List of Mesopotamian dynasties

The history of Mesopotamia extends from the Lower Paleolithic period until the establishment of the Caliphate in the late 7th century AD, after which the region came to be known as Iraq. This list covers dynasties and monarchs of Mesopotamia up until the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 539 BC, after which native Mesopotamian monarchs never again ruled the region.

A selection of Mesopotamian rulers: Ur-Nanshe of Lagash (top left; c. 2500 BC), Naram-Sin of Akkad (top right; c. 2254–2218 BC), Marduk-nadin-ahhe of Babylon (bottom left; c. 1095–1078 BC), and Sargon II of Assyria (bottom right; 722–705 BC)

The earliest records of writing are known from the Uruk period (or "Protoliterate period") in the 4th millennium BC, with documentation of actual historical events, and the ancient history of the region, being known from the middle of the third millennium BC onwards, alongside cuneiform records written by early kings. This period, known as the Early Dynastic Period, is typically subdivided into three: 2900–2750 BC (ED I), 2750–2600 BC (ED II) and 2600–2350 BC (ED III),[1] and was followed by Akkadian (~2350–2100 BC) and Neo-Sumerian (2112–2004 BC) periods, after which Mesopotamia was most often divided between Assyria in the north and Babylonia in the south. In 609 BC, after about a century of the kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire ruling both Assyria and Babylonia, the Neo-Babylonian Empire destroyed Assyria and became the sole power in Mesopotamia. The conquest of Babylon by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC initiated centuries of Iranian rule (under the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sasanian empires), which was only briefly interrupted by the Hellenistic Argeads and Seleucids (331–141 BC) and the Roman Empire (AD 116–117).

This list follows the middle chronology, the most widely used chronology of Mesopotamian history.

Early dynastic period (c. 2900–2350 BC)Edit

Before the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC, Mesopotamia was fragmented into a number of city states. Whereas some surviving Mesopotamian documents, such as the Sumerian King List, describe this period as one where there was only one legitimate king at any one given time, and kingship was transferred from city to city sequentially, the historical reality was that there were often many political leaders at any one given time.[2] The Sumerian King List is generally not regarded as historically reliable given the exaggerated reign lengths (some rulers are described as ruling for hundreds or even thousands of years) and the fact that out of the massive amount of pre-Akkadian rulers listed in the SKL, very few are actually attested in surviving evidence from the Early Dynastic period.[3] It is considered most appropriate by modern scholars to rely solely on actual Early Dynastic sources for reconstructing historical events during the Early Dynastic period.[4] As such, the table below only lists rulers whose existence is attested by other more contemporary sources.

Century Kish Uruk Ur Lagash Umma Adab
c. 2600s BC Enmebaragesi[5]
Mesilim
Meskiagnun[3]
Elulu[3]
Gilgamesh[3][5] A-Imdugud
Ur-Pabilsag
Meskalamdug[6]
Akalamdug[6]
Mesannepada[3]
A'annepada[6]
Meskiagnun[3]
Elulu[3]
c. 2500s BC En-hegal
Lugalshaengur
Ur-Nanshe[6]
Akurgal[6]
Pabilgagaltuku
Ush
c. 2400s BC Lugal-kinishe-dudu
Lugal-kisalsi
Lugal-kinishe-dudu
Lugal-kisalsi
Lugal-kinishe-dudu
Lugal-kisalsi
Eannatum[6]
Enannatum I[6]
Entemena[6]
Enannatum II[6]
Enentarzi[6]
Enakalle
Ur-Lumma
Il
Gishakidu
Edin
Meanedu
Ushurdu
Lugal-Anne-Mundu
Mug-si
E-iginimpa'e
c. 2300s BC Lugal-zage-si[3] Enshakushanna
Lugal-zage-si[3]
Lugalanda[6]
Urukagina
Lugal-zage-si[3]
Lugalanda[6]
Urukagina
Lugal-zage-si[3]
Ukush
Lugal-zage-si[3]
Meskigal
Lugal-zage-si[3]

Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods (c. 2334–2004 BC)Edit

Akkad Gutium Lagash Uruk / Ur
Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref
Sargonic dynasty
Sargon c. 2334–2279 BC [7]
Rimush c. 2278–2270 BC [7]
Manishtushu c. 2269–2255 BC [7] Second dynasty of Lagash
Naram-Sin c. 2254–2218 BC [7] Gutian dynasty Lugal-ushumgal c. 2230–2210 BC
Shar-Kali-Sharri c. 2217–2193 BC [7] Erridupizir c. 2220–2202 BC Puzer-Mama around 2210 BC Fourth dynasty of Uruk
Imta c. 2202–2199 BC Ur-Ningirsu I around 2200 BC Ur-nigin around 2200 BC
Pirig-me around 2200 BC Ur-gigir around 2200 BC
Inkishush c. 2199–2195 BC
Igigi (non-dynastic) c. 2193 BC [7] Sarlagab c. 2195–2192 BC Kuda uncertain
Imi (non-dynastic) c. 2192 BC [7] Shulme c. 2192–2186 BC Lu-Baba uncertain Puzur-ili uncertain
Nanum (non-dynastic) c. 2191 BC [7]
Ilulu (non-dynastic) c. 2190 BC [7] Lugula uncertain Ur-Utu uncertain
Dudu c. 2189–2169 BC [7] Elulmesh c. 2186–2180 BC
Inimabakesh c. 2180–2175 BC
Igeshaush c. 2175–2169 BC Kaku uncertain
Shu-turul c. 2168–2154 BC [7] Yarlagab c. 2169–2154 BC
Akkad defeated by the Gutians
Ibate c. 2154–2151 BC Ur-Baba c. 2157–2144 BC
Yarla c. 2151–2148 BC
Kurum c. 2148–2147 BC
Apilkin c. 2147–2144 BC
La-erabum c. 2144–2142 BC Gudea c. 2144–2124 BC
Irarum c. 2142–2140 BC
Ibranum c. 2140–2139 BC
Hablum c. 2139–2137 BC
Puzur-Suen c. 2137–2130 BC
Yarlaganda c. 2130–2123 BC
Si'um c. 2123–2116 BC Ur-Ningirsu II c. 2124–2119 BC Fifth dynasty of Uruk
Tirigan c. 2116 BC Ur-gar c. 2117–2113 BC Utu-hengal c. 2119–2113 BC
Gutians defeated by Utu-Hengal of Uruk Third dynasty of Ur
Nam-mahani c. 2113–2110 BC Ur-Nammu c. 2112–2095 BC [8]
Lagash defeated by Ur-Nammu of Ur Shulgi c. 2094–2047 BC [8]
Amar-Sin c. 2046–2038 BC [8]
Shu-Sin c. 2037–2029 BC [8]
Ibbi-Sin c. 2028–2004 BC [8]

Isin–Larsa and rise of Babylon (c. 2025–1750 BC)Edit

Southern Mesopotamia Northern Mesopotamia
Isin Larsa Babylon Uruk Eshnunna Assyria
Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref
First dynasty of Isin Dynasty of Larsa Dynasty of Eshnunna Puzur-Ashur dynasty
Ishbi-Erra c. 2017–1985 BC [8] Naplanum c. 2025–2005 BC [8] Ituria uncertain [9] Puzur-Ashur I[a] uncertain [10]
Emisum c. 2004–1977 BC [8] Ilushuilia uncertain [9] Shalim-ahum uncertain [10]
Shu-Ilishu c. 1984–1975 BC [8] Nurakhum uncertain [9] Ilu-shuma uncertain [10]
Iddin-Dagan c. 1974–1954 BC [8] Samium c. 1976–1942 BC [8] Kirikiri uncertain [9] Erishum I c. 1974–1935 BC [10]
Ishme-Dagan c. 1953–1935 BC [8] Zabaia c. 1941–1933 BC [8] Bilalama uncertain [9]
Lipit-Eshtar c. 1934–1924 BC [8] Gungunum c. 1932–1906 BC [8] Azuzum uncertain [9] Ikunum c. 1934–1921 BC [10]
Ur-Ninurta c. 1923–1896 BC [8] Abisare c. 1905–1895 BC [8] Amorite dynasty (Dynasty I) Ipiq-Adad I uncertain [9] Sargon I c. 1920–1881 BC [10]
Bur-Suen c. 1895–1874 BC [8] Sumuel c. 1894–1866 BC [8] Sumu-abum c. 1894–1881 BC [11] Shiqlanum uncertain [9]
Lipit-Enlil c. 1873–1869 BC [8] Abdi-Erah uncertain [9] Puzur-Ashur II c. 1880–1873 BC [10]
Erra-imitti c. 1868–1861 BC [8] Nur-Adad c. 1865–1850 BC [8] Sumu-la-El c. 1880–1845 BC [11] Sixth dynasty of Uruk Belakum uncertain [9]
Enlil-bani c. 1860–1837 BC [8] Sin-Iddinam c. 1849–1843 BC [8] Sin-kashid uncertain [12] Warassa uncertain [9] Naram-Sin c. 1872–1829 BC [10]
Zambiya c. 1836–1834 BC [8] Sin-Eribam c. 1842–1841 BC [8] Sabium c. 1844–1831 BC [11] Sin-eribam uncertain [12] Ibal-pi-El I uncertain [9]
Iter-pisha c. 1833–1831 BC [8] Sin-Iqisham c. 1840–1836 BC [8] Sin-gamil uncertain [12] Ipiq-Adad II uncertain [9]
Silli-Adad c. 1835 BC [8] Anam uncertain [12] Naram-Sin uncertain [9]
Ur-du-kuga c. 1830–1828 BC [8] Warad-Sin c. 1834–1823 BC [13] Irdanene uncertain [12] Dadusha uncertain [9]
Suen-magir c. 1827–1817 BC [8] Rim-Sin I[b] c. 1822–1763 BC [13] Apil-Sin c. 1830–1813 BC [11] Rim-Anum uncertain [12] Ibal-pi-El II c. 1762 BC [9] Erishum II c. 1828–1809 BC [10]
Shamshi-Adad dynasty
Damiq-ilishu c. 1816–1794 BC [8] Sin-Muballit c. 1812–1793 BC [11] Nabi-ilishu c. 1802 BC [12] Shamshi-Adad I c. 1808–1776 BC [10]
Isin defeated by Rim-Sin I of Larsa
Hammurabi c. 1792–1750 BC [11] Uruk defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon Eshnunna defeated by Siwepalarhuhpak of Elam Ishme-Dagan I c. 1775–1735 BC [10]
Larsa defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon

Fragmentation of Babylonia (c. 1749–1475 BC)Edit

Southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia) Northern Mesopotamia
Babylon Kassites Sealand Assyria
Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref
Amorite dynasty (Dynasty I; continued) Kassite dynasty (Dynasty III) First Sealand dynasty (Dynasty II) Shamshi-Adad dynasty (continued)
Samsu-iluna c. 1749–1712 BC [11] Gandash c. 1729–1704 BC [14] Ilum-ma-ili c. 1725–? BC [15] Mut-Ashkur uncertain [16]
Rimush uncertain [16]
Abi-Eshuh c. 1711–1684 BC [11] Agum I c. 1703–1682 BC [14] Itti-ili-nibi uncertain [15] Asinum uncertain [16]
Seven usurpers
Ashur-dugul uncertain [16]
Ashur-apla-idi [16]
Nasir-Sin [16]
Sin-namir [16]
Ipqi-Ishtar [16]
Adad-salulu [16]
Adasi [16]
Adaside dynasty
Damqi-ilishu uncertain [15] Bel-bani c. 1700–1691 BC [16]
Kashtiliash I c. 1681–1660 BC [14] Libaya c. 1691–1674 BC [16]
Ammi-Ditana c. 1683–1647 BC [11] Abi-Rattash uncertain [17] Ishkibal uncertain [15] Sharma-Adad I c. 1673–1662 BC [16]
Iptar-Sin c. 1661–1650 BC [16]
Ammi-Saduqa c. 1646–1626 BC [11] Shushushi uncertain [15] Bazaya c. 1649–1622 BC [16]
Samsu-Ditana c. 1625–1595 BC [11] Kashtiliash II uncertain [17] Gulkishar uncertain [15] Lullaya c. 1621–1616 BC [16]
Shu-Ninua c. 1615–1602 BC [16]
Sharma-Adad II c. 1601–1598 BC [16]
Babylon destroyed by the Hittites Urzigurumash uncertain [17] Peshgaldaramesh c. 1599–1549 BC [15] Erishum III c. 1598–1586 BC [16]
Agum II uncertain [17] Shamshi-Adad II c. 1585–1580 BC [16]
Harba-Shipak uncertain [17] Ishme-Dagan II c. 1580–1564 BC [16]
Kassite dynasty (Dynasty III) Shipta'ulzi uncertain [17] Shamshi-Adad III c. 1564–1548 BC [16]
Burnaburiash I[c] c. 1530–1500 BC [18] Burnaburiash I c. 1530–1500 BC [18] Ayadaragalama c. 1548–1520 BC [15] Ashur-nirari I c. 1548–1522 BC [16]
Akurduana c. 1519–1493 BC [15] Puzur-Ashur III c. 1522–1498 BC [16]
Ulamburiash around 1475 BC [17] Ulamburiash around 1475 BC [17] Melamkurkurra c. 1592–1485 BC [15] Enlil-nasir I c. 1498–1485 BC [16]
Ea-gamil c. 1484–1475 BC [15] Nur-ili c. 1485–1473 BC [16]

Babylonia and Assyria (c. 1475–539 BC)Edit

Babylonia Assyria
Name Reign Ref Name Reign Ref
Kassite dynasty (Dynasty III; continued) Adaside dynasty (continued)
Ulamburiash[d] around 1475 BC [17] Ashur-shaduni c. 1473 BC [16]
Kashtiliash III uncertain [17] Ashur-rabi I c. 1473–1453 BC [16]
Ashur-nadin-ahhe I c. 1453–1431 BC [16]
Agum III uncertain [17] Enlil-nasir II c. 1430–1425 BC [16]
Ashur-nirari II c. 1424–1418 BC [16]
Karaindash around 1415 BC [17] Ashur-bel-nisheshu c. 1417–1409 BC [16]
Ashur-rim-nisheshu c. 1408–1401 BC [16]
Kadashman-Harbe I around 1400 BC [17] Ashur-nadin-ahhe II c. 1400–1391 BC [16]
Eriba-Adad I c. 1390–1364 BC [16]
Kurigalzu I uncertain [17] Ashur-uballit I[e] c. 1363–1328 BC [19]
Kadashman-Enlil I c. 1374–1360 BC [17]
Burnaburiash II c. 1359–1333 BC [17]
Kara-hardash c. 1333 BC [17] Enlil-nirari c. 1327–1318 BC [19]
Nazi-Bugash c. 1333 BC [17]
Kurigalzu II c. 1332–1308 BC [17] Arik-den-ili c. 1317–1306 BC [19]
Nazi-Maruttash c. 1307–1282 BC [17] Adad-nirari I c. 1305–1274 BC [19]
Kadashman-Turgu c. 1281–1264 BC [17] Shalmaneser I c. 1273–1244 BC [19]
Kadashman-Enlil II c. 1263–1255 BC [17]
Kudur-Enlil c. 1254–1246 BC [17]
Shagarakti-Shuriash c. 1245–1233 BC [17] Tukulti-Ninurta I c. 1243–1207 BC [19]
Kashtiliash IV c. 1232–1225 BC [17]
Enlil-nadin-shumi c. 1224 BC [17]
Kadashman-Harbe II c. 1223 BC [17]
Adad-shuma-iddina c. 1222–1217 BC [17]
Adad-shuma-usur c. 1216–1187 BC [17] Ashur-nadin-apli c. 1206–1203 BC [19]
Ashur-nirari III c. 1202–1197 BC [19]
Enlil-kudurri-usur c. 1196–1192 BC [19]
Meli-Shipak c. 1186–1172 BC [17] Ninurta-apal-Ekur c. 1191–1179 BC [19]
Marduk-apla-iddina I c. 1171–1159 BC [17] Ashur-dan I c. 1178–1133 BC [10]
Zababa-shuma-iddin c. 1158 BC [17]
Enlil-nadin-ahi c. 1157–1155 BC [17]
Second dynasty of Isin (Dynasty IV)
Marduk-kabit-ahheshu c. 1153–1136 BC [20]
Itti-Marduk-balatu c. 1135–1128 BC [20] Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur c. 1132 BC [10]
Mutakkil-nusku c. 1132 BC [10]
Ninurta-nadin-shumi c. 1127–1122 BC [20] Ashur-resh-ishi I 1132–1115 BC [10]
Nebuchadnezzar I c. 1121–1100 BC [20] Tiglath-Pileser I 1114–1076 BC [10]
Enlil-nadin-apli c. 1099–1096 BC [20]
Marduk-nadin-ahhe c. 1095–1078 BC [20]
Marduk-shapik-zeri c. 1077–1065 BC [20] Asharid-apal-Ekur 1075–1074 BC [10]
Adad-apla-iddina c. 1064–1043 BC [20] Ashur-bel-kala 1073–1056 BC [10]
Eriba-Adad II 1055–1054 BC [10]
Shamshi-Adad IV 1053–1050 BC [10]
Marduk-ahhe-eriba c. 1042 BC [20] Ashurnasirpal I 1049–1031 BC [10]
Marduk-zer-X c. 1041–1030 BC [20]
Nabu-shum-libur c. 1029–1022 BC [20] Shalmaneser II 1030–1019 BC [10]
Second Sealand dynasty (Dynasty V) Ashur-nirari IV 1018–1013 BC [10]
Simbar-shipak c. 1021–1004 BC [21]
Ea-mukin-zeri c. 1004 BC [21] Ashur-rabi II 1012–972 BC [10]
Kashshu-nadin-ahi c. 1003–1001 BC [21]
Bazi dynasty (Dynasty VI)
Eulmash-shakin-shumi c. 1000–984 BC [21]
Ninurta-kudurri-usur I c. 983–981 BC [21]
Shirikti-shuqamuna c. 981 BC [21]
Elamite dynasty (Dynasty VII)
Mar-biti-apla-usur c. 980–975 BC [21]
Dynasty of E (Dynasty VIII)
Nabu-mukin-apli c. 974–939 BC [22] Ashur-resh-ishi II 971–967 BC [10]
Tiglath-Pileser II 967–935 BC [10]
Ninurta-kudurri-usur II c. 939 BC [22] Ashur-dan II 935–912 BC [10]
Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina c. 938–? BC [22]
Shamash-mudammiq c. ?–901 BC [22]
Nabu-shuma-ukin I c. 900–887 BC [22] Adad-nirari II[f] 912–891 BC [10]
Nabu-apla-iddina c. 886–853 BC [22] Tukulti-Ninurta II 891–884 BC [10]
Marduk-zakir-shumi I c. 852–825 BC [22] Ashurnasirpal II 884–859 BC [10]
Shalmaneser III 859–824 BC [10]
Marduk-balassu-iqbi c. 824–813 BC [22] Shamshi-Adad V 824–811 BC [10]
Baba-aha-iddina c. 813–812 BC [22] Adad-nirari III 811–783 BC [10]
Ninurta-apla-X uncertain [22]
Marduk-bel-zeri uncertain [22]
Marduk-apla-usur uncertain [22] Shalmaneser IV 783–773 BC [10]
Eriba-Marduk c. 769–760 BC [22] Ashur-dan III 773–755 BC [10]
Nabu-shuma-ishkun c. 760–748 BC [22] Ashur-nirari V 755–745 BC [10]
Nabonassar 748–734 BC [22] Tiglath-Pileser III 745–727 BC [10]
Nabu-nadin-zeri 734–732 BC [22]
Nabu-shuma-ukin II 732 BC [22]
Nabu-mukin-zeri[g] (non-dynastic) 732–729 BC [23]
Adaside dynasty (also in Assyria)
Tiglath-Pileser III 729–727 BC [23]
Shalmaneser V 727–722 BC [23] Shalmaneser V 727–722 BC [10]
Sargonid dynasty
Marduk-apla-iddina II[h] (non-dynastic) 722–710 BC [23] Sargon II 722–705 BC [10]
Sargon II 710–705 BC [23]
Sennacherib 705–703 BC [23] Sennacherib 705–681 BC [10]
Marduk-zakir-shumi II (non-dynastic) 703 BC [23]
Marduk-apla-iddina II[h] (non-dynastic) 703 BC [23]
Bel-ibni[i] (vassal king) 703–700 BC [23]
Ashur-nadin-shumi 700–694 BC [23]
Nergal-ushezib[i] (non-dynastic) 694–693 BC [23]
Mushezib-Marduk[i] (non-dynastic) 693–689 BC [23]
Sennacherib 689–681 BC [23]
Esarhaddon 681–669 BC [23] Esarhaddon 681–669 BC [10]
Shamash-shum-ukin 668–648 BC [23] Ashurbanipal 669–631 BC [10]
Kandalanu (vassal king) 647–627 BC [23] Ashur-etil-ilani 631–627 BC [10]
Sinsharishkun 627–626 BC [23] Sinsharishkun 627–612 BC [10]
Sin-shumu-lishir (usurper) 626 BC [10]
Chaldean dynasty (Dynasty X)
Nabopolassar 626–605 BC [24] Ashur-uballit II 612–609 BC [10]
Nebuchadnezzar II 605–562 BC [24] Assyria defeated by Nabopolassar of Babylon
Amel-Marduk 562–560 BC [24]
Neriglissar (non-dynastic) 560–556 BC [24]
Labashi-Marduk (non-dynastic) 556 BC [24]
Nabonidus (non-dynastic) 556–539 BC [24]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Considered the first king of the Old Assyrian period
  2. ^ Rim-Sin I was the last independent king of Larsa, though the city rebelled against Hammurabi's successor Samsu-iluna in 1737, with Rim-Sin II briefly ruling there as king.
  3. ^ The earliest Kassite ruler confidently attested as ruling Babylon itself.
  4. ^ Reunified Babylonia through defeating Ea-gamil, the last king of the First Sealand dynasty
  5. ^ Considered the first king of the Middle Assyrian period
  6. ^ Considered the first king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
  7. ^ Sometimes assigned to his own dynasty, the "Shapi dynasty"
  8. ^ a b Sometimes assigned to his own dynasty, the "Third Sealand dynasty"
  9. ^ a b c Assigned to the earlier Dynasty of E in king-lists

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)".
  2. ^ Marchesi 2010, p. 234.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Marchesi 2010, pp. 236–237.
  4. ^ Marchesi 2010, p. 238.
  5. ^ a b Beaulieu 2018, p. 36.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Crawford 2013, p. xxiii.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Crawford 2013, p. xxiv.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Oppenheim 1977, p. 336.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Roaf 1996, p. 111.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Chen 2020, pp. 197–201.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chen 2020, pp. 202–206; Beaulieu 2018, p. 69.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Roaf 1996, p. 110.
  13. ^ a b Oppenheim 1977, p. 337.
  14. ^ a b c Chen 2020, pp. 202–206; Beaulieu 2018, p. 126; Murai 1979, p. 6.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chen 2020, pp. 202–206; Beaulieu 2018, pp. 129–130.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Assyrian King List; Ancient Egypt and Archaeology.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Chen 2020, pp. 202–206; Beaulieu 2018, p. 126.
  18. ^ a b Chen 2020, pp. 202–206; Beaulieu 2018, p. 126; Leick 2003, p. 142.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Assyrian King List; Kuhrt 1995, p. 351.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Beaulieu 2018, p. 155.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Beaulieu 2018, pp. 176–178.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Beaulieu 2018, p. 178.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Beaulieu 2018, p. 195.
  24. ^ a b c d e f Beaulieu 2018, p. 220.

BibliographyEdit

Web sourcesEdit