system gradually organized in the next several days. On July 27, it began to produce tropical storm-force winds, but still lacked a well-defined center of circulation. Later that day, the system's circulation began to organize, leading to the classification of the system as a tropical depression.[55] Several hours later, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Erick.[56] The system slowly organized, and at 03:00 UTC on July 30, Erick intensified into a hurricane as it moved westward into the Central Pacific Hurricane Center’s area of responsibility.[57] Twelve hours later, Erick rapidly intensified into a Category 3 hurricane.[58] Rapid intensification continued, and at 21:00 UTC on July 30, Erick reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane, with sustained winds at 115 knots (130 mph; 215 km/h).[59] On the next day, Erick initiated an eyewall replacement cycle, causing it to begin weakening. Later that day, it was downgraded into a Category 3 hurricane.[60] The following morning, Erick weakened below major hurricane status,[61] then degenerated further into a Category 1 hurricane six hours later.[62] Late on August 1, Erick weakened into a tropical storm due to strong southwesterly wind shear.[63] Erick passed just south of the Big Island of Hawaii before degenerating into a tropical depression late on August 4.[64] At 03:00 UTC on August 5, the storm degenerated into a remnant low. Thus, the CPHC issued their last advisory on the system.[65]

Hurricane FlossieEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 28 – August 6
Peak intensity80 mph (130 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

The NHC began to forecast the formation of a low-pressure system on July 22.[66] Several days later, a disturbance formed just south of the coast of Guatemala.[67] As it tracked west-northwestwards, the system encountered favorable conditions and developed a well-defined center of circulation on July 28, leading to its classification as a tropical depression.[68] At 09:00 UTC on July 29, the system strengthened into a tropical storm and was named Flossie.[69] The storm gradually intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on the next day as it moved away from the Mexican coast.[70] Several hours later, Flossie reached it peak intensity with 70 kt (80 mph; 130 km/h) winds. Soon thereafter, it began weakening due to high upper-level winds and resultant shear. At 21:00 UTC on July 31, Flossie weakened back into a tropical storm.[71] At 21:00 UTC on August 2, Flossie moved into the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility as a largely disorganized system.[72] Flossie then slowly approached Hawaii as it weakened into a tropical depression early on August 5,[73] ultimately degenerating into a remnant low at 03:00 UTC on August 6.[74]

Tropical Storm GilEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 3 – August 5
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

Tropical Storm Gil originated from disorganized thunderstorms noted first on July 29.[75] The system slowly organized over the following days and by 15:00 UTC on August 3 it developed into Tropical Depression Eight-E.[76] Despite unfavorable conditions for further development, six hours after formation, Eight-E strengthened into Tropical Storm Gil.[77] However, this would be short-lived as Gil weakened back into a tropical depression by 09:00 UTC August 4.[78] Shortly after 12:00 UTC the same day, Gil became completely devoid of deep convection due to strong wind shear. Finally, at 03:00 UTC August 5, Gil degenerated into a remnant low far off the coast of Mexico.[79]

Tropical Storm HenrietteEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 12 – August 13
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

On August 6 at 18:00 UTC, the NHC began to forecast the potential formation of a low-pressure system off the coast of Mexico.[80] A day later, thunderstorms associated with a tropical wave formed in the region.[81] The system struggled to organize due to land interaction. On August 11, it merged with another disturbance to its southwest[82] and quickly intensified as it moved west-northwestwards. On the following day, it developed a closed center of circulation and was classified as Tropical Depression Nine-E as it continued to move towards the west.[83] At 09:00 UTC on August 12, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Henriette.[84] Henriette maintained its intensity of 40 mph (65 km/h) that day before it weakened into a tropical depression early on August 13 due to the intrusion of dry air and ongoing wind shear.[85] Henriette degenerated into a remnant low several hours later and the NHC issued its last advisory on the system.[86]

Tropical Storm IvoEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 21 – August 25
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

On August 12, the NHC forecast the potential formation of a tropical disturbance well of the coast of Mexico.[87] The disturbance failed to organize until August 16 at around 21:00 UTC when a broad low-pressure system formed within the area.[88] By 15:00 UTC on August 21, the system organized itself enough to be classified as a tropical depression.[89] It intensified into Tropical Storm Ivo a few hours later.[90] At 15:00 UTC on August 22, Ivo reached peak winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) over open waters, and was forecast to become a minimal hurricane, but unexpected wind shear took its toll on the system.[91] Ivo then moved over cooler waters and gradually began to weaken as deep convection started to separate from its low-level center.[92] Ivo fell to tropical depression intensity around 09:00 UTC on August 25 as the system started being devoid of deep convection.[93] Finally, after being reduced to a swirl of low-level clouds, Ivo was declared a remnant low at 21:00 UTC on August 25.[94] Even though Ivo did not affect land, it brought tropical storm winds to Clarion Island, where sustained winds of 62 mph and gusts to 76 mph were reported.[95]

Hurricane JulietteEdit

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 1 – September 7
Peak intensity125 mph (205 km/h) (1-min)  953 mbar (hPa)

On August 30, the NHC started tracking a low-pressure area associated with a tropical wave for potential development of thunderstorms.[96] On the next day, thundershowers formed within the area.[97] The system rapidly organized in the next two days and intensified into Tropical Storm Juliette on September 1.[98] Juliette quickly intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on the next day.[99] Rapid intensification continued and Juliette reached major hurricane status on September 3, peaking as a high-end Category 3 hurricane with winds of 125 mph (205 km/h).[100] After reaching peak intensity, the storm began to weaken due to high wind shear a few hours later and quickly weakened to below major hurricane status on the next day.[101] Weakening continued as the storm moved away from the Mexican coast and the system weakened to a tropical storm on September 6.[102] Finally at 21:00 UTC on September 7, Juliette degenerated into a remnant low.[103]

Tropical Storm AkoniEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 4 – September 6
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

Early on September 4, the NHC began to track a quickly-developing area of low pressure about 1,100 mi (1,770 km) east-southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii.[104] Just a few hours later, following a sudden increase in convection, the system organized into Tropical Depression Twelve-E and moved into the Central Pacific basin.[105] It slowly intensified and eventually reached tropical storm status, whereupon it was named Akoni.[106] The system struggled to organize because of high wind shear and quickly degenerated into a remnant low on September 6.[107]

Akoni is one of only seven tropical cyclones to form as a depression in the Eastern Pacific and be given a name in the Central Pacific.

Hurricane KikoEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 12 – September 25
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min)  950 mbar (hPa)

Late on September 6, the NHC began to forecast the development of an area of low pressure off the coast of Mexico.[108] Within the next few days, a tropical wave developed and slowly organized,[109] eventually coalescing into a tropical depression on September 12.[110] Six hours later, it intensified to a tropical storm, and was named Kiko.[111] The system struggled to intensify due to high wind shear; however, two days later, Kiko began to rapidly intensify. The system reached Category 1 hurricane status as conditions became somewhat favorable for intensification.[112] Rapid intensification continued, and later that evening, Kiko reached major hurricane status.[113] At 15:00 UTC on September 15, Kiko intensified further into a Category 4 hurricane, reaching its peak intensity.[114] Twelve hours later, Kiko began to weaken,[115] falling to Category 2 status by 15:00 UTC on September 16.[116] The weakening trend continued, with Kiko being downgraded to a tropical storm on September 17.[117] For the next eight days, Kiko fluctuated in intensity as it traced a sinusoidal path across the Pacific, although it never reintensified into a hurricane. Early on September 25, the system finally degenerated to a remnant low after moving into the Central Pacific basin.[118]

Hurricane LorenaEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 22
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min)  985 mbar (hPa)

On September 13, a weak area of low pressure developed near Central America.[119] The low soon developed into a tropical storm on September 17, and was given the name "Lorena".[120] As it paralleled the coast of Mexico, Lorena intensified into a hurricane on the next day just off the coast of the Mexican state of Colima.[121] As it interacted with land, it weakened back to a tropical storm,[122] but it reintensified into a hurricane as it approached the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula on September 19.[123] On the next day, at 10:35 p.m. MDT, Lorena made landfall near the town of La Ventana, Baja California Sur.[124] Lorena weakened significantly after landfall, and the system was downgraded to a tropical depression by the time it was nearing a second landfall on the northwest Mexican coast, on September 22.[125] As it made landfall, Lorena degenerated into a remnant low and quickly dissipated over the mountainous terrain of Mexico.[126]

Tropical Storm MarioEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 22
Peak intensity70 mph (110 km/h) (1-min)  991 mbar (hPa)

On September 12, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave south of Mexico for potential development.[127] As it moves northwestward, a low pressure system developed from the wave. Bursting deep convection indicated that the system had coalesced into a tropical depression.[128] The depression intensified into Tropical Storm Mario a few hours later.[129] Mario only gradually strengthened, despite being over warm waters, due to ongoing northeasterly shear from Hurricane Lorena, and despite originally being forecast to eventually strengthen into a hurricane, the storm only peaked with sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h).[130] Late on September 20, the cyclone turned northward and began to encounter unfavorable conditions. Mario steadily weakened, and was downgraded to a tropical depression around 13:00 UTC on September 22, as its circulation mostly consisted of a swirl of low-level clouds devoid of convection.[131] However, Mario redeveloped a small area of convection and thunderstorms, though this re-development proved to be short-lived, and Mario entered a very hostile environment west of the Baja California Peninsula.[132] Finally, around 00:00 UTC on September 23, Mario degenerated into a convectionless remnant low.[133]

Tropical Storm NardaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 29 – October 1
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  997 mbar (hPa)

On September 23, the NHC began forecasting the development of a disturbance off the southern coast of Mexico within the next several days, with the potential for tropical cyclogenesis.[134] On September 25, a trough of low pressure developed, as expected.[135] Thunderstorms gradually developed and organized in association with the disturbance, with organization significantly increasing in the system on September 27; however, the disturbance struggled to develop a closed surface circulation and center of rotation.[136] Due to the system's threat to Mexico and its high chance of tropical development, it was designated Potential Tropical Cyclone Sixteen-E at 16:00 UTC on September 28.[137] The system continued to organize, and several hours later, the system developed into Tropical Storm Narda.[138]

Narda reached its initial peak intensity with 45 mph winds before it made landfall near Zihuatanejo later that day. Narda weakened to a depression over the rugged terrain of southwest Mexico, but restrengthened after moving over water and reached its peak intensity. Narda moved over the Gulf of California and subsequently made landfall in Sinaola, but its circulation remained mostly over water. Despite this, interaction with land caused Narda to quickly weaken, and its circulation dissipated completely at 15:00 UTC October 1st.

Narda brought heavy rains and triggered flooding in southwestern Mexico. Two people were killed in Oaxaca, one in Colima, and one in Guerrero.[139][140]

Tropical Storm EmaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 12 – October 14
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1003 mbar (hPa)

An area of low pressure developed a few hundred miles to the west of Hawaii on October 12. The system was assessed as having a low chance of development by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center; however, the system quickly organised later the same day. Gale-force winds soon developed, and consequently the CPHC upgraded the system to a tropical storm at 15:00 UTC, naming it Ema.[141] Ema's existence was short-lived, however, as the storm weakened due to strong wind shear, and degenerated to a remnant low on October 14.[142]

Tropical Storm OctaveEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 17 – October 19
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

At 06:00 UTC on October 15, the NHC began monitoring a large and disorganized area of showers and thunderstorms over the southwestern portion of the basin.[143] The system quickly organized as it meandered over open waters, and gained sufficient organization to be classified as Tropical Depression Eighteen-E at 18:00 UTC October 17.[144] The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Octave six hours later.[145] Octave reached its peak intensity at 09:00 UTC the next day, with winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 1004 millibars.[146] However, strong southeasterly wind shear and an environment of very dry air caused Octave to weaken, and the cyclone was downgraded to a depression at 09:00 UTC on October 19 and degenerated into a remnant low 12 hours later.[147] The remnant low meandered for several more days before dissipating on October 22.

Tropical Storm PriscillaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 20 – October 21
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min)  1004 mbar (hPa)

On October 20 at 09:00 UTC, the National Hurricane Center started issuing advisories on a newly formed tropical depression near the Mexican coast. Later that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Priscilla, amid favorable environmental conditions.[148] However, further development did not ensue due to Priscilla's proximity to the Mexican coast. At about 19:30 UTC, Priscilla made landfall just east of Manzanillo, Mexico, and weakened to a tropical depression shortly thereafter.[149] Interaction with the mountainous terrain of southwestern Mexico caused Priscilla's surface circulation to quickly dissipate early the next day.[150]

Priscilla and its precursor disturbance over Mexico caused heavy flooding and mudslides in and around areas near Manzanillo.[151]

Tropical Storm RaymondEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 15 – November 17
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

At 18:00 UTC November 12, the NHC began to monitor an area of low pressure that developed several hundred miles south of the Baja California Peninsula.[152] The low pressure area slowly organized, and was declared Tropical Depression Twenty-E at 03:00 UTC on November 15.[153] The depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Raymond early the next day.[154] Raymond modestly strengthened in a favorable environment, and achieved its peak intensity with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h). Raymond then began to weaken the next day due to increasingly unfavorable upper level winds as it moved northwestward.[155] At 03:00 UTC November 17, Raymond weakened to a tropical depression, and degenerated to a remnant low six hours later.[156] The remnants of the storm brought heavy rain to Southern California and Arizona, leaving over 13 million people under flash flood watch, and alleviating unusually dry conditions, bringing the first significant rainfall to Southern California since May.[157] The system also brought heavy snow to higher elevation areas.[158]

Tropical Depression Twenty-One-EEdit

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 16 – November 18
Peak intensity35 mph (55 km/h) (1-min)  1006 mbar (hPa)

At 06:00 UTC on November 15, the NHC began to monitor a small area of low pressure several hundred miles south of the coast of Mexico.[159] Favorable environmental conditions allowed the low pressure area to steadily organize, and it developed into Tropical Depression Twenty-One-E at 09:00 UTC the next day.[160] Despite favorable environmental conditions, Twenty-One-E's presence in the Intertropical Convergence Zone prevented it from reaching tropical storm strength. The depression degenerated to a remnant low at 21:00 UTC on November 18.[161]

Other systemsEdit

 
Potential Tropical Cyclone Seventeen-E on October 15

On October 11, the NHC began to forecast the formation of an area of low pressure south of the coast of southeastern Mexico.[162] Two days later, a broad area of low pressure, associated with a Central American Gyre, formed within the region.[163] The disturbance gradually became better organized over the next couple of days as it moved northwestward, and although by early on October 16 it still lacked a well-defined center of circulation, the system's threat to the southern coast of Mexico prompted the issuance of advisories on Potential Tropical Cyclone Seventeen-E.[164] Although initially forecast to become a tropical storm, the disturbance failed to acquire a well-defined center before it moved inland later that day, at which time the NHC issued their final advisory on the system.[165] Gusty winds and heavy rain affected parts of El Salvador, causing significant damage. Four people died in storm-related incidents: three from flooding and one from a fallen tree.[166] Eighty families required evacuation in Cangrejera.[167]

Storm namesEdit

The following names were used for named storms that form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2019. Retired names, if any, will be announced by the World Meteorological Organization in the spring of 2020. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2025 season.[168] This was the same list used in the 2013 season, with the exception of the name Mario, which replaced Manuel. The name Mario was used for the first time this year.

  • Alvin
  • Barbara
  • Cosme
  • Dalila
  • Erick
  • Flossie
  • Gil
  • Henriette
  • Raymond
  • Sonia (unused)
  • Tico (unused)
  • Velma (unused)
  • Wallis (unused)
  • Xina (unused)
  • York (unused)
  • Zelda (unused)

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, all names are used in a series of four rotating lists.[169] The next four names that were slated for use in 2019 are shown below, though only two of them were used during the season.

  • Akoni
  • Ema
  • Hone (unused)
  • Iona (unused)

Season effectsEdit

This is a table of all the storms that have formed in the 2019 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, affected areas, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in USD. Potential tropical cyclones are not included in this table.

2019 Pacific hurricane season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs


Alvin June 25 – 29 Category 1 hurricane 75 (120) 992 Western Mexico None None
Barbara June 30 – July 5 Category 4 hurricane 155 (250) 930 Clipperton Island, Hawaii, Johnston Atoll Minimal None
Cosme July 6 – 7 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1001 None None None
Four-E July 12 – 13 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1006 None None None
Dalila July 22 – 25 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1004 None None None
Erick July 27 – August 5 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 952 Hawaii None None
Flossie July 28 – August 6 Category 1 hurricane 80 (130) 990 Hawaii None None
Gil August 3 – 5 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1006 None None None
Henriette August 12 – 13 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1003 None None None
Ivo August 21 – 25 Tropical storm 70 (110) 990 Clarion Island None None
Juliette September 1 – 7 Category 3 hurricane 125 (205) 953 Southwest Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula None None
Akoni September 4 – 6 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1003 None None None
Kiko September 12 – 25 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 950 None None None
Lorena September 17 – 22 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 985 Sonora, Sinaloa, Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán, Baja California Peninsula $910,000 1 [170]
Mario September 17 – 22 Tropical storm 70 (110) 991 Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula None None
Narda September 29 – October 1 Tropical storm 50 (85) 997 Western Mexico, Baja California Peninsula $15.2 million 6 [171][172][173]
Ema October 12 – 14 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1003 Hawaiian Islands, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument None None
Octave October 17 – 19 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1004 None None None
Priscilla October 20 – 21 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1004 Western Mexico Unknown None
Raymond November 15 – 17 Tropical storm 50 (85) 1000 Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula Unknown None
Twenty-One-E November 16 – 18 Tropical depression 35 (55) 1006 Southwest Mexico Unknown None
Season Aggregates
21 systems June 25 – November 18   155 (250) 930 $16.1 million 7  

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The totals represent the sum of the squares for every tropical storm's intensity of over 33 knots (38 mph, 61 km/h), divided by 10,000. Calculations are provided at Talk:2019 Pacific hurricane season/ACE calcs.

ReferencesEdit

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