Atlus Co., Ltd. (株式会社アトラス Kabushiki gaisha Atorasu) is a Japanese video game developer, publisher and distribution company based in Tokyo, and a subsidiary of Sega. As a video game company, it is best known for developing the Megami Tensei, Persona, Etrian Odyssey and Trauma Center series. Its corporate mascot is Jack Frost, a snowman-like character from their Shin Megami Tensei series. Beyond video games, it is known for the Purikura (Print Club), which are selfie photo sticker booths popular in East Asia.
|Kabushiki gaisha Atorasu|
|Industry||Video game industry|
|Defunct||1 October 2010|
|Akira Nomoto (president)|
|Products||List of Atlus games|
Number of employees
|270 (October 2018)|
Atlus was established in April 1986, and existed until the company was dissolved in October 2010 by Index Holdings. After the dissolution, the name Atlus continued as a brand used by Index Corporation for video game publishing until 2013. Atlus in its current incarnation was founded as Sega Dream Corporation in September 2013, a new shell corporation established by Sega. In November 2013, Sega Dream was renamed Index Corporation, following the bankruptcy of the original Index Corporation. In April 2014, Sega implemented a corporate spin-off in which the contents and solution businesses of Index were spun off as Index Corporation, while the rest of Index Corporation (formerly Sega Dream) was renamed Atlus.
The company has two subsidiaries, P-Studio, responsible for managing the Persona series, and Studio Zero. A North American branch of the company, Atlus USA was founded in 1991 in order to focus on publishing and localizing games for North America. Until 2017, Atlus did not have an office for publishing in PAL regions, resulting in the company partnering with multiple third-party publishers instead, such as Ghostlight, NIS America, Square Enix, and Deep Silver.
Atlus began in April 7, 1986 as a video game developer of computer games for other companies. In January 1987, Atlus started selling amusement equipment. It expanded into the sale of karaoke equipment in March 1989. Atlus released the first video game under its own name in 1989: Puzzle Boy for the Game Boy.
Atlus started in the arcade industry in the 1990s by manufacturing its first arcade video game, BlaZeon, in 1992. In 1995, Atlus launched the Print Club (Purikura) at arcades in partnership with Sega. It is a photo sticker booth that produces selfie photos. It was conceived by Atlus employee Sasaki Miho in 1994. Atlus and Sega introduced the purikura in February 1995, initially at game arcades, before expanding to other popular culture locations such as fast food shops, train stations, karaoke establishments and bowling alleys. The Purikura became a popular form of entertainment among youths across East Asia, laying the foundations for modern selfie culture. By 1996, it accounted for 70% of the company's revenue.
Atlus entered the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1997, listing on the JASDAQ. In its goal to further increase its presence in the amusement industry, Atlus acquired the manufacturer Apies from Yubis Corporation in 1999. In 2000, Atlus formed a joint venture with Kadokawa Shoten to distribute and sell games. Atlus suffered from deficit financial results in both 1999 and 2000. To address the issue, Atlus established a management reform plan in 2001. In its restructuring efforts, Atlus sold two subsidiaries (one of them being Apies) to their respective employees as part of a management buyout.
On October 2001, Atlus acquired Career Soft, and became the sole publisher of the Growlanser series: a real-time strategy role-playing game from the creators of the Langrisser series. In 2004, after the release of Growlanser IV, the majority of Career Soft's staff was merged into the main development team of Atlus where they worked on the Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Survivor games. As a developer brand, Career Soft was eventually dissolved.
On October 2003, Japanese toy company Takara acquired Atlus. On 21 November 2006 Index Holdings announced the acquisition of Atlus, effective on 30 October, and purchased 7.7 million shares (54.93 percent; 77,000 votes, or 54.96 percent of the voting rights) on 20 November 2006. Atlus became an Index Holdings subsidiary on 29 November 2006.
On March 2009, Atlus and Sting Entertainment announced a publishing partnership making Atlus the only publisher of Sting-developed games in Japan. On 17 September 2009, Index Holdings announced the separation of Atlus' amusement facility and related business into a subsidiary, New Entertainment Waves, effective on 1 December. One hundred seventy-two shares of the subsidiary's stock were also transferred to Chushoukigyou Leisure on 1 December.
On 30 August 2010, Index Holdings announced its merger with Atlus, with Index Holdings being the surviving company, effective on 1 October. After the merger, Index Holdings would continue to operate the Atlus brand. Although fans were concerned about the company's future, CEO Shinichi Suzuki said that Atlus would continue to provide the "finest quality game experiences possible" and the merger "further strengthens the foundation of Atlus, both in Japan and here in the United States." On 9 November 2010 Index Holdings announced its renaming to Index Corporation, to be confirmed at the shareholders meeting on 25 November 2010 and effective on 1 December.
From 2010 to 2013, Atlus, as a company, ceased to exist and its name became a brand of Index Corporation for video games in Japan. However, Atlus USA remained active and was renamed Index Digital Media, serving as the North American subsidiary for Index Corporation. Much like in Japan, video games continued to be released in that region under the Atlus name during this period. In June 2013, it was reported that Index Corporation filed for civil rehabilitation proceedings, facing bankruptcy with debts of ¥24.5 billion. An Atlus USA spokesperson said that Index Digital Media and the Atlus brand were unaffected by the proceedings.
On 18 September 2013, it was reported that Sega Sammy Holdings won a bid to acquire the bankrupt Index for ¥14 billion. All Index operations, including the Atlus brand and Index Digital Media (Atlus USA), were transferred to Sega Dream Corporation (a new subsidiary of Sega Corporation) on 1 November 2013. That day, Sega announced that it would change the name of Sega Dream Corporation to Index Corporation.
On 18 February 2014, Sega announced the separation of Index Corporation's contents and solution businesses into a new subsidiary, Index Corporation, renaming the old Index Corporation and its remaining digital game business division to Atlus effective 1 April 2014. The new Atlus would include the foreign subsidiary, Index Digital Media, which would revert its name back to Atlus USA at the establishment of the new Atlus.
In April 2017, Sega Sammy Holdings announced a relocation of head office functions of the Sega Sammy Group and its major domestic subsidiaries located in the Tokyo metropolitan area to Shinagawa-ku by January 2018. Their stated reasoning was to promote cooperation among companies and creation of more active interaction of personnel, while pursuing efficient group management by consolidating scattered head office functions of the group. Atlus is one of the companies that will relocate in response to this.
Atlus U.S.A., Inc. established in 1991 and based in Irvine, California, is the American subsidiary of Atlus and publishes games created by Atlus and other developers. It was formally called Index Digital Media from 2010 to 2014 in response to Atlus being dissolved into Index Corporation.
A number of Megami Tensei games have not been released in North America. During the 1990s, Jack Bros. for Virtual Boy, Revelations: Persona for PlayStation and Revelations: The Demon Slayer for the Game Boy Color were the first three games in the series to have a North American release. The 2004 release of Shin Megami Tensei: Nocturne was the first main-series video-game release in the U.S. Since then most of the series has also been released in the U.S., including Persona 3, Devil Summoner: Raidou Kuzunoha vs. The Soulless Army and Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey.
Atlus USA has localized cult classic Disgaea: Hour of Darkness, created by Nippon Ichi Software. The company have also published the tactical role-playing game Tactics Ogre and Game Boy Advance remakes of the Kunio-kun and Double Dragon games for Million (a company composed of former Technōs Japan employees). Other notable titles include Snowboard Kids and Snowboard Kids 2 (for Nintendo 64) and Odin Sphere and the Trauma Center series. Atlus USA released Riviera: The Promised Land, a role-playing video game for the Game Boy Advance previously released for the Wonderswan Color, in 2004 in collaboration with Sting and Bandai. In 2006 Atlus USA and Sting released Yggdra Union, a strategy role-playing game (RPG) for the Game Boy Advance. After Working Designs' publication of Growlanser Generations, they released Growlanser: Heritage of War in 2005 and Growlanser Wayfarer of Time in 2012.
The company established an online division, including the Atlus Online portal which is servicing Neo Steam: The Shattered Continent and Shin Megami Tensei: Imagine. On 31 March 2013, Index Digital Media's Atlus Online Division was purchased by Marvelous AQL and transferred to Xseed Games. Atlus USA has published games under the Marl Kingdom name, beginning with Rhapsody: A Musical Adventure in 2000. On 18 February 2014 Sega announced that Index Digital Media would revert its name back to Atlus USA. In March 2016, Sega announced that all the future localized products from Atlus for North America will be published by Sega.
European and Oceania distributionEdit
Until 2017, Atlus did not have a dedicated European division for publishing and distributing their titles within the European and Oceania region. Instead, many of Atlus' titles were published in these regions by Nippon Ichi Software (NIS) and its American division NIS America. Following Atlus's acquisition by Sega Sammy Holdings, NIS found that it became more difficult to work between Sega and Atlus for distribution and in April 2016, formally ended its distribution partnership with Atlus. In July 2016, Deep Silver announced that it had come to agreement to become Atlus' distributor for Europe and Oceania, and would begin to publish titles in both retail and digital form. In August 2017, Atlus announced that they had opened a European distribution team located in Sega Europe's offices in London that would publish all its titles going forward.
Jack Frost, who appears as a demon in the Shin Megami Tensei franchise, is the company mascot. Resembling a snowman, he has teeth, a tail and no nose, and wears a jester hat, collar, and shoes. His catchphrase is "Hee-Ho". He has appeared in several games in the Shin Megami Tensei series, as well as the Jack Bros. games. Jack Frost is a hidden character in the North American and Japanese versions of SBK: Snowboard Kids, with a larger role in the Japanese version. He has a family; more relatives were created since Shin Megami Tensei II, including King Frost, Frost 5 Senshi and Black Frost.
Media based on Atlus gamesEdit
- Shin Megami Tensei: Tokyo Mokushiroku
- Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Children
- Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Children 2 Light & Dark
- Devil Survivor 2: The Animation
- Persona: Trinity Soul
- Persona 4: The Animation
- Persona 4: The Golden Animation
- Persona 3 The Movie: #1 Spring of Birth.
- Persona 3 The Movie: #2 Midsummer Knight's Dream
- Persona 3 The Movie: #3 Falling Down
- Persona 3 The Movie: #4 Winter of Rebirth
- Persona 5: The Animation – The Day Breakers
- Persona 5: The Animation
- "Atlus Employee Profile". mynavi. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
- North, Dale. "Call the Persona team 'P Studio'". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 23 October 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Minotti, Mike. "Atlus forms new Studio Zero and tasks Persona director on a fantasy role-playing game". Venture Beat. Archived from the original on 2 November 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "History of SEGA SAMMY Group/SEGA before Business Integration｜SEGA SAMMY Group｜SEGA SAMMY HOLDINGS". Segasammy.co.jp. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Pan, Lu (2015). Aestheticizing Public Space: Street Visual Politics in East Asian Cities. Intellect Books. p. 107. ISBN 9781783204533.
- Miller, Laura (2018). "10. Purikura: Expressive Energy in Female Self-Photography". Introducing Japanese Popular Culture. Routledge. ISBN 9781317528937.
- "Harvard Asia Quarterly". Harvard Asia Quarterly. Harvard University. 7 (1–3): 32. 2003.
Purikura, clipped from purinto kurabu, was invented by Atlus, a Tokyo-based game software company. A female employee named Sasaki Miho had noticed the popularity of stickers among schoolgirls, a craze that also generated huge sales. In 1994, Sasaki came up with the idea of combining stickers with photos and proposed it to her Atlus employers, but her male bosses did not think it worth pursuing until 1995, when they finally gave her concept a chance.
- Edwards, Elizabeth F.; Hart, Janice (2004). Photographs Objects Histories: On the Materiality of Images. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415254410.
- "Atlus Acquires Career Soft". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- 沿革：株式会社アトラス IR情報・会社情報
- "Regarding tender offer results and subsidiary companies" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Atlus Partners with Sting". IGN. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- 株式会社ＮＥＷＳ 訂正臨時報告書 2010年10月08日 - 投資関係をなんとなくわかった気になる
- 当社子会社（株式会社アトラス）における 会社分割によるアミューズメント施設関連事業の分社化、並びに新設株式会社株式譲渡に関するお知らせ[permanent dead link]
- 株式会社NEWS（ニューズ）設立[permanent dead link]
- "Atlus 'Dissolved' By Parent Company Index Holdings". Gamasutra. 30 August 2010. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "インデックス・ホールディングス、連結子会社の吸収合併に関するお知らせ～グループ価値最大化を図りインデックス、アトラスの２社を吸収合併～". Index Corporation. 30 August 2010. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- 【補足】インデックス・ホールディングス、連結子会社の吸収合併に関するお知らせ アトラスブランドについて Archived 1 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Atlus Reassures Fans Of Its Future After Merger". 1UP. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- 商号変更および定款一部変更に関するお知らせ Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Index Holdings to Change Company Name". Reuters. 9 November 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Emily Gera (27 June 2013). "Atlus at risk after parent company announces bankruptcy (update) Index". Vox Media. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Shigeru Sato & Takahiko Hyuga (18 September 2013). "Sega Said to Win Auction to Buy Bankrupt Japan Gamemaker Index". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Notice of Conclusion regarding Business Transfer Agreement of Index Corporation" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings Inc. 18 September 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- 当社子会社の事業譲受に関するお知らせ (in Japanese). Sega Corporation. 1 November 2013. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- 連結子会社の分割（新設分割）及び商号変更に関するお知らせ Archived 8 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Consolidation/Relocation of Head Office Functions of SEGA SAMMY Group" (PDF). Sega Sammy Holdings. 3 April 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Megami Tensei/Shin Megami Tensei". Hardcoregaming101.net. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "Nippon Ichi". Hardcoregaming101.net. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- "RPGFan News – E3 2006". 2006. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
- "Atlus Online Open For Business". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
- 当社子会社によるIndex Digital Media, Inc.（米国）のオンラインゲーム事業取得に関するお知らせ Archived 5 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Jarvis, Matthew (1 April 2016). "Sega finalises purchase of Persona developer Atlus". Develop. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Futter, Mike (31 March 2016). "Sega Is Now Publishing Atlus U.S.A. Games, But Don't Worry". GameInformer. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- MacGregor, Kyle (25 April 2016). "NIS will no longer publish Atlus games in Europe, Oceania". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Carter, Chris (6 July 2016). "Deep Silver enters publishing agreement with Atlus in Europe". Destructoid. Archived from the original on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- "Atlus establishes European publishing division". Gematsu. 24 August 2017. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
- Official website (in Japanese)