Dines in Westmount, Quebec on October 2013
29 July 1958 |
|Known for||Radical feminism, opposition to pornography|
|Title||Professor emerita of Sociology and Women's Studies, and Chair of American Studies, Wheelock College, Boston, Massachusetts|
|Awards||Myers Center Award for the Study of Human Rights in North America|
|Education||BSc, PhD in sociology (1990), University of Salford, Manchester|
|Thesis||Towards a Sociology of Cartoons: A Framework for Sociological Investigation with Special Reference to Playboy Sex Cartoons|
|Notable works||Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality (2010)|
A radical feminist, Dines specializes in the study of pornography; Julie Bindel described her in 2010 as the world's leading anti-pornography campaigner. She is the author of Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality (2010) and co-author of Pornography: The Production and Consumption of Inequality (1997). She is also a founding member of Stop Porn Culture and founder of Culture Reframed, created to address pornography as a public-health crisis.
Dines writes that boys and men are exposed online to pornography that is increasingly cruel and violent toward women. That men can be aroused by such imagery is "quite profound", she argues: "Pornography is the perfect propaganda piece for patriarchy." The exposure of teenage girls to the images affects their sense of sexual identity. The result, Dines writes, is that women are "held captive" by images that lie about them, and that "contemporary idealized femininity" has been reduced to the "hypersexualized, young, thin, toned, hairless, and, in many cases, surgically enhanced woman with a come-hither look on her face".
Dines was born in Manchester, England. She obtained her BSc from Salford University and her PhD in 1990, also from Salford, for a thesis titled Towards a Sociology of Cartoons: A Framework for Sociological Investigation with Special Reference to "Playboy" Sex Cartoons. While at Salford, she met her husband, David Levy, who was studying at the University of Manchester.
The couple moved to Tel Aviv in 1980, when Dines was 22. She wrote her PhD thesis there while working in a rape crisis centre, and first encountered pornography during a meeting in Haifa arranged by Women Against Pornography. The following day she told her thesis advisor that she wanted to write her dissertation on pornography: "I literally couldn't believe the images. I couldn't believe that men created such images, and that other men wanted to watch them."
Dines and Levy moved to the United States in 1986, where she became Professor of Sociology and Women's Studies at Wheelock College in Boston and Chair of the American Studies department, and he became Professor of Management at the University of Massachusetts Boston. They have one son.
Career and researchEdit
Dines is the author of three books, including Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked our Sexuality (2010). Her articles have appeared in a variety of journals and newspapers, including The New York Times, Newsweek, and Time. She is a founding member of Stop Porn Culture, co-founder of the National Feminist Anti-Pornography Movement, and founder of Culture Reframed, which aims to have pornography recognized as a public-health crisis.
Advocacy and viewsEdit
|TEDx talk by Gail Dines|
|"Growing Up in a Pornified Culture", TEDx Talks on YouTube, 28 April 2015|
Dines's view is that pornography distorts men's view of sexuality and makes more difficult the establishment of real-life intimate relationships with women. Dines maintains that modern pornography is cruel and violent, unlike earlier forms of soft-core pornography with which the general public may be familiar, and has the effect of degrading the position of women in society. She also advances the position that the prevalence of hardcore pornography is a contributing factor in increasing "demand" for sex trafficking.
Dines believes that pornography is a public-health issue, and that legal measures are needed to prevent access to it. In an Icelandic television interview in 2012, the presenter told Dines that the minister of welfare in Iceland, Guðbjartur Hannesson, was opposed to legislation and had suggested relying instead on "a change of thought". Dines replied, "I would say, you absolutely need to change the way people think about it, but I would argue we are at such a crisis level that you need a public health approach. So, one way would certainly be education and the way people think, but I would absolutely argue for legislation as well. If you want to stop this then you have to figure out a way for Icelandic men to not have access to hardcore pornography." Later in the same interview she went on to say, "If you really want women and girls to have gender equality in Iceland then you cannot be feeding your boys and men a steady diet of pornography. The two don't go together."
In 2011, Dines was invited alongside fellow anti-pornography activist Shelley Lubben to debate against Anna Span at the University of Cambridge when it proposed the motion "This house believes that pornography does a good public service." Dines did not sway the house, which decided 231 in favour to 187 against with 197 abstentions. Dines said her opponents won because the chamber consisted mostly of "18–22 year old males who are using pornography on a regular basis".
Dines' book Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked our Sexuality (2010) received mixed reviews, with some critics citing what they see as her use of inflammatory language. Dines has been criticized by some feminists of attempting to foment moral panic, particularly in opposition to sex work and sex workers' rights, rather than advancing an academically rigorous position. Dines dismisses the claim: "To suggest feminists who oppose the pornification of society are stirring up a moral panic is to confuse a politically progressive movement with rightwing attempts to police sexual behaviour."
In 2007, Dines wrote an article on the Duke lacrosse case in which she suggested "we should put some of the focus back on the men in this case", and their behavior because, "as we know much about their behavior that night that is not under dispute. They saw the hiring of two black women to strip as a legitimate form of male entertainment. They didn't see the commodifying and sexualizing of black women's bodies as problematic in a country that has a long and ugly history of racism." Writer Cathy Young criticised what she saw as Dines' double-standards, stating "the same feminists who rightly tell us that a rape victim should not have to be an angel to deserve support apply such a different standard to men who may be falsely accused of rape."
Dines' writing has been criticized by other academics, including Ronald Weitzer of George Washington University. In an essay, "Pornography: the need for solid evidence", Weitzer alleges that Dines' work (specifically Pornland) is poorly researched and in strong opposition to the existing body of research on pornography. In "A Feminist Response to Weitzer" in the same journal, Dines wrote that her book had used theories and methods of cultural studies developed by, among others, Stuart Hall and Antonio Gramsci.
On 30 January 2013, Dines published an article in CounterPunch in which she accused the BDSM website Kink.com of being in violation of the United Nations Convention Against Torture: "This is not a fun, fantasy place run by a charming band of outsiders, but a group of savvy businessmen who missed their calling at Abu Ghraib." Mark Kernes of Adult Video News replied that a "55-year-old college professor" should "know the difference between what goes on in real life and what happens in movies".
- Dines, Gail; Humez, Jean, eds. (2011) . Gender, Race and Class in Media: A Critical Reader (3rd ed.). California: Sage publications. ISBN 9781412974417.
- Dines, Gail (2010). Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 9780807044520.
- Dines, Gail; Jensen, Robert; Russo, Ann (1997). Pornography: The Production and Consumption of Inequality. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415918138.
- Dines-Levy, Gail (1990). Towards a sociology of cartoons: a framework for sociological investigation with special reference to "Playboy" sex cartoons (Ph.D. thesis). Salford University. OCLC 53564519. Pdf.
- Dines, Gail (2013). "Grooming our girls: hypersexualization of the culture as child sexual abuse". In Wild, Jim. Exploiting childhood: how fast food, material obsession and porn culture are creating new forms of child abuse. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 116–129. ISBN 9780857007421.
- Dines, Gail (2011). "Stop porn culture!". In Tankard Reist, Melinda; Bray, Abigail. Big Porn Inc.: exposing the harms of the global pornography industry. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press. pp. 266–267. ISBN 9781876756895.
- Dines, Gail (2011). "The new Lolita: pornography and the sexualization of childhood". In Tankard Reist, Melinda; Bray, Abigail. Big Porn Inc.: exposing the harms of the global pornography industry. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press. pp. 3–8. ISBN 9781876756895.
- Dines, Gail; Whisnant, Rebecca; Thompson, Linda (2010). "Arresting images: anti-pornography slide shows, activism and the academy". In Boyle, Karen. Everyday pornography. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 17–33. ISBN 9780415543781. (With Karen Boyle.)
- Dines, Gail (2004). "King Kong and the white woman: Hustler magazine and the demonization of black masculinity". In Whisnant, Rebecca; Stark, Christine. Not for sale: feminists resisting prostitution and pornography. North Melbourne, Victoria: Spinifex Press. pp. 89–101. ISBN 9781876756499.
- Dines, Gail (2003). "From fantasy to reality: unmasking the pornography industry". In Morgan, Robin. Sisterhood is forever: the women's anthology for a new millennium. New York: Washington Square Press. pp. 306–314. ISBN 9780743466271.
- Dines, Gail (8 April 2016). "Is porn immoral? That doesn't matter: It's a public health crisis". The Washington Post.
- Dines, Gail; et al. (April 2015). "Introducing Sexualization, Media, & Society". Sexualization, Media, and Society. 1 (1): 291–307. doi:10.1177/2374623815588763.
- Dines, Gail; Jensen, Robert (11 November 2012). "A Habit That Can Destroy Lives". The New York Times.
- Dines, Gail (April 2012). "A feminist response to Weitzer". Violence Against Women. 18 (4): 512–520. doi:10.1177/1077801212452550.
- Dines, Gail; Murphy, Wendy J. (8 May 2011). "SlutWalk is not sexual liberation". The Guardian.
- Dines, Gail (4 January 2011). "Porn: a multibillion-dollar industry that renders all authentic desire plastic". The Guardian.
- Dines, Gail (6 July 2010). "Adventures in Pornland". The Huffington Post.
- Dines, Gail (23 June 2008). "Penn, porn and me". CounterPunch. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009.
- Dines, Gail (2006). "The White Man's Burden: Gonzo Pornography and the Construction of Black Masculinity". Yale Journal of Law and Feminism. 18 (1): 277–282. Pdf.
- Dines, Gail (June 1998). "King Kong and the White Woman: Hustler Magazine and the Demonization of Black Masculinity". Violence Against Women. 4 (3): 291–307. doi:10.1177/1077801298004003003.
- "Dines, Gail". Library of Congress. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Gail Dines, Towards a Sociology of Cartoons: A Framework for Sociological Investigation with Special Reference to Playboy Sex Cartoons, University of Salford, 1990.
- "Gail Dines", Wheelock College.
- Bindel, Julie (2 July 2010). "The truth about the porn industry". The Guardian.
- Dines, Gail (2010). Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality, Boston: Beacon Press, p. 102.
- Aucoin, Don (27 July 2010). "The Shaping of Things", The Boston Globe.
- "David Levy, DBA", University of Massachusetts Boston.
- Tozer, Joel (20 May 2011). "Demonising porn use unleashes more evil". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Gail Dines, Ph.D". RCN. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- "Biography". gaildines.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Gail Dines (28 April 2015). Growing Up in a Pornified Culture (Video). TEDx Talks via YouTube. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Avard, Christian (29 June 2010). "Gail Dines: How "Pornland" destroys intimacy and hijacks sexuality". PULSE. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- ""Intersection between human trafficking and pornography": a conversation with Gail Dines". Carr Centre for Human Rights Policy, Harvard Kennedy School. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 28 November 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Pornography in Iceland". Kastljós (Interview). Interviewed by Unknown. Reykjavik, Iceland. 15 October 2012.
- For the proposition: Anna Span, Jessi Fischer and Johnny Anglais. Against the proposition: Dr. Gail Dines, Dr. Richard Woolfson and Shelley Lubben. The Cambridge Union Society (17 February 2011). This house believes that pornography does a good public service, The Cambridge Union Society (Video). Cambridge: The Cambridge Union Society via YouTube. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "Porn debate to spice up Cambridge Union". Cambridge News. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011.
- Walch, Tad (18 February 2011). "Cambridge University Union Society decides porn is a 'good public service'". Deseret News.
- Span, Anna (21 February 2011). "Historic win for the porn industry at Cambridge debate". Adult Video Network (AVN). Archived from the original on 26 February 2011.
- Damon, Dan (18 February 2011). "Debate: Does pornography provide 'a good public service'?". BBC News.
- "Nonfiction Reviews". Publishers Weekly. 5 April 2010.
- Shores, Monica (18 February 2011). "Anti-Porn Activist's Ugly Attempts To Provoke Outrage". The Huffington Post.
- Comella, Lynn (2 February 2011). "Feminists Gone Wild! A response to porn critic Gail Dines". Las Vegas Weekly.
- Dines, Gail; Long, Julia (1 December 2011). "Moral panic? No. We are resisting the pornification of women". The Guardian.
- Dines, Gail (19 January 2007). "CNN's "Journalism" is a fool's paradise". Commondreams.org. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Young, Cathy (16 April 2007). "Last call for "rape-crisis" feminism?". Reason.com. Retrieved 8 March 2013.
- Weitzer, Ronald (May 2011). "Review Essay: Pornography's Effects: The Need for Solid Evidence". Violence Against Women. 17 (5): 666–675. doi:10.1177/1077801211407478.
- Dines, Gail (April 2012). "A Feminist Response to Weitzer". Violence Against Women. 18 (4): 512–520. doi:10.1177/1077801212452550.
- Dines, Gail (30 January 2013). "Where are the Protests Against James Franco's 'Feel-Good' Torture Porn?". CounterPunch.
- Kernes, Mark (31 January 2013). "Quick! Someone tell Gail Dines that porn is actually fantasy!". Adult Video News.
- Wild, Jim (2013), "List of contributors: Gail Dines", in Wild, Jim, Exploiting childhood: how fast food, material obsession and porn culture are creating new forms of child abuse, London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, pp. 116–129, ISBN 9780857007421.
- Gail Dines' website
- "Gail Dines", Wheelock College
- Dines, Gail (2 October 2012). on YouTube.
- Bindel, Julie (2 July 2010). "The truth about the porn industry". The Guardian (interview with Dines).
- "Library Resource Finder: Table of Contents for: Sisterhood is forever: the women's anthology for a new millennium". vufind.carli.illinois.edu. DePaul University. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- Appearances on C-SPAN