Arcade video game

An arcade video game takes player input from its controls, processes it through electrical or computerized components, and displays output to an electronic monitor or similar display. Most arcade video games are coin-operated, housed in an arcade cabinet, and located amusement arcades alongside other kinds of arcade games. Until the late 1990s, arcade video games were the largest[1] and most technologically advanced[2][3] segment of the video game industry.

A player in Japan playing Police 911, an arcade game in which players use a light gun

Early prototypical entries Galaxy Game and Computer Space in 1971 established the principle operations for arcade games, and Atari's Pong in 1972 is recognized as the first successful commercial arcade video game. Improvements in computer technology and gameplay design led to a golden age of arcade video games, the exact dates of which are debated but range from the late 1970s to mid-1980s. This golden age includes Space Invaders, Pac-Man, and Donkey Kong. The arcade industry had a resurgence from the early 1990s to mid-2000s, including Street Fighter II, Mortal Kombat, and Dance Dance Revolution, but ultimately declined in the Western world as competing home video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation and Microsoft Xbox increased in their graphics and gameplay capability and decreased in cost. Nevertheless, Japan, China, and Korea retain a strong arcade industry in the present day.[4][citation needed]

HistoryEdit

 
Pong is the first commercially successful arcade video game

Games of skill had been popular amusement park midway attractions since the 19th century. With the introduction of electricity and coin-operated machines, they facilitated a viable business. When pinball machines with electric lights and displays were introduced in 1933, but without the user-controller flippers which would not be invented until 1947, these machines were seen as games of luck. Numerous states and cities treated them as amoral playthings for rebellious young people, and banned them into the 1960s and 1970s.[5]

Electro-mechanical games (EM games) appeared in arcades in the mid-20th century. Following Sega's EM game Periscope (1966), the arcade industry experienced a "technological renaissance" driven by "audio-visual" EM novelty games, establishing the arcades as a healthy environment for the introduction of commercial video games in the early 1970s.[6] In the late 1960s, college student Nolan Bushnell had a part-time job at an arcade where he became familiar with EM games such as Chicago Coin's racing game Speedway (1969), watching customers play and helping to maintain the machinery, while learning the game business.[7]

The early mainframe game Spacewar! (1962) inspired the first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space (1971), created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney and released by Nutting Associates.[8] It was demonstrated at the Amusement & Music Operators Association (AMOA) show in October 1971.[9] Another Spacewar-inspired coin-operated video game, Galaxy Game, was demonstrated at Stanford University in November 1971. Bushnell and Dabney followed their success of Computer Space with the help of Allan Alcorn to create a table tennis game Pong, released in 1972. Pong was a commercial success, leading numerous other coin-op manufacturers to enter the market.[8]

The video game industry transitioned from discrete integrated circuitry to programmable microprocessors in the mid-1970s, starting with Gun Fight in 1975. The arcade industry entered a "Golden Age" in 1978 with the release of Taito's Space Invaders, which introduced many novel gameplay features including a scoreboard. From 1978 to 1982, several other major arcade games from Namco, Atari, Williams Electronics, Stern Electronics, and Nintendo were all considered blockbusters, particularly with Namco's Pac-Man in 1980 which became a fixture in popular culture. Across North America and Japan, dedicated video game arcades appeared and arcade game cabinets appeared in many smaller storefronts. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth US$8 billion in the US.[10]

The novelty of the arcade game waned sharply after 1982 from several factors, including market saturation of arcades and arcade games, a moral panic created over video games due to similar fears that had been raised over pinball machines in the decades prior, and the 1983 video game crash in the home console market that impacted arcades. The arcade market had recovered by 1986, with the help of software conversion kits, the arrival of popular beat 'em up games (such as Kung-Fu Master and Renegade), and advanced motion simulator games (such as Sega's "taikan" games including Hang-On, Space Harrier, and Out Run). However, the growth of home video game systems such as the Nintendo Entertainment System led to another brief arcade decline toward the end of the 1980s.[11]

Arcade games continued to improve with technology and gameplay evolutions. In the early 1990s, the release of Capcom's Street Fighter II established the modern style of fighting games and led to a number of similar games such as Mortal Kombat, Fatal Fury, Killer Instinct, Virtua Fighter, and Tekken, creating a new renaissance in the arcades.[12][13] Another factor was realism,[14] including the "3D Revolution" from 2D and pseudo-3D graphics to true real-time 3D polygon graphics.[15][16] This was largely driven by a technological arms race between Sega and Namco.[17] 3D polygons were popularized in arcades during the early 1990s with games such as Sega's Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter. 3D graphics later became popular in console and computer games by the mid-1990s,[18] though arcade systems such as the Sega Model 3 remained considerably more advanced than home systems in the late 1990s.[2][3] Until about 1996, arcade video games had remained the largest segment of the global video game industry. Arcades declined in the late 1990s, surpassed by the console market for the first time around 1997-1998.[1]

Since the 2000s, arcade games have taken different routes globally. In the United States, arcades have become niche markets as they compete with the home console market, and they adapted other business models, such as providing other entertainment options or adding prize redemptions.[19] In Japan and China,[citation needed] arcades continue to flourish, where games like Dance Dance Revolution and The House of the Dead are tailored to experiences that players cannot easily have at home.[20]

TechnologyEdit

 
The inside of a Neo Geo

Virtually all modern arcade games (other than the very traditional fair midway) make extensive use of solid state electronics, integrated circuits, and cathode-ray tube screens, all installed inside an arcade cabinet.

With the exception of Galaxy Game and Computer Space, which were built around small form-factor mainframe computers, the first arcade games are based on combinations of multiple discrete logic chips, such as transistor–transistor logic (TTL) chips. Designing an arcade game was more about the combination of these TTL chips and other electronic components to achieve the desired effect on screen. More complex gameplay required significantly more TTL components to achieve this result. By the mid-1970s, the first inexpensive programmable microprocessors had arrived on the market. The first microprocessor-based video game is Midway's Gun Fight in 1975 (a conversion of Taito's Western Gun), and with the advent of Space Invaders and the golden era, microprocessor-based games became typical.[21]:64 Early arcade games were also designed around raster graphics displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display. Many games of the late 1970s and early 1980s use special displays that rendered vector graphics, though these waned by the mid-1980s as display technology on CRTs improved.[22] Prior to the availability of color CRT or vector displays, some arcade cabinets have a combination of angled monitor positioning, one-way mirrors, and clear overlays to simulate colors and other graphics onto the gameplay field.[23]

From the 1990s to the 2000s, coin-operated arcade video games generally use custom hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips, and the latest in expensive computer graphics display technology. This allows more complex graphics and sound than contemporary video game consoles or personal computers. Many arcade games since the 2000s run on modified video game console hardware (such as the Sega NAOMI or Triforce) or gaming PC components (such as the Taito Type X). Many arcade games have more immersive and realistic game controls than PC or console games. This includes specialized ambiance or control accessories such as fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of automobile or airplane cockpits, motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or highly dedicated controllers such as dancing mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually too bulky, expensive, and specialized to be used with typical home PCs and consoles. Arcade makers experiment with virtual reality technology. Arcades have progressed from using coins as credits to smart cards that hold the virtual currency of credits.

Modern arcade cabinets use flat panel displays instead of cathode-ray tubes. Internet services such as ALL.Net, NESiCAxLive, e-Amusement and NESYS, allow the cabinets to download updates or new games, do online multiplayer gameplay, save progress, unlock content, or earn credits.

GenresEdit

 
Sega Rally arcade racing games at the Veljekset Keskinen department store in Tuuri, Alavus, Finland in 2017

Many arcade games have short levels, simple and intuitive control schemes, and rapidly increasing difficulty. The classic formula for a successful arcade video game is "easy to learn, difficult to master"[24] along with a "multiple life, progressively difficult level" paradigm.[25] This is due to the environment of the arcade, where the player is essentially renting the game for as long as their in-game avatar can stay alive or until they run out of tokens. Games on consoles or PCs can be referred to as "arcade games" if they share these qualities, or are direct ports of arcade games.

Arcade racing games often have sophisticated motion simulator arcade cabinets,[26][27] a simplified physics engine, and short learning time when compared with more realistic racing simulations. Cars can turn sharply without braking or understeer, and the AI rivals are sometimes programmed so they are always near the player with a rubberband effect. Other types of arcade-style games include music games (particularly rhythm games), and mobile and casual games with intuitive controls and short sessions.

ActionEdit

The term "arcade game" can refer to an action video game designed to play similarly to an arcade game with frantic, addictive gameplay.[28] The focus of arcade action games is on the user's reflexes, and many feature very little puzzle-solving, complex thinking, or strategy skills.

Popular types of arcade-style action games include fighting games often played with an arcade controller, beat 'em up games including fast-paced hack and slash games, and light gun rail shooters and "bullet hell" shooters with intuitive controls and rapidly increasing difficulty.

Many arcade combat flight simulators have sophisticated hydraulic motion simulator cabinets,[26][27] and simplified physics and handling. Arcade flight games are meant to have an easy learning curve, in order to preserve their action component. Increasing numbers of console flight video games, such as Crimson Skies, Ace Combat, and Secret Weapons Over Normandy indicate the falling of manual-heavy flight sim popularity in favor of instant arcade flight action.[29]

A modern subgenre of action games called "hack and slash" or "character action games" represent an evolution of traditional arcade action games, and are sometimes considered a subgenre of beat 'em up brawlers. This subgenre of games was largely defined by Hideki Kamiya, creator of the Devil May Cry and Bayonetta franchises.[30]

IndustryEdit

Arcade games are found in restaurants, bowling alleys, college campuses, video rental shops, dormitories, laundromats, movie theaters, supermarkets, shopping malls, airports, and other retail environments. They are popular in public places where people are likely to have free time.[31]

Their profitability is expanded by the popularity of conversions of arcade games for home-based platforms. In 1997, WMS Industries (parent company of Midway Games, then the most successful arcade game manufacturer) reported that if more than 5,000 arcade units are sold, at least 100,000 home version units will be sold.[32]

The American Amusement Machine Association (AAMA) is a trade association established in 1981[33] that represents the coin-operated amusement machine industry,[34] including 120 arcade game distributors and manufacturers.[35]

Conversions, emulators, and recreationsEdit

Prior to the 2000s, successful video games were often converted to a home video game console or home computer. Many of the initial Atari VCS games, for example, were conversions of Atari's success arcade games. Arcade game manufacturers that were not in the home console or computer business found licensing of their games to console manufacturers to be a successful business model, as console manufacturer competitors would vie for rights to more popular games. Coleco famously bested Atari to secure the rights to convert Nintendo's Donkey Kong, which it subsequently included as a pack-in game for the ColecoVision to challenge the VCS.[36]

Arcade conversions typically had to make concessions for the lower computational power and capabilities of the home console, such as limited graphics or alterations in gameplay. Such conversions had mixed results. The Atari VCS conversion of Space Invaders was considered the VCS's killer application, helping to quadruple the VCS sales in 1980.[37] In contrast, the VCS conversion of Pac-Man in 1982 was highly criticized for technical flaws due to VCS limitations such as flickering ghosts and simplified gameplay. Though Pac-Man was the best-selling game on the VCS, it eroded consumer confidence in Atari's games and partially contributed to the 1983 crash.[38]

The need for arcade conversions began to wane as arcade game manufacturers like Nintendo, Sega, and SNK entered the home console market and used similar technology within their home consoles as found at the arcade, negating the need to simplify the game. Concessions still may be made for a home release; notably, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System conversion of Mortal Kombat removed much of the gore from the arcade version to meet Nintendo's quality control standards.[39]

More recently, exact copies of arcade video games can be run through emulators such as MAME on modern computers and other devices. Emulators enable game enthusiasts to play old video games using the actual code from the 1970s or 1980s, which is translated by a modern software system. Legitimate emulated games started to appear on the Macintosh (1994)[40][41] with Williams floppy disks, Sony PlayStation (1996) and Sega Saturn (1997), with CD-ROM compilations such as Williams Arcade's Greatest Hits and Arcade's Greatest Hits: The Atari Collection 1, and on the PlayStation 2 and GameCube with DVD-ROM compilations such as Midway Arcade Treasures. Arcade games are downloaded and emulated through the Nintendo Wii Virtual Console service starting in 2009. The emulators have evolved into mobile apps or websites.

Using emulator technology, companies like Arcade1Up have produced at-scale or reduced-scale recreations of arcade cabinets using modern technology, such as flat LCD displays and lightweight construction. These cabinets are typically designed to resemble the original arcade game cabinets, but may also support multiple related games. These cabinets can be offered in other styles because they do not require the same hardware space that original arcade games do, such as table-mounted and wall-mounted versions.[42]

Highest-grossingEdit

For arcade games, success was usually judged by either the number of arcade hardware units sold to operators, or the amount of revenue generated, from the number of coins (such as quarters, dollars, or 100 yen coins) inserted into machines,[43] or the hardware sales with prices at $1000, $4000, or more. This list only includes arcade games with either more than 10,000 hardware units sold or that generated a revenue of more than $10 million. Most of the games are from the golden age of arcade video games.

Game Release year Hardware units sold Estimated gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Estimated gross revenue
(US$ with 2020 inflation)[44]
Pac-Man 1980 400,000 (up to 1982)[45] $6 billion (up to 1982)[46][47] $16.1 billion
Space Invaders 1978 750,000 (up to 1979)[48] $3.8 billion (up to 1982)[49] $15.1 billion
Street Fighter II 1991 220,000+ (up to 1995)[n 1] $5.31 billion+ (up to 1999)[53] $10.1 billion
Donkey Kong 1981 132,000 (up to 1982)[n 2] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Ms. Pac-Man 1982 125,000 (up to 1988)[58][59] $1.5 billion (up to 1995)[60] $3 billion
Asteroids 1979 100,000 (up to 2001)[59][61] $800 million (up to 1991)[62][63] $2.28 billion
Defender 1981 70,000 (up to 2020)[64] $1.5 billion (up to 2020)[64] $2.16 billion
Galaxian 1979 50,000 (in the US up to 1982)[65]
Hyper Olympic (Track & Field) 1983 38,000 (1983 in Japan)[66]
Karate Champ 1984 30,000 (in the US up to 1985)[67]
Out Run 1986 30,000 (up to 1994)[68] $100 million+ (cabinet sales)[69] $240 million
Donkey Kong Jr. 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[70]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[71]
Final Fight 1989 30,000 (up to 1991)[72]
Virtua Fighter 2 1994 20,000+[73]
NBA Jam 1993 20,000 (up to 2013)[74] $2 billion (up to 2013)[75] $2.9 billion
Vs. Super Mario Bros. 1986 20,000 (1986)[76]
Mortal Kombat II 1993 27,000 (up to 2002)[77] $600 million (up to 2002)[78] $932 million
Popeye 1982 20,000 (in the US up to 1982)[56]
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (up to 2005)[79]
World Club Champion Football 2002 2,479 (up to 2009)[n 4] $706.014 million (up to 2012)[86] $1.02 billion
Mortal Kombat 1992 24,000 (up to 2002)[77] $570 million (up to 2002)[77] $820 million
Jungle Hunt 1982 18,000 (in the US up to 1983)[87]
Scramble 1981 15,136 (up to 1981)[88]
Champion Baseball 1983 15,000 (in Japan up to June 1983)[89]
Mushiking: King of the Beetles 2003 13,500 (up to 2005)[90] $530 million (up to 2007)[n 6] $746 million
Mahjong Fight Club 3 2004 13,000 (up to 2004)[93]
Super Cobra 1981 12,337 (up to 1981)[88]
Sega Rally Championship 1994 12,000[94]
Oshare Majo: Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (up to 2006)[95][96] $302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 7] $415 million
Frogger 1981 $135 million+ (United States)[97] $384 million
Centipede 1981 55,988 (up to 1991)[98] $115.65 million (up to 1991)[98] $220 million
Street Fighter 1987 10,000 (up to 1991)[99]
Wheels / Wheels II (Speed Race) 1974 10,000 (1975 in the US)[100]
Gee Bee 1978 10,000[101]
World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008 1,689 (up to 2009)[n 3] $150.1 million (up to 2012)[n 5] $180 million
Dragon's Lair 1983 16,000 (up to 1983)[109][110] $68.8 million (up to 1983)[109][111] $179 million
Pole Position 1982 21,000 (in the US up to 1983)[112] $60.933 million (up to 1983)[112][98]
(US hardware sales)
$163 million
(US hardware sales)
StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins 2011 $132.18 million (up to 2012)[n 8] $152 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (up to 2009)[103] $107 million (up to 2012)[n 9] $129 million
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[98] (in the US up to 1983)[87] $46.3 million (up to 1983)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$124 million
(US hardware sales)
Tempest 1981 29,000 (up to 1983)[112] $62.408 million (up to 1991)[98] $119 million
Tron 1982 800 (in the US up to 1982)[114] $45 million (up to 1983)[115] $102 million
Sengoku Taisen 2010 $94.04 million (up to 2012)[n 10] $112 million
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 11] $97.6 million
Starhorse2 2005 38,614 (up to 2009)[n 12] $59.321 million (up to 2011)
(Fifth Expansion)[n 13]
$78.6 million
(Fifth Expansion)
Q*bert 1982 25,000 (up to 2001)[121]
Robotron: 2084 1982 23,000 (up to 1983)[112]
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (up to 2000)[122] $47.11 million (up to 2000)[123] $73.2 million
Asteroids Deluxe 1981 22,399 (up to 1999)[124] $46.1 million (up to 1999)[124] $71.6 million
Missile Command 1980 19,999 (up to 2010)[125] $36.8 million (up to 1991)[124] $69.9 million
Berzerk 1980 15,780 (up to 1981)[88]
Sangokushi Taisen 3 2007 $54.4 million (up to 2011)[n 14] $67.9 million
Pong 1972 8,500–19,000[126][127] $11 million (up to 1973)[128] $64.1 million}
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $60.6 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 2008 12,892 (up to 2009)[129] $47 million (up to 2010)[n 16] $56.5 million
Kangaroo 1982 9,803[98] (up to 1983)[87] $20.58 million (up to 1983)
(US hardware sales)[98]
$55.2 million
(US hardware sales)
Battlezone 1980 15,122 (up to 1999)[124] $31.2 million (up to 1999)[124] $48.5 million
Stargate 1981 15,000 (up to 1983)[112]
Space Duel 1982 12,038 (up to 1991)[98]
Big Buck Hunter Pro 2006 10,000 (up to 2009)[130][131]
Hard Drivin' 1989 3,318 (up to 1989)[98] $22.9 million (up to 1989)[98] $47.8 million
Gauntlet 1985 7,848 (up to 1985)[98] $18.01 million (up to 1985)[98] $43.3 million
Sega Network Mahjong MJ5 2011 $34.87 million (up to 2012)[n 17] $40.1 million
Millipede 1982 9,990 (up to 1991)[98] $20.669 million (up to 1991)[98] $39.3 million
Race Drivin' 1990 3,525 (up to 1991)[98] $20.03 million (up to 1991)[98] $38.1 million
Time Traveler 1991 $18 million (up to 1991)[111] $34.2 million
Space Ace 1984 $13 million (up to 1984)[111] $32.4 million
Xevious 1982 5,295 (in the US up to 1983)[98] $11.1 million (up to 1983)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$29.8 million
(US hardware sales)
Atari Football 1978 11,306 (up to 1999)[124] $17.266 million (up to 1999)[124] $26.8 million
Final Lap 1987 1,150 (in the US up to 1988)[98] $9.5 million (up to 1988)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$21.6 million
(US hardware sales)
Paperboy 1984 3,442 (up to 1991)[98] $8.6 million (up to 1991)[98] $16.3 million
Star Wars 1983 12,695 (up to 1991)[98] $7.595 million (up to 1991)[98] $14.4 million
Beatmania 1997 25,000 (up to 2000)[132] $12.4 million (up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 18]
$20 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Sprint 2 1976 8,200 (up to 1999)[124] $12.669 million (up to 1999)[124] $19.7 million
Championship Sprint 1986 3,595 (up to 1991)[98] $8.26 million (up to 1991)[98] $15.7 million
Pole Position II 1983 2,400 (in the US up to 1983)[98] $7.43 million (up to 1983)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$19.3 million
(US hardware sales)
Breakout 1976 11,000 (up to 1999)[124] $12.045 million (up to 1999)[124] $18.7 million
Sea Wolf 1976 10,000 (up to 2000)[134]
Lunar Lander 1979 4,830 (up to 1999)[124] $8.19 million (up to 1999)[124] $12.7 million
Super Sprint 1986 2,232 (up to 1999)[124] $7.8 million (up to 1999)[124] $12.1 million
Marble Madness 1984 4,000 (up to 1985)[135] $6.3 million (up to 1991)[98] $12 million
Rolling Thunder 1986 2,406 (in the US up to 1987)[98] $4.8 million (up to 1987)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$11.3 million
(US hardware sales)
Arabian 1983 1,950 (in the US up to 1983)[87] $3.9 million (up to 1983)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$10.1 million
(US hardware sales)

FranchisesEdit

These are the combined hardware sales of at least two or more arcade games that are part of the same franchise. This list only includes franchises that have sold at least 5,000 hardware units or grossed at least $10 million revenues.

Franchise Original release year Total hardware units sold Gross revenue
(US$ without inflation)
Gross revenue
(US$ with 2020 inflation)[44]
Pac-Man 1980 526,412 (up to 1988)[n 19] $6 billion (up to 1982)[136] $16 billion
Space Invaders 1978 750,000 (up to 1980)[48] $3.8 billion (up to 1982)[49] $15.1 billion
Street Fighter 1987 500,000 (up to 2002)[137][138] $5.31 billion+ (up to 1999)[53] $10.1 billion
Pac-Man clones 1980 300,000 (up to 2002)[139]
Mario 1981 190,800 (up to 1983)[n 20] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Donkey Kong 1981 167,000 (up to 1983)[n 2] $280 million (up to 1982)
(US hardware sales)[57]
$797 million
(US hardware sales)
Asteroids 1979 136,437 (up to 1999)[n 21] $850.79 million (up to 1999)[n 22] $1.32 billion
Golden Tee Golf 1989 100,000 (up to 2011)[140]
Defender 1981 85,000 (up to 2020)[n 23] $1.5 billion (up to 2020)[64] $2.16 billion
Centipede 1981 65,978 (up to 1991)[n 24] $136.3 million (up to 1991)[n 25] $259 million
Mortal Kombat 1992 51,000 (up to 2002)[77] $1.17 billion (up to 200)[77][78] $1.68 billion
Galaxian 1979 50,986 (in the US up to 1988)[n 26]
Starhorse 2000 38,734 (up to 2009)[n 27] $191.501 million (up to 2012)[n 28] $288 million
Big Buck 2000 33,500 (up to 2010)[n 29]
Mr. Do! 1982 30,000 (in the US up to 1982)[71]
Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road 2007 $78.2 million (up to 2008)[n 11] $97.6 million
Lord of Vermilion 2008 $50.443 million (up to 2008)[n 15] $60.6 million
Bemani 1997 28,500 (up to 2000)[n 30] $12.4 million (up to 1998)
(Japan hardware sales)[n 18]
$20 million
(Japan hardware sales)
Scramble 1981 27,473 (up to 1981)[88]
Sega Network Mahjong 2000 25,986 (up to 2006)[n 33] $81.87 million (up to 2012)[n 34] $123 million
Pole Position 1982 24,550 (in the US up to 1983)[n 35] $77.9 million (up to 1988)
(US hardware sales)[n 36]
$209 million
(US hardware sales)
Dig Dug 1982 22,228[98] (in the US up to 1983)[87] $46.3 million (up to 1983)[98]
(US hardware sales)
$124 million
(US hardware sales)
Pump It Up 1999 20,000 (up to 2005)[79]
Breakout 1976 15,805 (up to 1999)[124] $17.745 million (up to 1999)[124] $27.6 million
Star Wars 1983 14,039 (up to 1991)[98] $9.275 million (up to 1983)[98] $17.6 million
Sprint 1976 14,027 (up to 1999)[124] $28.729 million (up to 1999)[124] $44.6 million
Mushiking 2003 13,500 (up to 2005)[90] $530 million (up to 2007)[n 6] $746 million
Sea Wolf 1976 14,000 (up to 2000)[134]
Mahjong Fight Club 2002 13,000 (up to 2004)[93]
Gauntlet 1985 11,368 (up to 1991)[98] $20.41 million (up to 1991)[98] $38.8 million
Love and Berry 2004 10,300 (up to 2006)[95] $302.68 million (up to 2007)[n 7] $415 million
Sangokushi Taisen 2005 9,929 (up to 2008)[n 38] $148.44 million (up to 2012)[n 39] $197 million
Pong 1972 8500–19,000[126][127] $11 million (up to 1973)[128] $64.1 million
Hard Drivin' 1989 6,843 (up to 1991)[98] $42.93 million (up to 1991)[98] $75.48 million
Samba de Amigo 1999 3,000 (up to 2000)[122] $47.11 million (up to 2000)[n 40] $73.2 million
Border Break 2009 2,998 (up to 2009)[103] $107 million (up to 2012)[n 9] $129 million
World Club Champion Football 2012 2,479 (up to 2015)[n 4] $706.014 million (up to 2012)[n 41] $1.02 billion

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Street Fighter II:
  2. ^ a b c Donkey Kong:
  3. ^ a b World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2006–2007 – 831 units from June 2008 to March 2009[102]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 858 units from April 2009 to December 2009[103]
  4. ^ a b World Club Champion Football series, unit sales:
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 – 514 units in fiscal year ending March 2006[80]
    • World Club Champion Football: European Clubs 2004–2005 Ver. 2 – 276 units during April–September 2006 (240 satellite units during April–June 2006,[81] and 36 body units during April–September 2006)[82]
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs 2008–2009 – 1,689 units from June 2008 to December 2009[n 3]
  5. ^ a b c World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥4.2 billion[104]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥3.8 billion[105]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥3.6 billion[106][107]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[108]
    • Currency conversion:[85]
      • ¥4.2 billion = $51.9159 million
      • ¥3.8 billion = $46.9716 million
      • ¥3.6 billion = $44.8253 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  6. ^ a b Mushiking:
  7. ^ a b Love and Berry:
  8. ^ a b StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins
    • Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥10.1 billion[106]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[108]
    • Currency conversion:[85]
      • ¥10.1 billion = $125.8 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  9. ^ a b Border Break:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.3 billion[104]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.5 billion[105]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥2.3 billion[106][113]
    • 1st Quarter Ended 30 June 2012: ¥0.5 billion[108]
    • Currency conversion:[85]
      • ¥3.3 billion = $40.7317 million
      • ¥2.5 billion = $30.8542 million
      • ¥2.3 billion = $28.6371 million
      • ¥0.5 billion = $6.3784 million
  10. ^ a b Sengoku Taisen:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥6.4 billion[105]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2012: ¥1.2 billion[106]
    Currency conversion:[85]
    • ¥6.4 billion = $79.1 million
    • ¥1.2 billion = $14.94 million
  11. ^ a b Dragon Quest: Monster Battle Road
    • ¥4.5 billion from June 2007 to March 2008[116]
      • Currency conversion: $56.731 million[85]
    • ¥1.7 billion from April 2008 to September 2008[117]
      • Currency conversion: $21.4317 million[85]
  12. ^ a b StarHorse2:
    • From April 2005 to March 2007: 18,079 units
      • StarHorse2: New Generation – 7,819 units from April 2005 to June 2006 (6,020 units in fiscal year ended March 2006,[80] and 1,799 units during April–June 2006)[82]
      • StarHorse2: Second Fusion – 10,260 units from April 2006 to March 2007 (8,105 conversion kits during April–December 2006,[95] and 2,155 body and satellite units in fiscal year ending March 2007)[118]
    • From April 2007 to March 2008: 10,275 units (756 body and satellite units of StarHorse2: Second Fusion during April–September 2007,[119] and 9,519 conversion kits in fiscal year ended March 2008)[120]
    • From April 2009 to December 2009: 10,657 units of StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion[103]
  13. ^ a b StarHorse2: Fifth Expansion:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥2.8 billion[104]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2 billion[105]
    • Currency conversion:[85]
      • ¥2.8 billion = $34.6039 million
      • ¥2 billion = $24.7171 million
  14. ^ a b Sangokushi Taisen 3:
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥1.8 billion[104]
    • Fiscal year ended 31 March 2011: ¥2.6 billion[105]
    • Currency conversion:[85]
      • ¥1.8 billion = $22.2401 million
      • ¥2.6 billion = $32.1248 million
  15. ^ a b Lord of Vermilion: ¥4 billion[117]
    • Currency conversion: $50.443 million[85]
  16. ^ a b Fiscal year ended 31 March 2010: ¥3.8 billion[104]
    • Currency conversion: $47 million[85]
  17. ^ a b Fiscal year ended March 2012: ¥2.8 billion[106]
    • Currency conversion: $34.87 million[85]
  18. ^ a b Beatmania:
    • ¥1 billion in May 1998[133]
    • Yen-Dollar currency conversion: $12.4 million[85]
  19. ^ Pac-Man series:
  20. ^ Mario series:
  21. ^ Asteroids series:
  22. ^ Asteroids series:
  23. ^ Defender series:
  24. ^ Centipede series:[112][98]Millipede: 9,990
  25. ^ Centipede series:[98]Millipede: $20.669 million
  26. ^ Galaxian series:
  27. ^ StarHorse series:
    • Starhorse Progress – 120 in fiscal year ended March 2005[141]
    • StarHorse2 – 38,614 up to 2009[n 12]
  28. ^ Starhorse series, 2009–2011:
    • Starhorse2 – $59.321 million[n 13]
    • StarHorse3 Season I: A New Legend Begins – $132.18 million[n 8]
  29. ^ Big Buck series:
    • Big Buck Hunter series sales up until April 2007: 22,500 units, including 7,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units.[131]
    • Series sales after April 2007 until September 2009: additional 2,500 Big Buck Hunter Pro units and 5,500 Big Buck Safari units.[130]
    • Big Buck Hunter Pro: Open Season sales from September 2009 to January 2010: 3,000 units[142]
  30. ^ Bemani series, sales:
  31. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ2:
    • April 2004 to March 2005: 4,984[141]
    • April 2005 to June 2005: 502[143]
  32. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ4:
    • Fiscal year ended March 2008: 10,427[120]
    • Fiscal year ended March 2009: 2,465[102]
  33. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ2 from April 2004 to June 2005: 5,486 units[n 31]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ3 from April 2005 to March 2006: 7,608 units[80]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4 from April 2007 to March 2009: 12,892[n 32]
  34. ^ Sega Network Mahjong MJ series, 2009–2012:
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ4: $47 million in fiscal year 2010[n 16]
    • Sega Network Mahjong MJ5: $34.87 million in fiscal year 2012[n 17]
  35. ^ Pole Position series US sales:
  36. ^ Pole Position series US sales:[112][98]
  37. ^ Sangokushi Taisen:
    • As of March 2005: 421[141]
    • April 2005 to March 2006: 1,521[80]
  38. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series:
    • Sales from January 2005 to September 2006: 5,153 units
      • Sangokushi Taisen from January 2005 to March 2006: 1,942 units[n 37]
      • Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2006: 3,211 units[82]
    • Sales from April 2007 to March 2008: 4,776
      • 166 body units of Sangokushi Taisen 2 during April–September 2007[119]
      • 4,610 satellite units of Sangokushi Taisen from April 2007 to March 2008[120]
  39. ^ Sangokushi Taisen series, 2009–2011:
    • Sangokushi Taisen 3: $54.4 million[n 14]
    • Sengoku Taisen: $94.04 million[n 10]
  40. ^ Samba de Amigo: ¥3.84 billion
    • Currency conversion: $47.11 million[85]
  41. ^ World Club Champion Football series, revenue:
    • Series revenues up until March 2009 – $552.3 million
      • 480 million player cards sold. Prices could range from ¥300 for a single card from an arcade machine to ¥1000 for a starter pack.[83] A¥1000 starter pack consists of 11 player cards, equivalent to ¥90.91 each.[84] Total revenues from player card sales thus range from ¥43.64 billion (at ¥90.91 per card) to ¥144 billion (at ¥300 per card). In US dollars, this is equivalent to a range of $552.3 million to $1.82244 billion.[85] The lowest value of $552.3 million will be assumed.
    • World Club Champion Football: Intercontinental Clubs revenues from April 2009 to June 2012 – $150.1 million[n 5]

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