Kara-hardash (Kara-ḫardaš), also rendered Kadashman-Harbe and possibly Karaindash, was a king of Babylon. He became king of Babylon around 1333. He was the son of the Assyrian princess Muballitat-Sherua and the Babylonian king who preceded him. His rule was short, as shortly after his appointment as king, he was killed in an anti-Assyrian revolt. His death was avenged by his grandfather, the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I. After suppressing the revolt and removing the usurper appointed by the Kassites, the Assyrians appointed Kurigalzu as king. The latter's connection to the Assyrians is unclear. It is not excluded that he was Kara-hardash's son.

Kara-ḫardaš
King of Babylon
The name of Kara-hardash in Akkadian (Babylonian) cuneiform
Reignc.1333–c.1333 BC
PredecessorBurna-Buriash II
SuccessorKurigalzu II
IssueKurigalzu II (?)
HouseKassite
FatherBurna-Buriash II
MotherMuballitat-Sherua

Biography Edit

He was the son of the Assyrian princess Muballitat-Sherua, daughter of the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I and sister of the future king Enlil-nirari.[1] His maternal grandfather was the first to use the title king of Assyria.[2] In the Synchronistic History, his name is spelled both Karahardash and Karaindash, perhaps due to different phonetic readings. Alternatively, these are two different persons, with Karahardash (i.e. Kadashman-Harbe) being the son of Karaindash, husband of Muballitat-Sherua.[3] Another ancient source, the Chronicle P, gives a biography of the life of Muballitat-Sherua's son that is almost identical to the Synchronistic History's, but records that his name was Kadashman-Harbe, and that his father was Karaindash. Kadašman-Ḫarbe is likely a scribal error for Kara-ḫardaš.[4][3] Neither of the ancient sources explicitly names who the husband of Muballitat-Sherua was.[5]

Upon the death of his father, Kara-hardash was appointed king of Babylon. During his short reign, he went to war against the Suteans, and was also able to carry off a number of public works, including the digging of wells and building of a fortress.[6]

Rebellion and death Edit

His reign was short-lived, however. An anti-Assyrian rebellion broke out, in which he was murdered. The army then appointed Nazi-Bugaš, or Šuzigaš, a pure Kassite, as king.[6][7] His Assyrian grandfather, Ashur-uballit I, suppressed the rebellion, deposed the usurper, and appointed a certain Kurigalzu as king. It is unclear how this Kurigalzu was connected to the Assyrians, but he might have been Kara-Hardash's (i.e. Kadashman-Harbe's) son.[3][6]

References Edit

  1. ^ Leick, Gwendolyn (2002). Who's Who in the Ancient Near East. Taylor & Francis. p. 91. ISBN 9781134787968.
  2. ^ Podany, Amanda H. (2022). Weavers, Scribes, and Kings A New History of the Ancient Near East. Oxford University Press. p. 390. ISBN 9780190059040.
  3. ^ a b c Radau, Hugo (1908). Letters to Cassite Kings from the Temple Archives of Nippur. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 59–61. ISBN 9781512820805.
  4. ^ Chronicle P (ABC 22), tablet BM 92701, line 14
  5. ^ The Selected Synchronistic Kings of Assyria and Babylonia in the Lacunae of A.117. Brill. 2020. pp. 207–208. ISBN 9789004430921.
  6. ^ a b c Shortland, Andrew J.; Ramsey, C. Bronk (2013). Radiocarbon and the Chronologies of Ancient Egypt. Oxbow Books. ISBN 9781782970576.
  7. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (2020). The Ancient Near East C.3000–330 BC (2 Volumes). Taylor & Francis. p. 352. ISBN 9781136755484.