List of monarchies

There are and have been throughout recorded history a great many monarchies in the world. Tribal kingship and Chiefdoms have been the most widespread form of social organisation from the Neolithic, and the predominance of monarchies has declined only with the rise of Republicanism in the modern era.

A monarchical form of government can be combined with many different kinds of political and economic systems, from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy and from a market economy to a planned economy. Some examples for certain forms of monarchy are:

Extant monarchies are listed in bold type.


Middle Ages and RenaissanceEdit

Enlightenment and laterEdit

Dates of the latest abolitions of monarchies in Europe and the territories nearby. A green rectangle indicates that the monarchy was restored afterwards and is currently functioning. If a country has no date, it means that either it has never had a monarchical government (e.g. Switzerland) or it has been functioning throughout the country's modern history (e.g. Sweden, Denmark and Norway). Note that the dates do not necessarily mark the end of the national independent monarchy but the territory it covered (e.g. Ukraine).

Constitutional monarchiesEdit

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state.

Unitary constitutional monarchiesEdit

Unitary constitutional monarchies are unitary states which are governed constitutionally as one single unit, with a single constitutionally created legislature.

Federal constitutional monarchiesEdit

Federal constitutional monarchies are federal states in which a number of federated entities are unified under a federal government and a single monarch, who acts as ceremonial head of state.

Elective constitutional monarchiesEdit

Absolute monarchiesEdit

An absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force.

Unitary absolute monarchiesEdit

Unitary absolute monarchies are unitary states which are governed as one single unit by a single hereditary or elected leader. Some had or have a single legislature, which may or may not be constitutionally created.

Subnational monarchiesEdit

A subnational monarchy is a territory governed by a hereditary leader, but which is subordinate to a higher national government, either monarchical or republican in form.

Shared monarchiesEdit

A monarch may reign over multiple kingdoms, dominions or realms in various forms of political, dynastic, personal union or association.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ McKitterick, Rosamond, ed. (1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Volume II c.700–c.900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-36292 X.