List of Padma Vibhushan award recipients
The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for the "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The Padma Vibhushan award recipients are announced every year on Republic Day and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication released weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Urban Development used for official government notices. The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. Recipients whose awards have been revoked or restored, both of which require the authority of the President, are also registered in the Gazette and are required to surrender their medals when their names are struck from the register. As of 2018[update], none of the conferments of Padma Vibhushan have been revoked or restored. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals. The recommendations received during 1 May and 15 September of every year are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, constituted by the Prime Minister. The committee recommendations are later submitted to the Prime Minister and the President for the further approval.
|Awarded by |
Government of India
|Obverse||A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus.|
|Reverse||A platinum Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script|
|Previous name(s)||Padma Vibhushan "Pahela Warg" (Class I)|
|Next (higher)||Bharat Ratna|
|Next (lower)||Padma Bhushan|
When instituted in 1954, the Padma Vibhushan was classified as "Pahela Warg" (Class I) under the three-tier Padma Vibhushan awards; preceded by the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, and followed by "Dusra Warg" (Class II), and "Tisra Warg" (Class III). On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards; the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri. The criteria includes "exceptional and distinguished service in any field including service rendered by Government servants" but excluding those working with the Public sector undertakings with the exception of doctors and scientists. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute. The award, along with other personal civil honours, was briefly suspended twice in its history; for the first time in July 1977 when Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister. The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980, after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister. The civilian awards were suspended again in mid-1992, when two Public-Interest Litigations were filed in the High Courts questioning the civilian awards being "Titles" per an interpretation of Article 18 (1) of the Constitution.[a] The awards were reintroduced by the Supreme Court in December 1995, following the conclusion of the litigation.
The recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a medal with no monetary grant associated with the award. The decoration is a circular-shaped toned bronze medallion 1 3⁄4 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 1⁄8 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 3⁄16 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob embossed within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of diameter 1 1⁄16 inches (27 mm) is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus. The Emblem of India is placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script, inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges and all embossing on either side is of white gold with the text "Padma Vibhushan" of silver gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 1⁄4 inches (32 mm) in width. It is ranked fourth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations.
The first recipients of the Padma Vibhushan were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nandalal Bose, Zakir Husain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, V. K. Krishna Menon, and Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, who were honoured in 1954. As of 2017[update], the award has been bestowed on 300 individuals, including twelve posthumous and nineteen non-citizen recipients. Some of the recipients have refused or returned their awards; P. N. Haksar,[b] Vilayat Khan,[c] E. M. S. Namboodiripad,[d] Swami Ranganathananda,[e] and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award; the family members of Lakshmi Chand Jain (2011) and Sharad Anantrao Joshi (2016) declined their posthumous conferments,[f][g] and 1986 recipient Baba Amte returned his honour in 1991.[h] Most recently on 25 January 2019, the award has been bestowed upon four recipients; Teejan Bai, Ismaïl Omar Guelleh, Anil Manibhai Naik, and Balwant Moreshwar Purandare.
# Indicates a posthumous honour
|1954||Satyendra Nath Bose||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1954||Nandalal Bose||Arts||West Bengal|
|1954||Zakir Husain||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1954||Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1954||V. K. Krishna Menon||Public Affairs||Kerala|
|1954||Jigme Dorji Wangchuck||Public Affairs||—[A]|
|1955||Dhondo Keshav Karve||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1955||J. R. D. Tata||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|1956||Fazal Ali||Public Affairs||Bihar|
|1956||Jankibai Bajaj||Social Work||Madhya Pradesh|
|1956||Chandulal Madhavlal Trivedi||Public Affairs||Madhya Pradesh|
|1957||Ghanshyam Das Birla||Trade & Industry||Rajasthan|
|1957||Sri Prakasa||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1957||M. C. Setalvad||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1959||John Mathai||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|1959||Gaganvihari Lallubhai Mehta||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1959||Radhabinod Pal||Public Affairs||West Bengal|
|1960||Naryana Raghvan Pillai||Public Affairs||Tamil Nadu|
|1962||H. V. R. Iyengar||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|1962||Padmaja Naidu||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1962||Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit||Civil Service||Uttar Pradesh|
|1963||Suniti Kumar Chatterji||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1963||A. Lakshmanaswami Mudaliar||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|1963||Hari Vinayak Pataskar||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1964||Acharya Kakasaheb Kalelkar||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1964||Gopinath Kaviraj||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1965||Jayanto Nath Chaudhuri||Civil Service||West Bengal|
|1965||Mehdi Nawaz Jung||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1965||Arjan Singh||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1966||Valerian Gracias||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1967||Chandra Kisan Daphtary||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1967||Hafiz Mohamad Ibrahim||Civil Service||Andhra Pradesh|
|1967||Bhola Nath Jha||Civil Service||Uttar Pradesh|
|1967||P. V. R. Rao||Civil Service||Andhra Pradesh|
|1968||Madhav Shrihari Aney||Public Affairs||Madhya Pradesh|
|1968||Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar||Science & Engineering||—[B]|
|1968||Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1968||Kirpal Singh||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1968||Kalyan Sundaram||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1969||Rajeshwar Dayal||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1969||Dattatraya Shridhar Joshi||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1969||Har Gobind Khorana||Science & Engineering||—[B]|
|1969||Mohan Sinha Mehta||Civil Service||Rajasthan|
|1969||Ghananand Pande||Civil Service||Uttar Pradesh|
|1970||Tara Chand||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1970||Suranjan Das||Civil Service||West Bengal|
|1970||Anthony Lancelot Dias||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1970||P. Prabhakar Kumaramangalam||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|1970||A. Ramasamy Mudaliar||Civil Service||Andhra Pradesh|
|1970||Binay Ranjan Sen||Civil Service||West Bengal|
|1970||Harbaksh Singh||Civil Service||Punjab|
|1971||Bimala Prasad Chaliha||Civil Service||Assam|
|1971||Allauddin Khan||Arts||West Bengal|
|1971||Sumati Morarjee||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1971||Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar||Medicine||Goa|
|1971||B. Sivaraman||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|1972||P. Balacharya Gajendragadkar||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1972||Aditya Nath Jha#||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|1972||Pratap Chandra Lal||Civil Service||Punjab|
|1972||Sam Manekshaw||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|1972||Jivraj Narayan Mehta||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1972||Sardarilal Mathradas Nanda||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1972||Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq[i]#||Public Affairs||Jammu and Kashmir|
|1972||Vikram Sarabhai[ii]#||Science & Engineering||Gujarat|
|1972||Hormasji Maneckji Seervai||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1973||Basanti Devi||Civil Service||West Bengal|
|1973||U. N. Dhebar||Social Work||Gujarat|
|1973||Daulat Singh Kothari||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1973||Nellie Sengupta||Social Work||West Bengal|
|1973||Nagendra Singh||Public Affairs||Rajasthan|
|1973||Thirumalraya Swaminathan||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|1974||Niren De||Public Affairs||West Bengal|
|1974||Benode Behari Mukherjee||Arts||West Bengal|
|1974||V. K. R. V. Rao||Civil Service||Karnataka|
|1974||Harish Chandra Sarin||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1975||C. D. Deshmukh||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1975||Durgabai Deshmukh||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1975||Mary Clubwala Jadhav||Social Work||Tamil Nadu|
|1975||Basanti Dulal Nagchaudhuri||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1975||Raja Ramanna||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1975||Homi Nusserwanji Sethna||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1975||M. S. Subbulakshmi||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1975||Premlila Vithaldas Thackersey||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1976||Salim Ali||Science & Engineering||Uttar Pradesh|
|1976||Giani Gurmukh Singh Musafir||Literature & Education||Punjab|
|1976||K. Shankar Pillai||Arts||Delhi|
|1976||K. R. Ramanathan||Science & Engineering||Kerala|
|1976||Satyajit Ray||Arts||West Bengal|
|1976||Kalu Lal Shrimali||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1976||Bashir Hussain Zaidi||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1977||T. Balasaraswati||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1977||Ali Yavar Jung||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1977||Ajudhia Nath Khosla||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1977||Om Prakash Mehra||Civil Service||Punjab|
|1977||Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee||Public Affairs||West Bengal|
|1977||Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1980||Bismillah Khan||Arts||Uttar Pradesh|
|1980||Rai Krishnadasa||Civil Service||Uttar Pradesh|
|1981||Satish Dhawan||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1981||Ravi Shankar||Arts||Uttar Pradesh|
|1982||Mira Behn||Social Work||—[C]|
|1985||C. N. R. Rao||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|1985||M. G. K. Menon||Civil Service||Kerala|
|1986||Baba Amte[h]||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1986||Autar Singh Paintal||Medicine||Delhi|
|1987||Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay||Social Work||Karnataka|
|1987||Benjamin Peary Pal||Science & Engineering||Punjab|
|1987||Manmohan Singh||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1987||Arun Shridhar Vaidya||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1988||Mirza Hameedullah Beg||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1988||Kuvempu||Literature & Education||Karnataka|
|1988||Mahadevi Varma||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1989||Uma Shankar Dikshit||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|1989||Ali Akbar Khan||Arts||West Bengal|
|1989||M. S. Swaminathan||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|1990||V. S. R. Arunachalam||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|1990||Triloki Nath Chaturvedi||Civil Service||Karnataka|
|1990||Bhabatosh Datta||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|1990||Kumar Gandharva||Arts||Madhya Pradesh|
|1990||A. P. J. Abdul Kalam||Science & Engineering||Tamil Nadu|
|1990||Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1991||M. Balamuralikrishna||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1991||M. F. Husain||Arts||Maharashtra|
|1991||Hirendranath Mukherjee||Public Affairs||West Bengal|
|1991||Gulzarilal Nanda||Public Affairs||Gujarat|
|1991||I. G. Patel||Science & Engineering||Gujarat|
|1991||N. G. Ranga||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1991||Khusro Faramurz Rustamji||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|1991||Rajaram Shastri||Literature & Education||Uttar Pradesh|
|1992||Aruna Asaf Ali||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1992||Lakshman Shastri Joshi||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1992||S. I. Padmavati||Medicine||Delhi|
|1992||Kaloji Narayana Rao||Arts||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Ravi Narayana Reddy||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|1992||Govindbhai Shroff||Literature & Education||Maharashtra|
|1992||Swaran Singh||Public Affairs||Punjab|
|1992||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1998||Usha Mehta||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1998||Nanabhoy Palkhivala||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|1998||Lakshmi Sahgal||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|1998||Walter Sisulu||Public Affairs||—[D]|
|1999||Pandurang Shastri Athavale||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|1999||Rajagopala Chidambaram||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|1999||Nanaji Deshmukh||Social Work||Delhi|
|1999||Sarvepalli Gopal||Literature & Education||Tamil Nadu|
|1999||V. R. Krishna Iyer||Public Affairs||Kerala|
|1999||Hans Raj Khanna||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|1999||Verghese Kurien||Science & Engineering||Gujarat|
|1999||Braj Kumar Nehru||Civil Service||Himachal Pradesh|
|1999||D. K. Pattammal||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|1999||Lallan Prasad Singh[iii]#||Civil Service||Delhi|
|1999||Dharma Vira||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2000||Sikander Bakht||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2000||Jagdish Bhagwati||Literature & Education||—[B]|
|2000||M. S. Gill||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2000||Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2000||K. B. Lall||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2000||M. Narasimham||Trade & Industry||Andhra Pradesh|
|2000||R. K. Narayan||Literature & Education||Tamil Nadu|
|2000||Bhairab Dutt Pande||Civil Service||Uttarakhand|
|2000||K. N. Raj||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|2000||Tarlok Singh||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2001||John Kenneth Galbraith||Literature & Education||—[B]|
|2001||Benjamin A. Gilman||Public Affairs||—[B]|
|2001||Amjad Ali Khan||Arts||Delhi|
|2001||Kotha Satchidanda Murthy||Literature & Education||Andhra Pradesh|
|2001||Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|2001||Hosei Norota||Public Affairs||—[E]|
|2001||C. R. Rao||Science & Engineering||—[B]|
|2001||Man Mohan Sharma||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|2002||Kishan Maharaj||Arts||Uttar Pradesh|
|2002||C. Rangarajan||Literature & Education||Andhra Pradesh|
|2002||Soli Sorabjee||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2003||Kazi Lhendup Dorjee||Public Affairs||West Bengal|
|2003||Bal Ram Nanda||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|2003||Brihaspati Dev Triguna||Medicine||Delhi|
|2004||Jayant Narlikar||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|2004||Amrita Pritam||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|2004||M. N. Venkatachaliah||Public Affairs||Karnataka|
|2005||Milon K. Banerji||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2005||Mohan Dharia||Social Work||Maharashtra|
|2005||Jyotindra Nath Dixit[iv]#||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2005||B. K. Goyal||Medicine||Maharashtra|
|2005||R. K. Laxman||Arts||Maharashtra|
|2005||Karan Singh||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2005||M. S. Valiathan||Medicine||Delhi|
|2006||Norman Borlaug||Science & Engineering||—[B]|
|2006||Charles Correa||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|2006||Nirmala Deshpande||Social Work||Delhi|
|2006||Mahasweta Devi||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|2006||V. N. Khare||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|2006||C. R. Krishnaswamy Rao||Civil Service||Tamil Nadu|
|2006||Obaid Siddiqi||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2006||Prakash Narain Tandon||Medicine||Delhi|
|2007||P. N. Bhagwati||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2007||Naresh Chandra||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2007||Raja Chelliah||Public Affairs||Tamil Nadu|
|2007||V. Krishnamurthy||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2007||Fali Sam Nariman||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2007||Raja Rao[v]#||Literature & Education||—[B]|
|2007||Khushwant Singh[i]||Literature & Education||Delhi|
|2007||George Sudarshan||Science & Engineering||—[B]|
|2007||Narinder Nath Vohra||Civil Service||Haryana|
|2008||Adarsh Sein Anand||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|2008||Viswanathan Anand||Sports||Tamil Nadu|
|2008||P. N. Dhar||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2008||Lakshmi Mittal||Trade & Industry||—[C]|
|2008||Pranab Mukherjee||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2008||N. R. Narayana Murthy||Trade & Industry||Karnataka|
|2008||Prithvi Raj Singh Oberoi||Trade & Industry||Delhi|
|2008||Rajendra K. Pachauri||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|2008||E. Sreedharan||Science & Engineering||Delhi|
|2008||Ratan Tata||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|2009||Jasbir Singh Bajaj||Medicine||Punjab|
|2009||D. P. Chattopadhyaya||Literature & Education||West Bengal|
|2009||Ashok Sekhar Ganguly||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|2009||Sister Nirmala||Social Work||West Bengal|
|2009||Anil Kakodkar||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|2009||Purshotam Lal||Medicine||Uttar Pradesh|
|2009||G. Madhavan Nair||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2009||Govind Narain||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|2009||Chandrika Prasad Srivastava||Civil Service||Maharashtra|
|2010||Venkatraman Ramakrishnan||Science & Engineering||—[C]|
|2010||Prathap C. Reddy||Trade & Industry||Tamil Nadu|
|2010||Y. Venugopal Reddy||Public Affairs||Andhra Pradesh|
|2010||Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman||Arts||Tamil Nadu|
|2011||Montek Singh Ahluwalia||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2011||Vijay Kelkar||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|2011||Akhlaqur Rahman Kidwai||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2011||O. N. V. Kurup||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|2011||Sitakant Mahapatra||Literature & Education||Odisha|
|2011||Brajesh Mishra||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2011||K. Parasaran||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2011||Azim Premji||Trade & Industry||Karnataka|
|2011||Palle Rama Rao||Science & Engineering||Andhra Pradesh|
|2011||Akkineni Nageswara Rao||Arts||Andhra Pradesh|
|2012||T. V. Rajeswar||Civil Service||Delhi|
|2012||Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti||Medicine||Maharashtra|
|2012||K. G. Subramanyan||Arts||Gujarat|
|2013||Roddam Narasimha||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2013||Yash Pal||Science & Engineering||Uttar Pradesh|
|2013||S. H. Raza||Arts||Delhi|
|2014||B. K. S. Iyengar||Others||Maharashtra|
|2014||Raghunath Anant Mashelkar||Science & Engineering||Maharashtra|
|2015||L. K. Advani||Public Affairs||Gujarat|
|2015||Parkash Singh Badal||Public Affairs||Punjab|
|2015||Veerendra Heggade||Social Work||Karnataka|
|2015||M. R. Srinivasan||Science & Engineering||Tamil Nadu|
|2015||Kottayan Katankot Venugopal||Public Affairs||Delhi|
|2015||Karim Al Hussaini Aga Khan||Trade & Industry||—[C][G]|
|2016||V. K. Aatre||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2016||Dhirubhai Ambani[ix]#||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|2016||Girija Devi||Arts||West Bengal|
|2016||Avinash Dixit||Literature & Education||—[B]|
|2016||Ramoji Rao||Literature & Education||Telangana|
|2016||Sri Sri Ravi Shankar[j]||Others||Karnataka|
|2016||V. Shanta||Medicine||Tamil Nadu|
|2017||Murli Manohar Joshi||Public Affairs||Uttar Pradesh|
|2017||Sunder Lal Patwa[x]#||Public Affairs||Madhya Pradesh|
|2017||Sharad Pawar||Public Affairs||Maharashtra|
|2017||Udupi Ramachandra Rao||Science & Engineering||Karnataka|
|2017||P. A. Sangma[xi]#||Public Affairs||Meghalaya|
|2017||Jaggi Vasudev||Others||Tamil Nadu|
|2017||K. J. Yesudas||Arts||Kerala|
|2018||Ghulam Mustafa Khan||Arts||Maharashtra|
|2018||P. Parameswaran||Literature & Education||Kerala|
|2019||Ismaïl Omar Guelleh||Public Affairs||—[H]|
|2019||Anil Manibhai Naik||Trade & Industry||Maharashtra|
|2019||Balwant Moreshwar Purandare||Arts||Maharashtra|
- Per Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India: Abolition of titles, "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State".
- P. N. Haksar was offered the award in 1973 for, among other services, his crucial diplomatic role in brokering the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation and the Shimla Agreement, but declined as "Accepting an award for work done somehow causes an inexplicable discomfort to me."
- Vilayat Khan refused Padma Shri (1964), Padma Bhushan (1968), and Padma Vibhushan (2000) and stated that "the selection committees were incompetent to judge [his] music".
- E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) from 1964) and the first Chief Minister of Kerala (1957-59, 1967-69), declined the award in 1992, as it went against his nature to accept a state honour.
- Swami Ranganathananda declined the award in 2000 as it was conferred to him as an individual and not to the Ramakrishna Mission.
- Lakshmi Chand Jain died on 14 November 2010, at the age of 84. His family refused to accept the posthumous honour as Jain was against accepting state honours.
- Sharad Anantrao Joshi's family refused to accept the posthumous honour as Joshi's work for good of farmers is not reflected in the Government policies for them.
- In 1991, Baba Amte returned the award, along with the Padma Shri conferred in 1971, to protest against the treatment given to the tribals during the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam.
- Khushwant Singh was awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian award, in 1974; he returned the award in 1984 in protest against Operation Blue Star led by the Indian Army.
- Sri Sri Ravi Shankar declined the award in 2015 and requested that "someone else should be given the honour".
- Non-citizen recipients
- Indicates a citizen of Bhutan
- Indicates a citizen of the United States
- Indicates a citizen of the United Kingdom
- Indicates a citizen of South Africa
- Indicates a citizen of Japan
- Indicates a citizen of New Zealand
- Indicates a citizen of France
- Indicates a citizen of Djibouti
- Posthumous recipients
- Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq died on 12 December 1971, at the age of 59.
- Vikram Sarabhai died on 30 December 1971, at the age of 52.
- Lallan Prasad Singh died on 9 November 1998, at the age of 86.
- Jyotindra Nath Dixit died on 3 January 2005, at the age of 68.
- Raja Rao died on 8 July 2006, at the age of 97.
- Edmund Hillary died on 11 January 2008, at the age of 88.
- Bhupen Hazarika died on 5 November 2011, at the age of 85.
- Mario Miranda died on 11 December 2011, at the age of 85.
- Dhirubhai Ambani died on 6 July 2002, at the age of 69.
- Sunder Lal Patwa died on 28 December 2016, at the age of 92.
- P. A. Sangma died on 4 March 2016, at the age of 68.
- "Who's getting a Padma? Bill and Melinda Gates, L.K. Advani and Dilip Kumar honoured with prestigious award". Daily Mail. Mail Online. 26 January 2015. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated "Padma Vibhushan" in three classes, namely: "Pahela Varg", "Dusra Varg" and "Tisra Varg"
- "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
- Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India. The President's Secretariat (published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
All persons upon whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan (Pahela Warg) was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan has been conferred by the President.
- "Bharat Ratna Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Hoiberg & Ramchandani 2000, p. 96.
- Bhattacherje 2009, p. A248.
- Edgar 2011, p. C-105.
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