A selfie (//) is a self-portrait type image, typically taken with a smartphone which may be held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick. Selfies are often shared on social networking services such as Facebook, Twitter, Gab, Snapchat and Instagram.
They are often casual in nature (or made to appear casual). "Selfie" typically refers to self-portrait photos taken with the camera held at arm's length, as opposed to those taken by using a self-timer or remote. A selfie, however, may include multiple subjects. As long as the photo is being taken by one of the subjects featured, it is considered a selfie.
In 1839, Robert Cornelius, an American pioneer in photography, produced a daguerreotype of himself which ended up as one of the first photographs of a person. Because the process was slow he was able to uncover the lens, run into the shot for a minute or more, and then replace the lens cap. He recorded on the back "The first light picture ever taken. 1839." A copy of his "first selfie" graces his tombstone at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
In 1900, the debut of the portable Kodak Brownie box camera led to photographic self-portraiture becoming a more widespread technique. The method was usually by mirror and stabilizing the camera either on a nearby object or on a tripod while framing via a viewfinder at the top of the box. Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, at the age of 13, was one of the first teenagers to take her own picture using a mirror to send to a friend in 1914. In the letter that accompanied the photograph, she wrote, "I took this picture of myself looking at the mirror. It was very hard as my hands were trembling."
During the 1970s, photographic self-portraiture flourished when affordable instant cameras birthed a new medium of self-expression, capturing uncharacteristically personal insight into otherwise conservative individuals and allowing amateurs to learn photography with immediate results. This practice transitioned naturally across to digital cameras as they supplanted film cameras around the turn of the millennium.
On 13 September 2002, the first known use of the word selfie in any paper or electronic medium appeared in an Australian internet forum – Karl Kruszelnicki's 'Dr Karl Self-Serve Science Forum' – in a post by Nathan Hope. Although Hope later dismissed the notion that he coined the term, describing it as "something that was just common slang at the time, used to describe a picture of yourself", he wrote the following:
"Um, drunk at a mates 21st, I tripped ofer (sic) and landed lip first (with front teeth coming a very close second) on a set of steps. I had a hole about 1cm long right through my bottom lip. And sorry about the focus, it was a selfie."
The concept of uploading group self-taken photographs to the internet, although with a disposable camera and not a smartphone, dates to a webpage created by Australians in September 2001, including photos taken in the late 1990s (captured by the Internet Archive in April 2004).
The Sony Ericsson Z1010 mobile phone, released in late 2003, introduced the concept of a front-facing camera which could be used for selfies and video calls. These cameras became common on mobile devices, such as the iPhone 4 (2010).
In 2011, the Instagram photo-sharing and social networking service introduced auto filters, allowing users to easily alter their photos. In 2013, the word selfie was added to the Oxford English Dictionary.
Although the widespread use of the term is fairly new, photos in the selfie genre have existed for much longer. In the early 2000s, before Facebook became the dominant online social network, self-taken photographs were particularly common on MySpace. However, writer Kate Losse recounts that between 2006 and 2009 (when Facebook became more popular than MySpace), the "MySpace pic" (typically "an amateurish, flash-blinded self-portrait, often taken in front of a bathroom mirror") became an indication of bad taste for users of the newer Facebook social network. In 2009 in the image hosting and video hosting website Flickr, Flickr users used 'selfies' to describe seemingly endless self-portraits posted by teenagers. According to Losse, improvements in design—especially the front-facing camera of the iPhone 4 (2010), mobile photo apps such as Instagram and Snapchat led to the resurgence of selfies in the early 2010s.
Social media apps like Instagram and Snapchat encourage people to take selfies with features like Geofilters, hashtag linking of related topics, and picture stories. Geofilters allow people to take selfies with overlays that can be comedic, altering your selfie image with the ability to show where you are located. In September 2017, Instagram boasted 500 million daily active users of its self-promotion, selfie-sharing app and 800 million monthly active users. Snapchat reports 178 million daily active users of its service. As of July 2017, in order of popularity, the four most popular social networking services are Facebook, Facebook Messenger, Instagram, and Snapchat.
Initially popular with young people, selfies gained wider popularity over time. Life and business coach Jennifer Lee, in January 2011, was the first person to coin it as a hashtag on Instagram. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time". According to a 2013 survey, two-thirds of Australian women age 18–35 take selfies—the most common purpose for which is posting on Facebook. A poll commissioned by smartphone and camera maker Samsung found that selfies make up 30% of the photos taken by people aged 18–24.
By 2013, the word "selfie" had become commonplace enough to be monitored for inclusion in the online version of the Oxford English Dictionary. In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary, which gave the word itself an Australian origin.
Selfies have also been taken beyond Earth. Selfies taken in space include those by astronauts, an image by NASA's Curiosity rover of itself on Mars, and images created by an indirect method, where a self-portrait photograph taken on Earth is displayed on a screen on a satellite, and captured by a camera.
In 2011, a crested black macaque pressed a trigger on a wildlife photographer's camera, set up in an Indonesian jungle for that specific purpose; when the camera was later recovered it was found to contain hundreds of selfies, including one of a grinning female macaque. This incident set off an unusual debate about copyright. In 2016, a federal judge ruled that the monkey cannot own the copyright to the images.
In October 2013, Imagist Labs released an iOS app called Selfie, which allows users to upload photos only from their front-facing smartphone camera. The app shows a feed of public photos of everyone's selfies and from the people they follow. The app does not allow users to comment and users can only respond with selfies. The app soon gained popularity among teenagers.
In describing the popularity of the "foot selfie", a photograph taken of one's feet while sunbathing at exotic locations, The Hollywood Reporter said that it could be "2014's social media pose to beat".
In January 2014, during the Sochi Winter Olympics, a "Selfie Olympics" meme was popular on Twitter, where users took self-portraits in unusual situations. The spread of the meme took place with the usage of the hashtags #selfiegame and #selfieolympics.
In April 2014, the advertising agency iStrategyLabs produced a two-way mirror capable of automatically posting selfies to Twitter, using facial recognition software.
Selfies have been popular on social media. Instagram has over 53 million photos tagged with the hashtag #selfie. The word "selfie" was mentioned in Facebook status updates over 368,000 times during a one-week period in October 2013. During the same period on Twitter, the hashtag #selfie was used in more than 150,000 tweets.
The appeal of selfies comes from how easy they are to create and share, and the control they give people over how they present themselves. Many selfies are intended to present a flattering image of the person, especially to friends whom the photographer expects to be supportive. Those selfies would be taken on trips, during activities that are considered interesting or as a group selfie with interesting or attractive people. However, a 2013 study of Facebook users found that posting photos of oneself correlates with lower levels of social support from and intimacy with Facebook friends (except for those marked as Close Friends). The lead author of the study suggests that "those who frequently post photographs on Facebook risk damaging real-life relationships." The photo messaging application Snapchat is also largely used to send selfies. Some users of Snapchat choose to send intentionally-unattractive selfies to their friends for comedic purposes.
Posting intentionally unattractive selfies has also become common in the early 2010s—in part for their humor value, but in some cases also to explore issues of body image or as a reaction against the perceived narcissism or over-sexualization of typical selfies.
The practice of taking selfies has been criticised not only for being narcissistic, preventing assessment and appreciation of what is happening in the present, but also for being mindlessly conformist behaviour, when everyone does what everyone else is doing, "like that scene in The Life of Brian – where the crowd gathers outside Brian's window and enthusiastically chants in unison: 'Yes, we're all individuals! ... Yes, we are all different!'" However, this has been disproved by more nuanced and detailed analyses of the genre.
Gender roles, sexuality, and privacy
Selfies are popular among both genders; however, sociologist Ben Agger describes the trend of selfies as "the male gaze gone viral", and sociologist and women's studies professor Gail Dines links it to the rise of "porn culture" and the idea that sexual attractiveness is the only way in which a woman can make herself visible. Feminist writer Megan Murphy has pointed out that posting images publicly or sharing them with others who do so may have a dramatic effect in the case of revenge porn, where ex-lovers post sexually explicit photographs or nude selfies to exact revenge or humiliate their former lovers. Nonetheless, some feminists view selfies as a subversive form of self-expression that narrates one's own view of desirability. In this sense, selfies can be positive and offer a way of actively asserting agency.
In 2013 in the blog Jezebel, author Erin Gloria Ryan criticized selfies, believing that the images they often portray, as well as the fact that they are usually posted to social media with the intent of getting positive comments and "likes", reinforce the "notion that the most valuable thing [a young woman] has to offer the world is her looks." The Jezebel post provoked commentary on Twitter from users arguing that selfies could be positive for women by promoting different standards of beauty. Media critic Jennifer Pozner saw selfies as particularly powerful for women and girls who did not see themselves portrayed in mainstream media.
Research shows that there is a particular difference between perspectives of youngsters and adults. "While not all representative of all young people's experiences of digital picture-sharing cultures, these discussions point to a significant gap between young people's own interpretations of their ordinary or everyday digital practices and adults’ interpretations of these practices."
Many celebrities – especially sex symbols – post selfies for their followers on social media, and provocative or otherwise interesting celebrity selfies are the subject of regular press coverage. Some commentators, such as Emma Barnett of The Telegraph, have argued that sexy celebrity selfies (and sexy non-celebrity selfies) can be empowering to the selfie-takers but harmful to women in general as they promote viewing women as sex objects. Actor and avid selfie poster James Franco wrote an op-ed for The New York Times defending this frequent use of selfies on his Instagram page. Franco defends the self-portrait stating they should not be seen as an egocentric act, but instead a journalistic moment as the selfie "quickly and easily shows, not tells, how you're feeling, where you are, what you're doing" in a way that a text communication might fail to convey.
A selfie orchestrated during the 86th Academy Awards by host Ellen DeGeneres was, at one point, the most retweeted tweet ever. DeGeneres said she wanted to pay homage to Meryl Streep's record 18 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited twelve other Oscar celebrities to join them, which included Meryl Streep, Julia Roberts, Channing Tatum, Bradley Cooper, Kevin Spacey, Angelina Jolie, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o, Jared Leto and Jennifer Lawrence. The resulting photo of the celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour. By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times, less than 24 hours later, it had been retweeted over 2.8 million times. It beat the previous record, 778,801, which was held by Barack Obama, following his victory in the 2012 presidential election.
U.S. President Barack Obama made news headlines during Nelson Mandela's memorial celebration at Johannesburg's FNB Stadium with various world leaders, as he was snapped taking a selfie and sharing smiles with Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and later with British Prime Minister David Cameron, as they gathered to pay tribute to Mandela. The decision to take the selfies was considered to be in poor taste, as British political columnist Iain Martin critiqued the behaviour as "clowning around like muppets". The photos also depict the First Lady Michelle Obama sitting next to them looking "furious and mortified". Despite the criticism, Roberto Schmidt, the photographer who captured the photos taken at the celebration, reported to the Today show it was taken at "a jovial, celebratory portion of the service".
In India, BJP Prime Ministerial candidate Narendra Modi posted a selfie on Twitter after voting in Gandhinagar, India. The post became a major trending item on the micro-blogging platform. In July 2014, the Swiss government became the first to take and post a picture of an entire national government (the picture was taken by one of the seven members of the government, Alain Berset).
The Portuguese President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa is known to pose for several selfies in public appearances, once even claiming to have posed for "over 1500 selfies" in three days, during which he estimated to have greeted about four thousand people – the social media phenomenon has coined the term "Marcelfie" to refer to these. Most notably, the President posed for a selfie with Prime Minister António Costa in the Paris City Hall, during the Portugal Day ceremonies there on 10 June 2016.
In January 2014, Business Insider published a story referring to selfies of groups as usies. A photograph of Pope Francis with visitors to the Vatican was called an usie by The Daily Dot, and TMZ has used the term to describe a selfie taken of celebrity couple Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez.
The term "groufie" has been trademarked by Chinese phone manufacturer Huawei Technologies in China, France, Germany, Russia, and the U.S. The word was introduced during the launch of its Ascend P7 smartphone in 2014. Huawei defines the groufie as a panoramic selfie involving multiple subjects, as well as background scenery, captured using the front facing, 8-megapixel camera and panorama capabilities of its phones.
Devices for holding smartphones or compact cameras called selfie sticks are often used when taking group selfies, as they allow a wider, more panoramic image capture.
Another option for taking selfies from a distance beyond one's arm is a drone. Selfies made with a drone are also called dronies. The concept of taking a dronie first entered the mainstream in 2014 and coincided with a relatively sudden increase in the availability of relatively cheap, camera bearing multicopter drones. In 2014, the Nixie drone was designed to serve as a "personal photographer".
Psychology and neuroscience
First, Farace, van Laer, de Ruyter, and Wetzels describe three photography techniques with which people are more likely to engage: first-person perspective, action and person rather than 'just' selfies and adaptation into artfulness.
According to a study performed by Nicola Bruno and Marco Bertamini at the University of Parma, selfies by non-professional photographers show a slight bias for showing the left cheek of the selfie-taker. This is similar to observations of portraits by professional painters from many historical periods and styles, indicating that the left cheek bias may be rooted in asymmetries of brain lateralization that are well documented within cognitive neuroscience. In a second study, the same group tested if selfie takers without training in photography spontaneously adhere to widely prescribed rules of photographic composition, such as the rule of thirds. It seems that they do not, suggesting that these rules may be conventional rather than hardwired in the brain's perceptual preferences.
A 2016 study examining the relationship between personality and selfie-posting behaviors suggests that extroversion and social exhibitionism positively predict frequency of selfie posting, whereas self-esteem is generally unrelated to selfie-posting behaviors.
Obsessive taking of selfies and posting to social media has been found to be linked to many symptoms common to mental disorders. These include narcissism, low self-esteem, loneliness, self-centeredness, and attention-seeking behaviors.
Injuries while taking photos
The first known selfie-related death occurred 15 March 2014, when a man electrocuted himself on top of a train.
2014, 'The Year of the Selfie', was also the year Makati and Pasig, 'Selfie Capital of the World', saw their first selfie-related death when a 14-year-old girl fell from the 3rd floor staircase landing to the 2nd.
In 2015 it was reported that more people had been killed taking selfies that year than by shark attacks. Other publications have debated that analysis. Takers of selfie photographs have fallen to their deaths while losing their balance in a precarious position, and others have been wounded or killed while posing with handguns which have accidentally fired.
Concerned about the increasing number of incidents in Russia where attempts to set up a unique selfie had led to injuries and deaths, the Russian Ministry of the Interior released a "Selfie Safety Guide" in 2015 that warned selfie enthusiasts about some common dangerous behaviors. Moscow, Russia's most active selfie-taking city, is estimated to have 8 selfie-takers per 100,000 people, and ranks 301st among cities worldwide.
A 2015 study showed that 20% of young Britons had taken selfies while driving a car. Manchester has the highest amount of selfie-takers per capita in Great Britain with 114 per 100,000 people, and ranks 7th internationally. The Italian chief of state police expressed concern over the same phenomenon in Italy on the occasion of the launch of a short film with the title "Selfie". Milan is the 8th most active selfie-taking city in the world with 108 selfie-takers per 100,000 people.
According to Professor Amanda du Preez, there are least three types of selfie pictures documenting death, selfies unknowingly taken before death, where the taker's death is almost witnessed, or where the taker stands by while someone else dies.
In 2019 a teen left an imprint on the ground where he landed after falling more than four stories while attempting to take a selfie with his friends on a bridge in Dallas, TX. He had multiple serious injuries, but he survived.
Facial distortion effect
Because they are typically taken much closer to the subject's face than a conventional photograph, phone selfies tend to distort the subject's face. When conventional photographers take head shots, they typically use a narrower lens (or zoom in) and stand at a normal distance, instead of getting physically closer to the subject's face. Front-facing cell phone cameras, on the other hand, feature wide-angle lenses and are held closer to the face, since the human arm is only so long. This results in extension distortion, where objects closer to the camera appear much larger than they actually are. Though this distortion has a slimming effect, it also exaggerates the auto-photographer's nose and chin, since those parts are closer to the camera than the rest of the face.
A study published by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery has found that selfies have altered people's perception of their faces to the point where they increased the demand for rhinoplasties (nose jobs). Forty-two percent of surgeons surveyed have noticed that patients are seeking surgeries to improve their appearance in photographs, especially selfies taken at close distance. Another study found that selfies taken at a distance of 12 inches (30 cm) can exaggerate nasal size by as much as 30%, and recommends that people take pictures from a standard distance of 5 feet (1.5 meters) to minimize perspective distortion.
- "selfie noun - Pronunciation - Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com". oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com.
- "Robert Cornelius' Self-Portrait: The First Ever 'Selfie' (1839)". Public Domain Review. Open Knowledge Foundation. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- "Robert Cornelius, self-portrait; believed to be the earliest extant American portrait photo". Prints & Photographs Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Beginners Guide To Understanding And Using A Brownie Box Camera".
- "Diaries and Letters – Letters of Grand Duchess Anastasia".
- "warhol: self portraits". Archived from the original on 15 May 2016.
- "Stevie Nicks self-portraits shown for the first time: 'I never thought anyone would ever see these pictures'". The Guardian. London. 25 September 2014.
- "A brief history of the selfie". ABC Science blog. ABC Online. 12 August 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- "Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013 is..." OxfordWords blog. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "bogon.8m.com SelfPix". Archived from the original on 13 April 2004.
- "bogon.8m.com Out & About". Archived from the original on 11 October 2001.
- "bogon.8m.com Bogons". Archived from the original on 28 September 2001.
- "Sony Ericsson Z1010 – World's First Phone with a Front-Facing Camera". nerdeky.com. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- "A Brief History of the Selfie". Huffington Post. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Horatia Harrod (22 March 2009), The world's photo Album, London: Sunday Telegraph, p. 18, retrieved 20 November 2013
- Kate Losse. The Return of the Selfie. The New Yorker. 5 June 2013
- "Statista Instagram statistics". 25 September 2017.
- "Snap Inc" (PDF).
- "Statista social networking services statistics".
- Adewunmi, Bim (2 April 2013). "The rise and rise of the 'selfie'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- McHugh, Jillian (3 April 2013). "'Selfies' just as much for the insecure as show-offs". Bunbury Mail. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "This is the First Recorded Use of #Selfie on Instagram".
- "Behold the First 'Selfie' Hashtag in Instagram History [PHOTO]".
- Steinmetz, Katy (4 December 2012). Top 10 Buzzwords – 9 Selfie, Time
- Melanie Hall, "Family albums fade as the young put only themselves in picture" Telegraph, 13 June 2013.
- Hui, Susan (7 August 2014). "Monkeys take 'selfies,' sparking copyright dispute". AP News. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Leonard, Andrew (6 August 2014). "Wikipedia at war! 'Monkey selfie' sets off bizarre copyright dispute". Salon. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Coulthard, Charissa (7 June 2013). "Self-portraits and social media: The rise of the 'selfie'". BBC News online. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- "The Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year 2013 is… | OxfordWords blog". Blog.oxforddictionaries.com. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- "Guardian". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- Steinmetz, Katy (4 August 2014). "Time". Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "The 50 Best Space Photos of 2013". AOL Weather. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- "Ancient Mars lake may have supported life". Associated Press. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Howell, Elizabeth (11 June 2013). "'Space Selfie' Telescope Could Hunt Alien Planets … If It Raises A Cool $2M". Universe Today. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Hatch, Patrick (7 August 2014). "Wikimedia sides with monkey in photo copyright battle over macaque's selfie". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Kravets, David (6 January 2016). "Judge says monkey cannot own copyright to famous selfies". Ars Technica. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- Mulshine, Molly (22 October 2013). "New Selfie App Will Be Your New Fave Or Your Worst Nightmare". "BetaBeat". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- Jenson, Wendy (31 December 2013). "The New Selfie: Feet". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Lingebach, Chris (4 January 2014). "Trending: 2014 Selfie Olympics Take Over Twitter". CBS Washington. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Boboltz, Sara (3 January 2014). "'Selfie Olympics' Are Here To Prove Selfies Will Only Get Crazier in 2014". Huffington Post. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Stan Schroeder (10 April 2014). "This Mirror Takes Your 'Selfies' and Posts Them on Twitter". Mashable.
- Dubois, Lou (2 November 2013). "The selfie won't die – in fact, it just got its own social network". "NBC News". Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- News, A. B. C. (30 March 2018). "The Museum of Selfies is coming to Los Angeles". ABC News. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "LA is opening a Museum of Selfies – here's what you'll find inside". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
- "LA is opening a Museum of Selfies – here's what you'll find inside". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
- Houghton, David and Joinson, Adam and Caldwell, Nigel and Marder, Ben (2013) Tagger's delight? Disclosure and liking in Facebook: the effects of sharing photographs amongst multiple known social circles. Discussion Paper. University of Birmingham, Birmingham.
- Sharing photographs on Facebook could damage relationships, new research shows. News & events, Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh. 9 August 2013.
- Hills, Rachel (29 March 2013). "Ugly Is the New Pretty: How Unattractive Selfies Took Over the Internet". New York Magazine. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Ireland, Judith (1 April 2016). "How selfies hijacked our sense of self". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Tiidenberg, Katrin, ed. (5 April 2018). Selfies: Why We Love (and Hate) Them. Emerald Publishing Limited. doi:10.1108/9781787543577. ISBN 9781787437173.
- Murphy, Meghan (3 April 2013). "Putting selfies under a feminist lens". Georgia Straight. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
- Simmons, Rachel. (20 November 2013) Selfies on Instagram and Facebook are tiny bursts of girl pride. Slate.com. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
- Ryan, Erin Gloria. "Selfies Aren't Empowering. They're a Cry for Help". Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "7 tips for taking better selfies". CNN. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Bennett, Jessica (11 August 2014). "Our Bodies, Our Selfies: The Feminist Photo Revolution". Time Magazine. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Kath, Albury (2015). "Selfies, Sexts andSneaky Hats:Young people's understandings of gendered practices of self-representation". International Journal of Communication.
- Barnett, Emma (19 August 2013) Why sexy girl pictures online are more harmful than lads' mags. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
- Franco, James (26 December 2013). "The Meanings of the Selfie". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record". BBC News. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- DeGeneres, Ellen (2 March 2014). "If only Bradley's arm was longer. Best photo ever. #oscars". Twitter. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- #BBCtrending: Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record. Bbc.com (3 March 2014). Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
- Ellen DeGeneres' Selfie at Oscars Sets Retweet Record, Crashes Twitter, pictured: Jared Leto, Jennifer Lawrence, Meryl Streep, Ellen DeGeneres, Bradley Cooper, Peter Nyong'o Jr., and, second row, from left, Channing Tatum, Julia Roberts, Kevin Spacey, Brad Pitt, Lupita Nyong'o and Angelina Jolie.
- Hubbard, Amy. (2 March 2014) Oscars 2014, the year of the selfie: Ellen tweet grabs retweet record. Latimes.com. Retrieved on 12 March 2014.
- "Barack Obama victory tweet most retweeted ever". BBC News. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- "Four more years" Barack Obama on Twitter, 6 November 2012.
- Soltis, Andy (10 December 2013). "Michelle not amused by Obama's memorial selfie". New York Post. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Swann, Elaine. "What's the etiquette of 'selfies' at funerals?". CNN. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Narendra Modi selfie trends big on Twitter". timesofindia-economictimes. 30 April 2014.
- ‹See Tfd›(in French) Nic Ulmi, "Selfie politique, une spécialité suisse", Le Temps, Thursday 21 August 2014, page 17.
- Alves, Joana Marques (9 March 2017). "#Marcelfies. Um ano em fotografias espalhadas pela internet" [#Marcelfies. A year's worth of photographs spread across the internet]. i (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "A 'selfie' de Marcelo e Costa em Paris" [Marcelo and Costa's selfie in Paris]. Expresso (in Portuguese). 10 June 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- Alyson Shontell (13 January 2014). "Selfies Are Dead, It's All About The 'Usie' Now". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Sunayana Suresh (19 March 2014). "Has the 'usie' taken over the 'selfie'?". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Miles Klee (13 January 2014). "The only thing worse than 'group selfies' is what people are calling them". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Justin Bieber and Selena Gomez Take An Usie Together". TMZ. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Leonid Bershidsky (8 May 2014). "Chinese Phone Maker Trademarks the 'Groufie'". Bloomberg View. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Martin Gicheru (19 May 2014). "Huawei's Groufie versus Samsung's Wefie, which one's cooler?". TechWeez. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Ansuya Harjani (8 May 2014). "The next social media buzz word: Groufie". CNBC. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Alistair Charlton (7 May 2014). "Huawei Ascend P7 announced – this one's for the selfie lovers". Mobile Choice. Archived from the original on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Matthew Sparkes (9 May 2014). "Huawei registers 'groufie' trademark". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Edwin Kee (12 May 2014). "Huawei Wants 'Groufie' Trademark". Ubergizmo. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- "Wefie – Trademark Details". Justia Trademarks. Justia. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- "Wefie". LegalForce. Trademarkia, Inc. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Rohan Swamy (9 March 2014). "Samsung NX mini 'wefie' focused mirrorless camera announced". NDTV. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Morris, Hugh (24 July 2014). "The 'selfie' is dead. Introducing the 'dronie'". Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- Flaherty, Joseph (6 October 2014). "The inventors of the wristwatch drone share their vision of the future". Wired. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Farace, S., van Laer, T., de Ruyter, K., & Wetzels, M. (2017). "Assessing the effect of narrative transportation, portrayed action, and photographic style on the likelihood to comment on posted selfies." European Journal of Marketing. SSRN 2638273. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2638273.
- Martinez, Luis M.; Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco (2013). "Self-Portraits: Smartphones Reveal a Side Bias in Non-Artists". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e55141. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055141. PMC 3566189. PMID 23405117.
- Bonora, M; Wieckowsk, M R; Chinopoulos, C; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G; Galluzzi, L; Pinton, P (2015). "Molecular mechanisms of cell death: central implication of ATP synthase in mitochondrial permeability transition". Oncogene. 34 (12): 1608. doi:10.1038/onc.2014.462. PMID 25790189.
- Bruno, Nicola; Gabriele, Valentina; Bertamini, Marco; Tasso, Tiziana (2014). "'Selfies' Reveal Systematic Deviations from Known Principles of Photographic Composition". Art & Perception. 2 (1–2): 45–58. doi:10.1163/22134913-00002027.
- Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Chmiel, Anna; Sorokowski, Piotr (2016). "Selfies and personality: Who posts self-portrait photographs?". Personality and Individual Differences. 90: 119–23. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.037.
- Balakrishnan, Janarthanan (2018). "An Exploratory Study of BSelfitis^ and the Development of the Selfitis Behavior Scale" (PDF). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 16 (3): 722–736. doi:10.1007/s11469-017-9844-x.
- Saroshe, Satish. "Assessment of Selfie Syndrome among the Professional Students of a Cosmopolitan City of Central India: A Cross-sectional Study". International Journal of Preventive and Public Health Sciences.
- Kaur, Satinder. "Selfie and mental health issues: An overview". Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing.
- "Man dies while taking selfie on top of train". 18 March 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "The Definitive Ranking of the Selfiest Cities in the World". TIME.com. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Correspondent, By Gilbert P. Felongco (4 July 2014). "Student falls to death while taking 'selfie'". Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- CNN, Naomi Ng, for. "Twitter declares 2014 year of the selfie". CNN. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "The year of the selfie". www.google.ie. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Horton, Helena (22 September 2015). "More people have died by taking selfies this year than by shark attacks". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- Dewey, Caitlin (22 September 2015). "No, selfies have not killed more people than sharks. That's ridiculous" – via washingtonpost.com.
- "The Murky Meaning of the Killer Selfie". The New York Times. 11 December 2015.
- Fung, Kaiser; Gelman, Andrew (5 October 2015). "Debunking the Great 'Selfies Are More Deadly Than Shark Attacks' Myth".
- Payne, Samantha (22 April 2014). "Russia: Attempted Selfie Causes Death of Teenager Xenia Ignatyeva". International Business Times. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Felongco, Gilbert P. (4 July 2014). "Student falls to death while taking 'selfie'". Gulf News. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "15-year-old boy accidentally shoots self while taking selfie". ANC Yahoo News. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
- "Drunk Mexican man accidentally shoots himself in head while posing for selfie". nydailynews.com. New York. 4 August 2014.
- "МВД России: Безопасное селфи". RT. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Russian Selfie Guide Translated in English – Connecticut.Marketing".
- "One in five young Britons taking selfies behind the wheel, a trend also growing in Australia, experts say". ABC News.
- "Selfie-loving drivers cause spike in accidents".
- Kirstie McCrum (21 July 2015). "Selfie-obsessed drivers who snap pictures behind wheel blamed for spike in road accidents". mirror.
- Amanda du Preez (17 May 2016). "The deadly selfie game – the thrill to end all thrills". The Conversation. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
- "Teen's 50-foot fall leaves imprint on ground" (Video). CNN. 21 February 2019.
- Welch, Ashley. "Selfies distort faces like a 'funhouse mirror,' study finds". CBS.com. CBS News. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
- Crist, Carolyn. "Selfies distort the face, plastic surgeons warn". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 13 July 2018.