Distinguished Flying Cross (United Kingdom)
The Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) is the third-level military decoration awarded to officers, and since 1993 to other ranks, of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force and other services, and formerly to officers of other Commonwealth countries, for "an act or acts of valour, courage or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy".
|Distinguished Flying Cross|
Obverse of the decoration.
|Awarded by United Kingdom and Commonwealth|
|Eligibility||British, Commonwealth, and allied forces|
|Awarded for||... exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy in the air.|
|Established||3 June 1918|
|Total awarded||To 2017: 22,322 crosses; 1,737 bars|
|Order of Wear|
|Next (higher)||Military Cross|
|Next (lower)||Air Force Cross|
|Related||Distinguished Flying Medal|
Ribbon: diagonal alternate white and purple stripes
The award was established on 3 June 1918, shortly after the formation of the Royal Air Force (RAF), with the Royal Warrant published on 5 December 1919. It was originally awarded to RAF commissioned and warrant officers, including officers in Commonwealth and allied forces. In March 1941 eligibility was extended to Naval Officers of the Fleet Air Arm, and in November 1942 to Army officers, including Royal Artillery officers serving on attachment to the RAF as pilots-cum-artillery observers. Posthumous awards were permitted from 1979.
Since the 1993 review of the honours system as part of the drive to remove distinctions of rank in bravery awards, all ranks of all arms of the Armed Forces have been eligible, and the Distinguished Flying Medal, which had until then been awarded to other ranks, was discontinued. While remaining a reward for "flying in active operations against the enemy", the requirement was changed from "valour, courage or devotion to duty" to "exemplary gallantry".
The DFC had also been awarded by Commonwealth countries but by the 1990s most, including Canada, Australia and New Zealand, had established their own honours systems and no longer recommended British honours.
The DFC now serves as the third-level award for all ranks of the British Armed Forces for exemplary gallantry in active operations against the enemy in the air, not to the standard required to receive the Victoria Cross or the Conspicuous Gallantry Cross. Apart from honorary awards to those serving with allied forces, all awards of the DFC are announced in the London Gazette.
The decoration, designed by Edward Carter Preston, is a cross flory, 2.125 inches (54.0 mm) wide. The horizontal and bottom bars are terminated with bumps, the upper bar with a rose. The decoration's face features aeroplane propellers, superimposed on the vertical arms of the cross, and wings on the horizontal arms. In the centre is a laurel wreath around the RAF monogram, surmounted by a heraldic Imperial Crown.
The reverse is plain, except for a central roundel bearing the reigning monarch's cypher and the date '1918'. Originally awarded unnamed, from 1939 the year of issue was engraved on the reverse lower limb of cross, and since 1984 it has been awarded named to the recipient.
The suspender is straight and decorated with laurel wreaths.
The ribbon bar denoting a further award is silver, with the Royal Air Force eagle in its centre. Bars awarded during World War II have the year of award engraved on the reverse.
The 1.25-inch (32 mm) ribbon was originally white with deep purple broad horizontal stripes, but it was changed in 1919 to the current white with purple broad diagonal stripes.
|Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon bars|
|DFC||DFC and Bar||DFC and Two Bars|
From 1918 to 2017 approximately 22,322 Distinguished Flying Crosses and 1,737 bars have been awarded. The figures to 1979 are laid out in the table below, the dates reflecting the relevant entries in the London Gazette:
|Period||Crosses||1st bar||2nd bar|
|World War I||1918–19||1,045||62||3|
|World War II||1939–45||20,354||1,550||42|
In addition, between 1980 and 2017 approximately 80 DFCs have been earned, including awards for the Falklands and the wars in the Gulf, Iraq and Afghanistan. In addition, two second-award, and one third-award bar have been awarded.
The above figures include awards to the Dominions:
In all, 4,460 DFCs have gone to Canadians, including 256 first bars and six second bars. Of these, 193 crosses and nine first bars were for service with the RAF in World War I. For World War II, 4,018 DFCs with 213 first bars and six second bars were earned by members of the Royal Canadian Air Force, with a further 247 crosses and 34 first bars to Canadians serving with the RAF.
From 1918 to 1972 the DFC was awarded to 2,391 Australians, along with 144 first Bars and five second Bars.
Over 1,000 DFCs were awarded to New Zealanders during the World War II, with the most recent awards for service in Vietnam. In 1999 the DFC was replaced by the New Zealand Gallantry Decoration.
A total of 1,022 honorary awards have been made to members of allied foreign forces. This comprises 46 for World War I, 927 with 34 first and three second award bars for World War II, eight with three bars to members of the US Air Force for the Korean War, and one to the US Marine Corps during the Iraq War.
- King Albert I of Belgium, who on many occasions during World War I was flown in a British aircraft to reconnoitre enemy positions.
- Wing Commander Douglas Rivers Bagnall, DSO, who won the DFC and also the American DFC.
- John Balmer, RAAF pilot
- Roy Calvert, RNZAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Major General Levi R. Chase, American flying ace, awarded DFC with bar (WWII and Korea)
- Major William Chesarek, United States Marine Corps, helicopter pilot who in 2006 rescued a British serviceman during the Iraq War.
- Flight Lieutenant Pierre Clostermann, French RAF officer, in 1945 who was awarded RAF DFC & bar.
- Harry Cobby, flying ace of the Australian Flying Corps who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Gordon Cochrane, RNZAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Capt. Duncan Ronald Gordon Mackay, the last fatality of the First World War.
- Flight Lieutenant Michelle Goodman, RAF, in 2008 she became the first woman to be awarded the DFC.
- Peter Stanley James, RAF, who in July 1941 took part in a daylight raid on the German battleship Scharnhorst in dock at La Rochelle.
- Philip Robinson, RAF pilot who was awarded the DFC three times.
- Keith 'Bluey' Truscott, Famous footballer, and RAAF pilot who was awarded the DFC twice.
- Arjan Singh, Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC. He later become Marshal of Indian Air Force.
- Mohinder Singh Pujji, Indian Air Force was awarded the DFC.
- Group Captain Peter Townsend, CVO, DSO, DFC & bar. An RAF flying ace, courtier and author, he was equerry to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II, and also had a romance with Princess Margaret.
- Harold Whistler, Royal Flying Corps flying ace who was awarded the DFC three times
- Wing Commander Robert Stanford Tuck, Royal Air Force flying ace who was awarded the DFC three times
- Squadron Leader Stuart Mitchell, Royal Air Force, the only Tanker Pilot to be Awarded the DFC to date, for his actions in the Bosnia campaign.
- "Medals: campaigns, descriptions and eligibility". Ministry of Defence. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "JSP 761: Honours and Awards in the Armed Forces" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. December 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- "No. 31674". The London Gazette. 5 December 1919. p. 15049.
- P E Abbott & J M A Tamplin. British Gallantry Awards. pp. 91–95. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981.ISBN 0-902633-74-0
- P E Abbott & J M A Tamplin. British Gallantry Awards. p. xx. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981.ISBN 0-902633-74-0
- Peter Duckers. British Gallantry Awards 1855 – 2000. pp. 29–30. Shire Publications, Oxford, 2010.ISBN 978-0-7478-0516-8.
- "No. 56693". The London Gazette. 17 September 2002. p. 11147.
- John Mussell (ed). Medal Yearbook 2015. pp. 390, 429, 459. Token Publishing, Honiton, Devon.ISBN 978-1-908-828-16-3
- Captain H. Taprell Dorling. Ribbons and Medals. p. 41. Published A.H.Baldwin & Sons, London. 1956.
- Crompton, Ann, ed. (1999). Edward Carter Preston, 1885–1965: Sculptor, Painter, Medallist. University of Liverpool Art Gallery. ISBN 0853237921.
- John Mussell (ed). Medal Yearbook 2015. pp. 87. Token Publishing, Honiton, Devon.ISBN 978-1-908-828-16-3
- P E Abbott & J M A Tamplin. British Gallantry Awards. pp. 95–98. Nimrod Dix & Co, London, 1981.ISBN 0-902633-74-0
- Post 1979 DFCs include 9 for the Falklands (London Gazette Supplement, 8 October 1982); 5 for Sierra Leone (London Gazette Supplement, 30 September 2003); 14 for Gulf War (London Gazette Supplement, 29 June 1991Late award: 21 November 1994) & 1 honorary award; 16 & 2 bars for Iraq and 29 & 1 second award bar for Afghanistan, plus awards for smaller conflicts.
- "No. 58092". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 September 2006. p. 12274.
- "No. 58776". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 July 2008. p. 11242.
- Veterans Affairs Canada – Distinguished Flying Cross (Retrieved 25 November 2018)
- "Imperial Awards". It's an Honour. Australian Government. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- New Zealand Defence Force: British Commonwealth Gallantry Awards: Distinguished Flying Cross (Retrieved 25 November 2018)
- "Historic award for female private". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. 22 March 2007. p. 8. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
- "Recommendation: Distinguished Flying Cross". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- Harris, Paul (8 March 2008). "The brown-eyed, blonde RAF hero who is proud to wear her uniform". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
- "No. 58633". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 March 2008. p. 3616.
- "BBC News | UK | Queen honours brave pilots". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2019.