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The King of Akkad (Akkadian: ลกar mฤt Akkadi[1]), was the ruler of the Akkadian Empire, the first great Mesopotamian empire, in the 3rd millennium BC. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire, the combined title of Sumer and Akkad became a prestigious title claimed by many monarchs who claimed succession from the Akkadian Empire and was used up until the days of the Achaemenid Empire.[2]

Contents

Kings of AkkadEdit

# Depiction King Reign (Middle Chronology) Succession Notes
Sargonic dynasty
1 Sargon
๐’ˆ—๐’บ
ล arru-ukฤซn
c. 2334โ€“2279 BC
(55 years)
Founder of the Akkadian Empire
  • Founded the Akkadian Empire through the conquest of all of Sumer, regarded as one of the first great Mesopotamian rulers.
  • Introduced the title King of the Universe.
  • Embarked on campaigns to subjugate the entire Fertile Crescent.
2 Rimush
๐’Œท๐’ˆฌ๐’‘
Ri-mu-uลก
c. 2279โ€“2270 BC
(9 years)
Son of Sargon of Akkad
  • Faced widespread revolts and had to reconquer the cities of Ur, Umma, Adab, Lagash, Der, and Kazallu from rebellious ensis.
  • Embarked on victorious campaigns against Elam and Barakhshe.
  • Possibly assassinated by his courtiers.
3 Manishtushu
๐’ˆ ๐’€ญ๐’…–๐’Œ…๐’‹ข
Ma-an-ish-tu-su
c. 2270โ€“2255 BC
(15 years)
Brother of Rimush, son of Sargon of Akkad
  • Faced little to no rebellions and could as such embark on campaigns to lands distant from Akkad.
  • Primarily campaigned to the south, winning victories along the Tigris and in the Persian Gulf.
4 Naram-Sin
๐’€ญ๐’ˆพ๐’Š๐’„ ๐’€ญ๐’‚—๐’ช
Na-ra-am Sรฎn
c. 2254โ€“2218 BC
(36 years)
Son of Manishtushu
  • Under Naram-Sin, the Akkadian Empire reached its maximum power.
  • The first Mesopotamian ruler to claim divinity, calling himself the "God of Akkad".
  • Introduced the title King of the Four Corners of the World.
5 Shar-Kali-Sharri
๐’Šฌ๐’‚ต๐’‰Œ ๐’ˆ—๐’Œท
Shar-Gani-Sharri
c. 2217โ€“2193 BC
(24 years)
Son of Naram-Sin
  • During Shar-Kali-Sharri's reign, the Akkadian Empire collapsed as a result of the Guti invasion and widespread drought.
  • Possibly the last Akkadian king to actually control more than the city of Akkad itself.
Akkadian interregnum
6 Igigi
๐’„ฟ๐’„€๐’„€
I-gi-gi
c. 2193โ€“2192 BC
(1 year)
Uncertain succession, anarchy following the Guti invasion
  • Seized power in the anarchy following the death of Shar-Kali-Sharri, ruling for about a year. Four kings would rule in only three years, a period which the Sumerian King List describes with "Then who was king? Who was not the king?".
7 Imi
๐’„ฟ๐’ˆช
I-mi
c. 2192โ€“2191 BC
(1 year)
Uncertain succession, anarchy following the Guti invasion
8 Nanum c. 2191โ€“2190 BC
(1 year)
Uncertain succession, anarchy following the Guti invasion
9 Ilulu c. 2190โ€“2189 BC
(1 year)
Uncertain succession, anarchy following the Guti invasion
  • The final of the four short-lived rivals vying for the throne in the aftermath of Shar-Kali-Sharri's death.
  • Possibly a Gutian ruler himself.
Sargonic dynasty[3]
10 Dudu c. 2189โ€“2168 BC
(21 years)
Uncertain succession, anarchy following the Guti invasion, possibly the son of Shar-Kali-Sharri
  • Campaigned against former Akkadian subjects in the south, such as Girsu, Umma and Elam.
11 Shu-turul c. 2168โ€“2154 BC
(15 years)
Son of Dudu
  • The last king of Akkad, ruled over a greatly reduced territory that included Akkad itself, Kish, Tutub and Eshnunna.

Later "kings of Akkad"Edit

The city of Akkad, and what remained of its empire, was destroyed in the 2150s BC, but the title of King of Sumer and Akkad kept being in use in a succession of later powerful empires for more than 1,500 years. Empires whose rulers referred to themselves as Kings of Sumer and Akkad include the Neo-Sumerian Empire,[4] the Old Babylonian Empire,[4] the Middle and Neo-Assyrian Empires,[4] the Neo-Babylonian Empire[1] and the Achaemenid Empire.[2]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Da Riva 2013, p.ย 72.
  2. ^ a b New Cyrus Cylinder Translation.
  3. ^ De Mieroop 2004, p.ย 67.
  4. ^ a b c Porter 1994, p.ย 79.

BibliographyEdit

  • Da Riva, Rocรญo (2013). The Inscriptions of Nabopolassar, Amel-Marduk and Neriglissar. Walter de Gruyter. ISBNย 978-1614515876.
  • De Mieroop, Marc Van (2004). A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000 - 323 BC. Blackwell Publishing. ISBNย 978-1405149112.
  • Porter, Barbara N. (1994). Images, Power, and Politics: Figurative Aspects of Esarhaddon's Babylonian Policy. American Philosophical Society. ISBNย 978-0871692085.

WebsitesEdit