Football in Turkey

(Redirected from Turkish football)

Football is the most popular sport in Turkey, followed by basketball, tracing its roots to the Ottoman Empire.[1] The first matches were played in Ottoman Salonica in 1875. The sport was introduced by English residents.[2] The Turkish football league system comprises five professional leagues, one of which is dedicated to female athletes.

Football in Turkey
Atatürk Olympic Stadium has capacity of 74,753 spectators.
Governing bodyTFF
National team(s)Turkey
First played1898; 126 years ago (1898)
National competitions

International competitions
Rams Park is home stadium of club Galatasaray.

History edit

League system edit

Süper Lig edit

The Süper Lig (Super League) is the top division in Turkey since 1959. The league contains 18 clubs. The champions used to receive an automatic berth in the group stage of the European Champions League until the 2020/2021 season. Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş, and Trabzonspor are the most successful Turkish clubs that participate in the competition, having won the most titles so far. Galatasaray have won the highest number of Süper Lig trophies (the club won more Süper Lig and Turkish Cup trophies than any other team).

The league ushered in clubs from all over Turkey to compete with each other. Currently, clubs finishing in the top four places in the league enter qualifying rounds of European competitions, and the winners of the Turkish Cup, if not one of the top four, are also given a spot. The three teams with the fewest points each season are relegated to the TFF First League. The top two teams are nominated for the UEFA Champions League while the 3rd and 4th placed clubs are nominated for the UEFA Europa League.

The most popular Süper Lig clubs on X as of 11 September 2023:[3]

# Football club City Followers
1 Galatasaray Istanbul 13.4 million
2 Fenerbahçe Istanbul 11.1 million
3 Beşiktaş Istanbul 5.6 million
4 Trabzonspor Trabzon 2 million

Reserve leagues edit

Clubs in the Turkish football league system do not have reserve teams with the exception of Genclerbirligi and Altinordu. Hacettepe SK is the reserve side of Genclerbirligi, and Nigde Anadolu FK is of Altinordu. Other clubs have U21 and U18 teams which compete outside the main league system.

Amateur football edit

Below the four professional leagues in Turkish football are amateur leagues. Amateur football clubs include:

  • Seniors’ First Amateur League: 2145 clubs
  • Seniors’ Second Amateur League: 1743 clubs
  • Seniors’ Third Amateur League: 1 club
  • Women’s League: 9 clubs
  • Juniors’ First Amateur League: 27 clubs
  • Juniors’ Second Amateur League: 100 clubs
  • Juniorslubs

Amateur clubs are put into leagues included in the Amateur League system and are eligible for promotion to the Turkish Third League.

Largest football stadiums in Turkey edit

# Image Stadium Capacity City Home team(s) Opened
1   Atatürk Olympic Stadium 74,753[4] Istanbul Turkey, Fatih Karagümrük SK 2002
2   Rams Park 52,223[5] Galatasaray SK 2011
3   İzmir Atatürk Stadium 51,337[6] İzmir Karşıyaka SK 1971
4   Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium 47,834[7] Istanbul Fenerbahçe SK 1908
5   Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Stadium 43,361[8] Bursa Bursaspor 2015
6   Vodafone Park 42,590[9] Istanbul Beşiktaş JK 2016
7   Konya Metropolitan Municipality Stadium 42,000[10] Konya Konyaspor 2014
8   Şenol Güneş Sports Complex 40,782[11] Trabzon Trabzonspor 2017
9   Kocaeli Stadium 34,829 İzmit Kocaelispor 2018
10   Samsun 19 Mayıs Stadium 33,919 Samsun Samsunspor 2017

Cup competitions edit

The two major cup competitions are the Turkish Cup and Turkish Super Cup. The Turkish Cup includes clubs from every division. The Super Cup is an annual match held between the winners of the Süper Lig and Turkish Cup.

Now-defunct Turkish cup competitions include the Prime Minister's Cup, Atatürk Cup, Istanbul Football Cup and Spor Toto Cup.

Qualification for European competitions edit

Competition Who Qualifies Notes
UEFA Champions League group stage Club finishing 1st in the Süper Lig
UEFA Champions League third qualifying round Club finishing 2nd in the Süper Lig
UEFA Europa League third qualifying round Club finishing 3rd in the Süper Lig
UEFA Conference League second qualifying round Club finishing 4th in the Süper Lig
UEFA Europa League group stage Winner of the Turkish Cup If the winner is already guaranteed a place in Europe, the highest ranked club in Süper Lig which did not qualify to UEFA Champions League will replace them.
UEFA Europa League Süper Lig club with the best UEFA Fair Play ranking that has not already qualified for Europe, but only if Turkey has the best fair play ranking or has a fair play score of above 8 and is one of the two countries drawn out of the hat

In addition, once in a European competition, it becomes possible to qualify for others:

  • All the losers of the Champions League third qualifying round go forward to the UEFA Europa League Play-off round
  • All the losers of the Champions League play-off round go forward to the UEFA Europa League group stage
  • Any clubs playing in the Champions League that finish third in the group stage go into the UEFA Europa League round of 32

European competition records edit

The following teams have made the last eight of European competitions:

UEFA Super Cup edit

European Cup / UEFA Champions League edit

‡ Galatasaray was one of the eight teams in the group stage of the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League, however, UEFA does not consider this a quarter-final participation.

UEFA Cup / Europa League edit

UEFA Europa Conference League edit

Inter-Cities Fairs Cup edit

Balkans Cup edit

UEFA Cup Winners Cup edit

UEFA Intertoto Cup edit

Turkey national team edit

The Turkey national team made its debut on October 26, 1923. The match ended in a 2–2 draw against the Romania. Turkey have qualified for the FIFA World Cup twice: 1954 and 2002. Their longest duration of competing for the Cup was coming third in the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Turkey also finished third in the 2003 Confederations Cup, reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008 and played in the quarter-finals of Euro 2000.[12][13][14][15][16]

Women's football edit

Records edit

Seasons edit

1900s: 1904–05 1905–06 1906–07 1907–08 1908–09 1909–10
1910s: 1910–11 1911–12 1912–13 1913–14 1914–15 1915–16 1916–17 1917–18 1918–19 1919–20
1920s: 1920–21 1921–22 1922–23 1923–24 1924–25 1925–26 1926–27 1927–28 1928–29 1929–30
1930s: 1930–31 1931–32 1932–33 1933–34 1934–35 1935–36 1936–37 1937–38 1938–39 1939–40
1940s: 1940–41 1941–42 1942–43 1943–44 1944–45 1945–46 1946–47 1947–48 1948–49 1949–50
1950s: 1950–51 1951–52 1952–53 1953–54 1954–55 1955–56 1956–57 1957–58 1958–59 1959–60
1960s: 1960–61 1961–62 1962–63 1963–64 1964–65 1965–66 1966–67 1967–68 1968–69 1969–70
1970s: 1970–71 1971–72 1972–73 1973–74 1974–75 1975–76 1976–77 1977–78 1978–79 1979–80
1980s: 1980–81 1981–82 1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90
1990s: 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00
2000s: 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10
2010s: 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2018–19 2019–20
2020s: 2020–21 2021–22 2022–23 2023–24

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Aslan Amani (2013-07-19). "Football in Turkey: A force for liberalisation and modernity?". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  2. ^ "Before the national Turkish leagues". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2019-01-31. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
  5. ^ "Ali Sami Yen Spor Kompleksi Nef Stadyumu - GALATASARAY.ORG". Archived from the original on 2021-10-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  6. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2019-01-31. Retrieved 2012-04-23.
  7. ^ "Ülker Stadyumu Fenerbahçe Şükrü Saracoğlu Spor Kompleksi - Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü". Archived from the original on 2021-01-21. Retrieved 2021-10-21.
  8. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2016-01-16.
  9. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2016-08-28.
  10. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2018-07-01. Retrieved 2015-12-27.
  11. ^ "Stat Arama Detay TFF". Archived from the original on 2019-01-31. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  12. ^ James Davis (2002-04-28). "Turkey's world challenge born in Germany". The Observer. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  13. ^ Ian Hawkey (2010-10-11). "Ozil's choice is Germany's gain and Turkey's loss". The National. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  14. ^ Flohr, Markus; Popp, Maximilian (2010-09-17). "Reverse Immigration: Turkey Recruits Players 'Made in Germany'". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  15. ^ McCarra, Kevin (7 October 2003). "German foundation beneath Turkey's rise to greatness". the Guardian.
  16. ^ "Dawn of a new Turkish era - Soccer -".

External links edit