Hindustani grammar

Hindustani, the lingua franca of Northern India and Pakistan, has two standardised registers: Hindi and Urdu. Grammatical differences between the two standards are minor but each uses its own script: Hindi uses Devanagari while Urdu uses an extended form of the Perso-Arabic script, typically in the Nastaʿlīq style.

On this grammar page Hindustani is written in "standard orientalist" transcription as outlined in Masica (1991:xv). Being "primarily a system of transliteration from the Indian scripts, [and] based in turn upon Sanskrit" (cf. IAST), these are its salient features: subscript dots for retroflex consonants; macrons for etymologically, contrastively long vowels; h for aspirated plosives; and tildes for nasalised vowels.

PhonologyEdit

The sounds presented in parenthesis in the tables below signify they are only found in loanwords from either Persian or Sanskrit. More information about phonology of Hindustani can be read on Hindustani phonology and IPA/Hindi and Urdu.

VowelsEdit

Hindustani natively possesses a symmetrical ten-vowel system. The vowels [ə], [ɪ], [ʊ] are always short in length, while the vowels [ɑː], [iː], [uː], [eː], [oː], [ɛː], [ɔː] are always considered long, in addition to an eleventh vowel /æː/ which is found in English loanwords.

Vowels in Hindustani
Front Central Back
long short short long
IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script
Close ī ی ɪ i اِ ʊ u اُ ū وُ
Close-mid e ے o و
Open-mid ɛː ai ےَ (ɛ) ê اْ ə a اَ ɔː au وَ
Open (æː) æ ɑː ā آ

Vowels [ɛ], [ɛː]Edit

[ɛ] occurs as a conditioned allophone of /ə/ (schwa) in proximity to /ɦ/, if and only if the /ɦ/ is surrounded on both sides by two schwas.[1] and is realised as separate vowel. For example, in kahanā /kəɦ(ə)naː/ (कहनाکَہنا 'to say'), the /ɦ/ is surrounded on both sides by schwa, hence both the schwas will become fronted to short [ɛ], giving the pronunciation [kɛɦɛnaː]. Syncopation of phonemic middle schwa can further occur to give [kɛɦ.naː].

ConsonantsEdit

Hindustani has a core set of 28 consonants inherited from earlier Indo-Aryan. Supplementing these are two consonants that are internal developments in specific word-medial contexts,[2] and seven consonants originally found in loan words, whose expression is dependent on factors such as status (class, education, etc.) and cultural register (Modern Standard Hindi vs Urdu).

Allophony of [v] and [w]Edit

[v] and [w] are allophones in Hindustani. These are distinct phonemes in English, but both are allophones of the phoneme /ʋ/ in Hindustani (written ⟨⟩ in Hindi or ⟨و⟩ in Urdu), including loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin. More specifically, they are conditional allophones, i.e. rules apply on whether ⟨⟩ is pronounced as [v] or [w] depending on context. Native Hindi speakers pronounce ⟨⟩ as [v] in vrat (व्रतورت, 'vow') and [w] in pakwān (पकवानپکوان 'food dish'), treating them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophonic distinctions, though these are apparent to native English speakers. The rule is that the consonant is pronounced as semivowel [w] in onglide position, i.e. between an onset consonant and a following vowel.[3]

Consonants and vowels are outlined in the table below.[4][5] Hovering the mouse cursor over them will reveal the appropriate IPA information, while in the rest of the article hovering the mouse cursor over underlined forms will reveal the appropriate English translation.

Consonants in Hindustani
Labial Dental / Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script IPA Rom. script
Nasal m m م n ن ɳ ݨ (ɲ) ñ نیْ ŋ ن٘گ
Plosive

and

Affricate

voiceless p p پ t ت ʈ ٹ c چ k k ک (q) q क़ ق
voiceless aspirated ph پھ t̪ʰ th تھ ʈʰ ṭh ٹھ tʃʰ ch چھ kh کھ
voiced b b ب d د ɖ ڈ j ج ɡ g گ
voiced aspirated bh بھ d̪ʱ dh دھ ɖʱ ḍh ڈھ dʒʱ jh جھ ɡʱ gh گھ
Flap

and

Trilll

voiced trill r r / rr र / र्र ر/ رّ ɽ ड़ ڑ
voiced trill aspirated ɽʱ ṛh ढ़ ڑھ
voiced tap[6] ɾ r ر
Fricative voiceless f f फ़ ف s s س (ʂ) شؕ ʃ ś ش (x) x ख़ خ ɦ h ہ
voiced ʋ~w v / w و z z ज़ ز (ʒ) zh झ़ ژ (ɣ) ġ ग़ غ
Approximant l l ل j y ی

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

Hindustani distinguishes two genders (masculine and feminine), two noun types (count and non-count), two numbers (singular and plural), and three cases (nominative, oblique, and vocative).[7] Nouns may be further divided into two classes based on declension, called type-I, type-II, and type-III. The basic difference between the two categories is that the former two have characteristic terminations in the nominative singular while the latter does not.[8]

The table below displays the suffix paradigms. A hyphen symbol (for the marked type-I) denotes change from the original termination to another (for example laṛkā to laṛke in the masculine singular oblique), whereas a plus sign (for the unmarked type-II) denotes an ending which should be added (seb to sebõ in the masculine plural oblique). -Ø denotes that no suffix is added to the noun stem. The next table of noun declensions shows the above noun case paradigms in action.[9]

Singular Plural Translation
Nominative Oblique Vocative Nominative Oblique Vocative
m. I -ā
laṛkā
-e
laṛke
-e
laṛke
-õ
laṛkõ
-o
laṛko
boy
II -ī
ādmī
-iyõ
ādmiyõ
-iyo
ādmiyo
man
-ū
cāqū
-
cāquõ
-uo
cāquo
knife
III -Ø
seb
+õ
sebõ
+o
sebo
apple
f. I -ī, -i, -iyā
laṛkī
-iyā̃
laṛkīyā̃
-iyõ
laṛkīyõ
-iyo
laṛkīyo
girl
II -Ø
bhāṣā
+
bhāṣāẽ
+õ
bhāṣāõ
+o
bhāṣāo
language

Notesː

  1. The semi-consonant -y- is added after the noun stem before adding the declension suffix in the plural declension when the noun stem ends in a vowel.[10]
  2. A small number of marked masculine nouns like kuā̃ display nasalization of all terminations.[11]
  3. Some masculine nouns (which refer to family relations) ending in -ā don't change in the nominative plural and fall in the unmarked category. i.e. pāpā "father", vālid "father", cācā "uncle", rājā "king".[12]
  4. Unmarked nouns ending in and generally shorten this to -u and -i before the oblique (and vocative) plural terminations, with the latter also inserting the semivowel y.[12][13][14]
  5. Many feminine Sanskrit loanwords such as bhāṣā ('language') and mātā (mother) end in -ā, therefore the ending -ā is not always a reliable indicator of noun gender.[12]
  6. In Urdu, many Arabic words may retain their original dual and plural markings in Urdu. i.e. vālid "father" → vālidain "parents".
  7. The -iyā ending is also not always a reliable indicator of gender or noun type.
    Some words such as pahiyā ('wheel') and Persian takiyā ('pillow') are masculine type-I: pahiye ('wheels'), takiye ('pillows').
    Feminine loanwords such as Arabic duniyā ('world') and Sanskrit kriyā ('action') use feminine type-II endings: duniyāẽ ('worlds'), kriyāẽ ('actions').
  8. Perso-Arabic loans ending in final unpronounced -h are handled as masculine marked nouns.[15] Hence bacca(h)baccā. The former is the Urdu spelling, the latter the Hindi. The pronunciation is baccā in both cases.

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives may be divided into declinable and indeclinable categories.[16][17] Declinables are marked, through termination, for the gender, number, case of the nouns they qualify. The set of declinable adjective terminations is similar but greatly simplified in comparison to that of noun terminations. Indeclinable adjectives are completely invariable, and can end in either consonants or vowels (including ā and ī ). A number of declinables display nasalisation of all terminations.[16] Nominative masculine singular form () is the citation form.

All adjectives can be used either attributively, predicatively, or substantively. Substantively they are declined as nouns rather than adjectives. The semblative postposition is used with adjectives for modifying or lightening their meaning; giving them an "-ish", "-esque", "like", or "quite" sense. e.g. nīlā "blue" → nīlā sā "bluish". Its emphasis is rather ambiguous, sometimes enhancing, sometimes toning down, the sense of the adjective.[18]

Singular Plural Translation
Nominative Oblique Vocative Nominative Oblique Vocative
Declinable I m.

acchā

-e

acche

good
f.

acchī

II m. -yā̃

dāyā̃

-yẽ

dāyẽ

right (direction)
f. -yī̃

dāyī̃

Indeclinable

lāl

red
  • Examples of declinable (type-I) adjectives: baṛā "big", choṭā "small", acchā "good", burā "bad", kālā "black", ṭhanḍā "cold"..
  • Examples of declinable (type-II) adjectives: dāyā̃ "right (direction)", bāyā̃ "left (direction)".
  • Examples of indeclinable adjectives: xarāb "bad", sāf "clean", bhārī "heavy", murdā "dead", sundar "beautiful", pāgal "crazy/mad", lāl "red".

Comparatives and superlativesEdit

Comparisons are made by using the instrumental postposition se (see below) the noun takes the oblique case and the combination of "noun + postposition" gets the instrumental case, and words like aur, zyādā ("more") and kam ("less") are added for relative comparisons. The word for "more" (zyādā) is optional, while "less" (kam) is required, so that in the absence of either, "more" will be inferred.

Hindustani Word order Meaning
Gītā Gautam-se lambī hai [gita] [than gautam] [tall] [is] Gita is taller than Gautam.
Gītā Gautam-se zyādā lambī hai [gita] [than gautam] [more] [tall] [is] Gita is taller than Gautam.
Gītā Gautam-se aur lambī hai Gita is even more taller than Gautam.
Gītā Gautam jitnī lambī hai [gita] [gautam] [as much] [tall] [is] Gita is as tall as Gautam.
Gītā Gautam-se kam lambī hai [gita] [than gautam] [less] [tall] [is] Gita is less tall than Gautam.

In the absence of an object of comparison the word for "more" is now no longer optional:

Hindustani Word order Meaning
baccā zyādā baṛā hai [kid] [more] [big] [is] The kid is bigger.
baccā utnā hi lambā hai [kid] [just as much] [tall/long] [is] The kid is just as tall (as someone else).
baccā kam baṛā hai [kid] [less] [big] [is] The kid is less big.
Hindustani Word order Meaning
zyādā baṛā baccā [more] [big] [kid] The bigger kid.
utnā hī baṛā baccā [just as much] [big] [kid] The just as big kid.
kam baṛā baccā [less] [big] [kid] The shorter kid.

Superlatives are made through comparisons with sab ("all") with the instrumental postposition se as the suffix. Comparisons using "least" are rare; it is more common to use an antonym.

Hindustani Word order Meaning
kamrā sabse sāf hai [room] [than all] [clean] [is] The room is the cleanest
kamrā sabse kam sāf hai [room] [than all] [less] [clean] [is] The room is the least clean
kamrā sabse gandā hai [room] [than all] [dirty] [is] The room is the dirtiest
Hindustani Word order Meaning
sabse sāf kamrā [than all] [clean] [room] The cleanest room.
sabse kam sāf kamrā [than all] [less] [clean] [room] The least clean room
sabse gandā kamrā [than all] [dirty] [room] The dirtiest room.

In Sanskritised and Persianised registers of Hindustani, comparative and superlative adjectival forms using suffixes derived from those languages can be found.[19]

English Sanskrit Persian
Comparative -er -tar
Superlative -est -tam -tarīn

NumeralsEdit

The numeral systems of several of the Indo-Aryan languages, including Hindustani and Nepali, are typical decimal systems, but contracted to the extent that nearly every number 1–99 is irregular.[20] The first four ordinal numbers are also irregular. The suffix -vā̃ marks ordinals beginning at the number five. The ordinals decline in the same way as the declinable adjectives. The suffix -gunā (translates as "times" as in multiplying) marks the multipliers which for the first three multipliers changes the numeral root. The collective forms of numerals take the same form as the oblique plural case for masculine nouns. They are formed by adding the suffix -õ''. There are two types of adverbials. The first type is formed using the suffix -bārā but only for the numerals 2, 3, and 4 (but it's rarely used for 3 and even more rarely for 4). The second type of adverbial is constructed periphrastically using the quantifier bār meaning "times" (as in turns). The adverbial "dobārā" could be translated as "again" or "for a second time", similarly "tibārā" and "caubārā" mean "for a third time" and "for a fourth time" respectively. However, the periphrasatic adverbial constructions "do bār", "tīn bār" etc. translate as "two times", "three times" etc. respectively.

Numeral English Cardinals Ordinals Multipliers Collective Adverbial Fractional
0 zero śūnyaH, sifarU śūnyavā̃H, sifarvā̃U śūnyagunā śūnya bār
1 one ek pehlā, prathamH, avvalU ekgunā ek bār pūrā
2 two do dūsrā, domU dugnā, dogunā donõ dobārā, dubārā do bār ādhā
3 three tīn tīsrā, somU tigunā, tīngunā tīnõ tibārā tīn bār tihāī
4 four cār cauthā, cahāramU caugunā, cārgunā cārõ caubārā cār bār cauthāī
5 five pā̃c pā̃cvā̃, pãjamU pā̃cgunā pācõ pā̃c bār
6 six cheh chaṭā, šašmU chehgunā cheõ cheh bār
7 seven sāt sātvā̃, haftamU sātgunā sātõ sāt bār
8 eight āṭh āṭhvā̃, haštamU āṭhgunā āṭhõ āṭh bār
9 nine nau nauvā̃, navā̃, nahamU naugunā nauõ nau bār
10 ten das dasvā̃, dahamU dasgunā dasõ das bār dašam
100 hundred sau sauvā̃ saugunā sauõ sau bār
1,000 thousand hazār hazārvā̃ hazārgunā hazārõ hazār bār
1,00,000 hundred thousand lākh lākhvā̃ lākhgunā lākhõ lākh bār
1,00,00,000 ten million karoṛ karoṛvā̃ karoṛguna karoṛõ karoṛ bār

H = Hindi; U = Urdu

PostpositionsEdit

The aforementioned inflectional case system only goes so far on its own, and rather serves as that upon which is built a system of agglutinative suffixes or particles known as postpositions, which parallel English's prepositions. It is their use with a noun or verb that necessitates the noun or verb taking the oblique case (though the bare oblique is also sometimes used adverbially[21]), and it is with them that the locus of grammatical function or "case-marking" then lies. There are eight such "one-word" primary case-marking postpositions.

Primary postpositionsEdit

Case-markers
Case Marker Example English Explanation
Nominative laṛkā the boy marks the subject
Ergative ne laṛke ne the boy marks the subject for transitive verbs in their perfective aspect
Accusative ko laṛke ko the boy marks the direct object
Dative to the boy marks the direct object (can also mark the subject[22])dative subjects; dative subject
Instrumental se laṛke se with the boy marks the instrument of the action; "with", "using", "by"
Ablative from the boy ablative, and perlative marker; "from", "through", "along"
Genitive laṛke kā boy's shows possession;
Inessive mẽ laṛke mẽ in the boy shows something is in/inside something;
Adessive pe/par laṛke pe on the boy shows something is on/at something;
Terminative tak laṛke tak till the boy shows end or limit; "until", "till", "up to".
Semblative laṛke sā boy-ish shows resemblance and similarity; "like", "similar to", "resembles","-esque", "-ish".
Genitive & Semblative Marker Declension
Case m. f.
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -e
Oblique -e
  • Out of these 8 postpositions, the genitive and semblative postpositions & decline to agree with the gender, number, and case of the object it shows possession of and the object whose semblance is described.
  • For some verbs like bolnā (to speak/say), the patient in the sentence can use both the instrumental marker se and the accusative/dative marker ko. For example, rāhul se bolo and rāhul ko bolo both translate to the same "Say it to Rahul.". However, the nuance expressed by both are different, intrumental marker se has a softer tone to it. rāhul se bolo is more like a suggestion in form of an imperative while rāhul ko bolo is an order.
  • Beyond the list above, there are a large range of compound postpositions, constructed majoritarily from the genitive marker (in its oblique cases ke & ) plus an adverb. When using with pronouns, these all the compound postpositions can only be used with the genitive oblique case pronouns and the genitive kī/ke must be omitted before attaching them with the genitive oblique case.

Secondary postpositionsEdit

Compound

Postpositions

Explanation Compound

Postpositions

Explanation
kī taraf orientative marker; "towards", ke bāre "concerning (something)"
ke andar inessive marker; "inside", ke bād antessive marker; "after"
ke bāhar elative marker "outside" ke pās adessive marker; "near"
ke baġal adessive marker "adjacent" ke jaisā semblative marker, "like" "similar to"
ke āge apudessive marker; "in front of, ahead of", ke liye benefactive marker; "for"
ke ūpar superessive marker; "on top of, above" ke sāmne postessive case "facing, opposite, infront", etc.[23]
ke nīce subessive marker; "beneath, below" ke pīche pertingent marker; "behind"
ke binā/baġair abessive marker; "without" ke dvārā/zariye perlative marker; "via, through, by"

Some compound postpositions do not have the genitive marker as their primary postposition, such as:

Compound

Postpositions

Explanation
tak mẽ limitative marker "within"

Tertiary postpositionsEdit

Some other compound postpositions with two secondary postpositions (called tertiary postposition) can be constructed by adding primary postpositions to some of the compound postpositions shown above.

Compound

Postpositions

Marker Explanation
ke bāre mẽ "about" "regarding/concerning/about something"
ke bād mẽ antessive marker; "after (emphatic)" "(in a sequence) something is after something"
ke sāth mẽ sociative marker; "with (emphatic)" "something is along/together with something else"
ke nīce mẽ subessive marker; "beneath, below (emphatic)" "location of something is below something else"
kī vajah se causal marker, "because of" "something happens/ed because of (fault of) something else"
ke pīche se postelative marker; "from behind" "motion/movement from behind something"
ke andar se inessive marker; "inside", "motion/movement from inside something"
ke āge se "from infront" "motion/movement from infront of something"
ke pās se adelative marker; "from near (something)" "motion/movement near something"
ke nīce se subessive marker; "beneath, below" "motion/movement from below something"
ke ūpar se delative marker; "from above" "motion/movement from above something"
ke ūpar ko sublative marker; "motion/movement onto a surface"
kī taraf ko "towards [a direction] (emphatic)" "motion/movement towards a direction"

Postpositions from English prepositionsEdit

Some compound postpositions in Hindustani are formed by borrowing prepositions of English and using them as secondary postpositions of the compound postpositions. The meaning expressed by the compound postpositions formed using the English prepositions stay the same as their original meaning in English.

Compound

Postpositions

Explanation
ke infront "infront" (equivalent to "ke sāmne")
ke behind "behind" (equivalent to "ke pīche")
ke above "above" (equivalent to "ke ūpar")
ke below "below" (equivalent to "ke nīce")
ke through "through" (in certain contexts, equivalent to "ke andar se" or "ke zariye se")
ke against "against" (equivalent to "ke k͟hilāf" in certain contexts)
ke about "about" (usually used as "about a reference location" and as not equivalent to "ke bāre mẽ")
ke around "around" (equivalent to "ke ās pās" in certain contexts)
ke regarding "regarding" (equivalent to "ke mutalliq" in certain contexts)
ke according "according" (equivalent to "ke mutābiq" in certain contexts)

PronounsEdit

Personal and non-personal pronounsEdit

Hindustani has personal pronouns for the first and second persons, while for the third person demonstratives are used, which can be categorised deictically as proximate and non-proximate.[24] , tum, and āp are the three 2P pronouns, constituting a threefold scale of sociolinguistic formality: respectively, intimate, familiar, and formal. The 2P intimate conjugations are grammatically singular while the 2P familiar and formal conjugations are grammatically plural.[19] For the non-personal pronouns (demonstrative, relative, and interrogative) the plural forms are also the formal forms.[25][26] Pronouns in Hindustani do not distinguish gender however they distinguish the nominative, oblique, and the common accusative/dative grammatical cases. The latter-most, often called a set of contracted forms, is used synonymously with the dative/accusative pronoun constructed from the oblique case by suffixing the dative/accusative postposition ko. So, for e.g., mujhe and mujhko are synonymous dative/accusative pronouns.

The 1P and 2P pronouns (except the formal 2P pronoun āp) have their own distinctive genitive forms merā, hamārā, terā, & tumhārā unlike the non-personal pronouns whose genitive forms are constructed employing the oblique case pronoun to which the genitive postposition is suffixed (OBL. + ). The personal pronouns (except the formal 2P āp) colloquially can also take the genitive oblique case before primary postpositions. So, instead of mujhe or mujhko, the periphrastic construction mere ko is fairly commonly heard as a synonym to mujhe/mujhko in colloquial speech.

To construct the ergative case pronouns, the ergative postposition ne is suffixed to the nominative case forms rather than the oblique case forms for the personal pronouns, while the demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns have unique ergative oblique case forms to which ne gets suffixed. So, rather than *mujh-ne and *tujh-ne, it's ma͠i-ne and tū-ne, and for the non-personal pronouns (e.g., for demonstrative plural) it's inhõ-ne and unhõ-ne. The 1P plural and the 2P familiar pronouns also have an emphatic ergative case form which respectively are hamī̃ne and tumhī̃ne which are derived using the exclusive emphatic particle as ham + hī + ne and tum + hī + ne. For the rest of the personal pronouns, the inclusive emphatic particle must come after the pronoun in ergative case and never between the pronoun and the postposition ne. So, rather than *ma͠i-hī-ne, it's periphrastically constructed as ma͠ine hī. As for the non-personal pronouns, both ways of constructing the emphatic forms are gramamtically valid. So, for e.g. the demonstrative proximal singular emphatic pronoun isīne and isne hī are synonymous. The emphatic forms for the relative pronouns are constructed periphrastically as well, but they instead use the inclusive emphatic particle bhī. So, the emphatic form of the relative singular ergative pronoun jisne is jisne bhī meaning "whoever" and not *jis-bhī-ne, which not a valid construction.

Compound postpositions must be used with the genitive oblique cases when using them with the personal pronouns (except the 2P formal āp). So, when using the compound postposition ke andar – "inside", *mujh-ke andar and *mujh andar are grammatically invalid constructions and instead it should be mere andar – "inside me". The compound postpositions that have the primary postposition in place of must have the genitive oblique case declined to the feminine gender. So, when using the postposition kī taraf – "towards", it should be merī taraf and not *mere taraf.

Case Personal
1st person 2nd person
sg. pl. sg. sg. & pl.
Intimate Familiar Formal
Nominative ma͠i ham tum āp
Ergative Regular ma͠ine hamne tūne tumne āpne
Emphatic hamī̃ne tumhī̃ne
Dative mujhe hamẽ tujhe tumhẽ āpko
Accusative
Oblique Regular mujh ham tujh tum āp
Emphatic mujhī hamī̃ tujhī tumhī̃
Case Demonstrative Relative Interrogative
3rd person
Proximal Non-proximal sg. pl. sg. pl.
sg. pl. sg. pl.
Nominative Literary yah ye vah ve jo kaun, kyā
Colloquial ye vo
Ergative Regular isne inhõne usne unhõne jisne jinhõne kisne kinhõne
Emphatic isīne inhī̃ne usīne unhī̃ne kisīne kinhī̃ne
Dative ise inhẽ use unhẽ jise jinhẽ kise kinhẽ
Accusative
Oblique Regular is in us un jis jin kis kin
Emphatic isī inhī̃ usī unhī̃ kisī kinhī̃
Case Possessive & Genitive
1st Person 2nd Person
sg. pl. sg. sg. & pl.
Intimate Familiar
Nominative m. sg. merā hamārā terā tumhārā
pl. mere hamāre tere tumhāre
Oblique sg. & pl.
Nominative f. sg. & pl. merī hamārī terī tumhārī
Oblique sg. & pl.
Noteː
  1. Postpositions are treated as bound morphemes after pronouns in Hindi, but as separate words in Urdu.[27]
  2. The varying forms for the demonstrative nominative case pronouns constitute one of the small number of grammatical differences between Hindi and Urdu. In Hindi, yah "this" / ye "these" / vah "that" / ve "those" are considered the literary pronoun set while in Urdu, ye "this, these" / vo "that, those" is the only pronoun set.
  3. The above section on postpositions noted that ko (the dative/accusative case) marks direct objects if definite. As "the most specific thing of all is an individual", persons (or their pronouns) nearly always take the dative case or postposition.[28]
  4. It is very common practice to use plural pronouns (and their accompanying conjugation) in formal situations, thus tum can be used in the second person when referring to one person. Similarly, some speakers prefer plural ham over singular ma͠i. This is usually not quite the same as the "royal we"; it is rather colloquial.[29]

Reflexive pronounsEdit

apnā is a (genitive) reflexive pronoun: "my/your/etc. (own)".[30] Using non-reflexive and reflexive together gives emphasis; e.g. merā apnā "my (very) own".[31] xud, āp, and svayam are some (nominative; non-genitive) others: "my/your/etc.-self".[32] Bases for oblique usage are usually apne (self) or apne āp (automatically). The latter alone can also mean "of one's own accord"; āpas mẽ means "among/between oneselves".[33]

Reflexive Pronouns Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Translation
Masculine Feminine
Undeclinable Nominative

&

Oblique

xud self
svayam self
apne āp by oneself, automatically
āpas mẽ among oneselves
Declinable Nominative apnā apne apnī apnī of one's own
Oblique with noun apne
sans noun apnõ apniyõ

Indefinite quantifier pronounsEdit

koī and kuch are indefinite pronouns/quantifiers. As pronouns, koī is used for animate singular ("someone") and kuch for animate plural and inanimates ("something").[34] As quantifiers/adjectives koī is used for singular count nouns and kuch for mass nouns and plural count nouns. koī takes the form kisī in the oblique. The form kaī is a paucal equivalent to koī, being used in the context of "several" or "a few" things.[35] kuch can also act as an adverb, qualifying an adjective, meaning "rather". koī preceding a number takes the meaning of "about, approximately". In this usage it does not oblique to kisī.[36]

Indefinite quantifier

pronouns

nominative oblique Translation
animate inanimate animate inanimate
singular with noun koī kuch kisī kisī someone,

something

sans noun
paucal with noun kuch kuch some
sans noun kuchõ
plural with noun kaī kaī several
sans noun kaiyõ

Adverbial pronounsEdit

Interrogative Relative Demonstrative
Proximal Distant
Undeclinable Time kab jab ab tab
Direction kidhar jidhar idhar udhar
Place kahā̃ jahā̃ yahā̃ vahā̃
Manner kaise jaise aise vaise
Declinable Quantity kitnā jitnā itnā utnā
Quality kaisā jaisā aisā vaisā

Note:

  • The feminine plural forms are commonly used as singular respect forms and the feminine singular forms often are used interchangeably with the feminine plural forms.
  • The declension pattern followed is the same as how genitive pronouns and postpositions decline.

Emphatic pronounsEdit

Emphatic pronouns of Hindustani are formed by combining the exclusive emphatic particle or the inclusive emphatic particle bhī (with the interrogatory and relative pronouns respectively) and the pronoun in their regular oblique and nominative case. Usually, combining the emphatic particles and the pronouns with end with the consonant -h form a new set of emphatic nominative case and emphatic oblique case pronouns. The rest of the pronouns can also be combined with the exclusive emphatic particle but they do not form true pronouns, but simply add the emphatic particle as an adposition after them. The Relative and Interrogatory pronouns can only take the inclusive emphatic particle bhī as an adposition and never the exclusive emphatic particle hī.

Personal Demonstrative
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Plural Singular Plural Proximal Non-proximal
Intimate Familiar Formal Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative hamī̃ tumhī̃ yahī vahī
Oblique Emphatic mujhī tujhī isī inhī̃ usī unhī̃

AdverbsEdit

Hindustani has few underived forms.[37] Adverbs may be derived in ways such as the following —

  1. Simply obliquing some nouns and adjectives:
    • nīcā "low" → nīce "down"
    • sīdhā "straight" → sīdhe "straight"
    • dhīrā "slow" → dhīre "slowly"
    • saverā "morning" → savere "in the morning"
    • ye taraf "this direction" → is taraf "in this direction/this way"
    • kalkattā "Calcutta" → kalkatte "to Calcutta".
  2. Nouns using the instrumental marker se "by, with, -ly":
    • zor "force" → zor se "forcefully" (lit. "with force")
    • dhyān "attention" → dhyān se "attentively" (lit. "with attention")
  3. Adjectives using post-positional phrases involving "way, manner":
    • acchā "good" → acche se "well" (lit. "by/in a good way")
    • xās "special" → xās taur pe "especially" (lit. "on a special way")
  4. Verbs in conjunctive form:
    • hãs "laugh" → hãske "laughingly" (lit. "having laughed")
    • meherbānī kar "do kindness" → meherbānī karke "kindly, please" (lit. "having done kindness")[38]
  5. Formative suffixes from Sanskrit or Perso-Arabic in higher registers of Hindi or Urdu
    • Skt. sambhava "possible" + -taḥsambhavataḥ "possibly".
    • Ara. ittifāq "chance" + -anittifāqan "by chance", "coincidentally".[21]

VerbsEdit

OverviewEdit

The Hindustani verbal system is largely structured around a combination of aspect and tense/mood. Like the nominal system, the Hindustani verb involves successive layers of (inflectional) elements to the right of the lexical base.[39]

Hindustani has 3 aspects: perfective, habitual, and progressive, each having overt morphological correlates.[21] These are participle forms, inflecting for gender and number by way of a vowel termination, like adjectives.[40] The perfective, though displaying a "number of irregularities and morphophonemic adjustments", is the simplest, being just the verb stem followed by the agreement vowel. The habitual forms from the imperfective participle; verb stem, plus -t-, then vowel. The continuous forms periphrastically through compounding (see below) with the perfective of rêhnā "to stay".

The copula honā "to be" can be put into five grammatical moods: indicative, presumptive, subjunctive, contrafactual and, imperative. Used both in basic predicative/existential sentences and as verbal auxiliaries to aspectual forms, these constitute the basis of tense and mood.

Non-aspectual forms include the infinitive, the imperative, and the conjunctive. Mentioned morphological conditions such as the subjunctive, "presumptive", etc. are applicable to both copula roots for auxiliary usage with aspectual forms and to non-copula roots directly for often unspecified (non-aspectual) finite forms.

Finite verbal agreement is with the nominative subject, except in the transitive perfective, where it is with the direct object, with the erstwhile subject taking the ergative construction -ne (see postpositions above). The perfective aspect thus displays split ergativity.

Tabled below on the left are the paradigms for adjectival concord (A), here only slightly different from that introduced previously: the f. pl. can nasalise under certain conditions. To the right are the paradigms for personal concord (P), used by the subjunctive.

(A) Sg. Pl.
Masc. -e
Fem. -ī / ī̃
(P) 1st

Person

2nd Person 3rd Person
Intimate Familiar Formal Proximal Distal Proximal Formal Distal Formal
Singular -ū̃ -e -o -ẽ -e -ẽ
Plural -ẽ doesn't exist -ẽ

Copula in HindustaniEdit

All the verbs in Hindustani except the verb honā (to be) are defective and cannot be conjugated into these following moods and tenses in their non-aspectual forms (or simple aspect):

  • present indicative
  • imperfect indicative
  • presumptive mood
  • present subjunctive

The verb honā (to be) serves as the copula whose conjugations are used to form the three aspectual (or compound) forms of verbs (habitual, perfective, and progressive). In the tables below all the conjugations of the copula honā (to be) are shown on the left and all the conjugations of the verb karnā (to do) (like which all other verbs have conjugations) are shown on the right.

PERSONAL FORMS of "honā (to be)"
mood tense singular plural
1P - ma͠i 2P - tum1 3P - yah/ye, vah/vo 1P - ham
2P - āp1
2P - tū 3P - ye, ve/vo
m. f. m. f. m. f. m. f.
indicative present hū̃ ho hai ha͠i
perfect huā huī hue huī huā huī hue huī̃
imperfect thā thī the thī thā thī the thī̃
future hoū̃gā / hū̃gā hoū̃gī / hū̃gī hooge / hoge hoogī / hogī hoegā / hogā hoegī / hogī hoẽge / hõge hoẽgī / hõgī
presumptive all hū̃gā hū̃gī hoge hogī hogā hogī hõge hõgī
subjunctive present hū̃ ho ho
future hoū̃ hoo hoe hoẽ
contrafactual2 past hotā hotī hote hotī hotā hotī hote hotī̃
imperative present hoo ho hoiye
future honā hoiyo hoiyegā
conjugations of "karnā (to do)"
mood tense singular plural
1P - ma͠i 2P - tum1 3P - yah/ye, vah/vo 1P - ham
2P - āp1
2P - tū 3P - ye, ve/vo
m. f. m. f. m. f. m. f.
indicative perfect kiyā kiye kiyā kiye kī̃
future karū̃gā karū̃gī karoge karogī karegā karegī karẽge karẽgī
subjunctive future karū̃ karo kare karẽ
contrafactual past kartā kartī karte kartī kartā kartī karte kartī̃
imperative present karo kar kariye / kījiye
future karnā kariyo kariyegā / kījiyegā
1 the pronouns tum and āp can be used in both singular and plural sense by adding plural indicator words like sab (all) and log (people), akin to the English pronouns you and y'all.
2 the contrafactual mood serves as both the past subjunctive and the past conditional mood.

Compound tensesEdit

Periphrastic Hindustani verb forms consist of two elements. The first of these two elements is the aspect marker. The second element (the copula) is the common tense-mood marker.[10]

Mood & aspectsEdit

Hindustani has three aspects, Habitual aspect, Perfective Aspect and the Progressive Aspect.[10] To construct the progressive aspect and forms, Hindustani makes use of the progressive participle rahā which is derived from the verb rêhnā ("to stay" or "to remain"). Unlike English and many other Indo-European languages, Hindustani does differentiate between Continuous and the Progressive aspects. So, for e.g. the sentence "ma͠i śarṭ pêhên rahā hū̃" will always translate as "I am (in the process) of wearing a shirt." and it can never be used to mean "I am (already) wearing a shirt.". In English, however, "I am wearing a shirt." can be used to mean both the idea of progressive action and a continuous action. To convey the continuous state of an action the perfective adjectival participle is employed. So, "I am (already) wearing a shirt." translates in to Hindustani as "ma͠i śarṭ pêhnā huā hū̃." All the personal compounds forms of the verb karnā (to do) in all the three aspect and all the grammatical moods are shown in the table below:

Compound Aspectual Forms
mood tense singular plural
1P - ma͠i 2P - tum1 3P - yah/ye, vah/vo 1P - ham
2P - āp1
2P - tū 3P - ye, ve/vo
m. f. m. f. m. f. m. f.
HABITUAL ASPECT2
indicative present kartā hū̃ kartī hū̃ karte ho kartī ho kartā hai kartī hai karte ha͠i kartī ha͠i
past kartā thā kartī thī karte the kartī thī kartā thā kartī thī karte the kartī thī̃
presumptive present kartā hū̃gā kartī hū̃gī karte hoge kartī hogī kartā hogā kartī hogī karte hõge kartī hõgī
past
subjunctive present kartā hū̃ kartī hū̃ karte ho kartī ho kartā ho kartī ho kartā hõ kartī hõ
contrafactual past kartā hotā kartī hotī karte hote kartī hotī kartā hotā kartī hotī karte hote kartī hotī̃
PERFECTIVE ASPECT
indicative present kiyā hū̃ kī hū̃ kiye ho kī ho kiyā hai kī hai kiye ha͠i kī ha͠i
past kiyā thā kī thī kiye the kī thī kiyā thā kī thī kiye the kī thī̃
future kiyā hoū̃gā kī hoū̃gī kiye hooge kī hoogī kiyā hoegā kī hoegī kiye hoẽge kī hoẽgī
presumptive present kiyā hū̃gā kī hū̃gī kiye hoge kī hogī kiyā hogā kī hogī kiye hõge kī hõgī
past
future
subjunctive present kiyā hū̃ kī hū̃ kiye ho kī ho kiyā ho kī ho kiye hõ kī hõ
future kiyā hoū̃ kī hoū̃ kiye hoo kī hoo kiyā hoe kī hoe kiye hoẽ kī hoẽ
contrafactual past kiyā hotā kī hotī kiye hote kī hotī kiyā hotā kī hotī kiye hote kī hotī̃
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT3
indicative present kar rahā hū̃ kar rahī hū̃ kar rahe ho kar rahī ho kar rahā hai kar rahī hai kar rahe ha͠i kar rahī ha͠i
past kar rahā thā kar rahī thī kar rahe the kar rahī thī kar rahā thā kar rahī thī kar rahe the kar rahī thī̃
future kar rahā hoū̃gā kar rahī hoū̃gī kar rahe hooge kar rahī hoogī kar rahā hoegā kar rahī hoegī kar rahe hoẽge kar rahī hoẽgī
presumptive present kar rahā hū̃gā kar rahī hū̃gī kar rahe hoge kar rahī hogī kar rahā hogā kar rahī hogī kar rahe hõge kar rahī hõgī
past
future
subjunctive present kar rahā hū̃ kar rahī hū̃ kar rahe ho kar rahī ho kar rahā ho kar rahī ho kar rahe hõ kar rahī hõ
future kar rahā hoū̃ kar rahī hoū̃ kar rahe hoo kar rahī hoo kar rahā hoe kar rahī hoe kar rahe hoẽ kar rahī hoẽ
contrafactual past kar rahā hotā kar rahī hotī kar rahe hote kar rahī hotī kar rahā hotā kar rahī hotī kar rahe hote kar rahī hotī̃
1 the pronouns tum and āp can be used in both singular and plural sense, akin to the English pronoun you.
2 the habitual aspect of Hindustani cannot be put into future tense.
3 unlike English in which both the continuous and the progressive aspect have the same forms, the progressive aspect of Hindustani cannot convey the continuous aspect.

Different copulasEdit

The habitual, progressive, and imperfect aspectual participles can be used with copulas other than honā (to be) such as rêhnā (to stay), ānā (to come), jānā (to go).[9] These copulas can be converted into their participle forms and can be conjugated to form personal compound aspectual forms. Each of the four copulas provides a unique nuance to the aspect.

ASPECT Translation
Simple Perfective Habitual Progressive
honā huā honā huā karnā huā rêhnā huā jānā huā ānā hotā honā hotā rêhnā hotā ānā hotā jānā ho rahā honā ho rahā rêhnā to happen
karnā kiyā honā kiyā karnā kiyā rêhnā kiyā janā kiyā anā kartā honā kartā rêhnā kartā ānā kartā jānā kar rahā honā kar rahā rêhnā to do
marnā marā honā marā karnā marā rêhnā marā jānā marā ānā martā honā martā rêhnā martā ānā martā jānā mar rahā honā mar rahā rêhnā to die

ParticiplesEdit

The participle forms of any verb is constructed by adding suffixes to the verb root. The participle forms of the verb karnā (to do) are shown in the tables below:

Undeclinable
Verb forms English equivalent
Infinitive kar to do
Oblique Infinitive karne do, doing
Conjunctive karke, karkar after/by doing
Progressive karte-karte while doing
Declinable
Habitual kar (sg., masc.)

karte (pl., masc.)

kar (sg., pl. fem.)

kartī̃ (pl., fem.)

does/do,

used to do

Perfective kiyā (sg., masc.)

kiye (pl., masc.)

kī (sg., fem.)

kī̃ (pl., fem.)

did
Infinitive kar (sg., masc.)

karne (pl., masc.)

kar (sg., fem.)

karnī̃ (pl., fem.)

to do
Prospective &

Agentive

karnevālā (sg., masc.)

karnevāle (pl., masc.)

karnevālī (sg., pl. fem.)

karnevālī̃ (pl., fem.)

going to do
Perfective Adjectival kiyā-huā (sg., masc.)

kiye-hue (pl., masc.)

kī-huī (sg. fem.)

kī-huī̃ (pl. fem.)

(already) done
Habitual Adjectival kartā-huā (sg., masc.)

karte-hue (pl., masc.)

kartī-huī (sg., fem.)

kartī-huī̃ (pl., fem.)

while doing

Verb formsEdit

A summary of all verb forms is given in the tables below. The sample verb is intransitive dauṛnā "to run", and the sample inflection is 3rd. masc. sg. (P = e, A = ā) where applicable.

Non-aspectual Aspectual
Non-finite
Root * dauṛ
Infinitive *-nā, dauṛnā
Oblique Infinitive *-ne dauṛne
Conjunctive *-kar, *-ke dauṛkar, dauṛke
Progressive *-te-*-te dauṛte-dauṛte
Agentive *-ne vāl-A, *-nevāl-A dauṛne vālā, dauṛnevālā
Prospective
Adjectival.
Perfective *-A (hu-A) dauṛā (huā)
Imperfective *-t-A (hu-A) dauṛtā (huā)
Adverbial. Obl. of adjectival.
Imperfective *-t-e (hu-e) dauṛte hue
Finite
Contingent Future *-P dauṛe
Definite Future *-P-g-A dauṛegā
Imperatives[41][42]
Present Intimate * dauṛ
Familiar *-o dauṛo
Formal *-iye dauṛiye
Future Intimate *-iyo dauṛiyo
Familiar *-nā dauṛ
Formal *-iyegā dauṛiyegā
Aspectuals plotted against copulas.
Perfective Habitual Progressive
*-A *-t-A * rah-A
Present Perfect h-? dauṛā hai dauṛtā hai dauṛ rahā hai
Past Perfect th-A dauṛā thā dauṛtā thā dauṛ rahā thā
Subjunctive ho-P dauṛā ho dauṛtā ho dauṛ rahā ho
Presumptive ho-P g-A dauṛā hogā dauṛtā hogā dauṛ rahā hogā
Contrafactual ho-t-A dauṛā hotā dauṛtā hotā dauṛ rahā hotā
Unspecified dauṛā dauṛtā

Notes

  • Much of the above chart information derives from Masica (1991:292–294, 323–325).
  • The future tense is formed by adding the suffix (~ ge ~ ) to the subjunctive, which is a contraction of gaā (= gayā, perfective participle of jānā "to go").[40] The future suffix, conjunctive participle, and suffix vālā are treated as bound morphemes in written Hindi, but as separate words in written Urdu.[27]
  • ^ The present copula (h-?) seems not to follow along the lines of the regular P system of terminations; while the subjunctive copula (ho-P) is thoroughly irregular. So here are all of their forms.
  • For the 1. subj. sg. copula Schmidt (2003:324) and Snell & Weightman (1989:113, 125) list hū̃ while Shapiro (2003:267) lists hoū̃.
  • Shapiro (2003:268) lists the formal imperative ending as -iye, while Schmidt (2003:330) lists it as -ie but -iye after ā, o, ū.
  • The euphonic glide y is inserted in perfective participles between prohibited vowel clusters. It is historically the remnant of the old perfective marker.[43] The clusters are a + ā, ā + ā, o + ā, and ī + ā, resulting in āyā, ayā, oyā, iyā.[44] e.g. khāyā/khāye/khāyī/khāyī̃ (khā- "eat").
  • In addition, the combinations ī + ī and i + ī give ī.[44] e.g. piyā/piye/pī/pī̃ (pī- "drink").
  • As stated, agreement in the transitive perfective is with the direct object, with the erstwhile subject taking the ergative postposition ne. If however the direct object takes the postposition ko (marking definiteness), or if no direct object is expressed, then agreement neutralises to default m. sg. .[45]
  • Is this regard, there are a small number of verbs that while perhaps logically transitive still do not take ne and continue to agree with the subject, in the perfective. e.g. lānā "to bring", bhūlnā "to forget", milnā "to meet", etc.
  • Besides supplying the copulas, honā "to be" can be used aspectually: huā "happened, became"; hotā "happens, becomes, is"; ho rahā "happening, being".
  • -ke can be used as a colloquial alternative to -kar for the conjunctive participle of any verb.
  • Hindustani displays a very small number of irregular forms, spelled out in the cells below. Historically, there were many more irregular forms (e.g. muā for marnā 'to die') but most have been regularised. Notably, some dialects regularise the perfective of karnā to karā and the formal imperative of kijiye to kariye.
Verb Root Perfective
Stem
[44]
Perfective

Forms

Imperative[46] Subjunctive.
Stem
[47]
Subjunctive

Forms

Intimate Familiar Formal
Masculine

Singular

Masculine

Plural

Feminine

Singular

Feminine

Plural

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 2nd 3rd 1st
mãĩ ye/vo tum āp ye/vo ham
honā "to happen" ho- hu- huā hue huī huī̃ ho hoo hoiye present subjunctive h- hū̃ ho ho
future subjunctive ho- hoū̃ hoe ho'o hoẽ
jānā "to go" jā- ga- gayā gaye gayī gayī̃ jāo jāiye jāū̃ jāe jāo jāẽ
karnā "to do" kar- ki- kiyā kiye kī̃ kar karo kījie kar karū̃ kare karo karẽ
denā "to give" de- di- diyā diye dī̃ de do dījie d- dū̃ de do dẽ
lenā "to take" le- li- liyā liye lī̃ le lo lījie l- lū̃ le lo lẽ
pīnā "to drink" pī- pi- piyā piye pī̃ piyo pījie pi- piyū̃ piye piyo piyẽ
  • The irregular forms are underlined. in the above table.
  • There are two subjunctive stems for the verb honā, one being regular and the other being irregular. The regular set is the future subjunctive forms and the regular ones are the as the present subjunctive forms. honā is the only verb in Hindi to have distinct forms for the future and the present subjunctive, for all other forms there is one common subjunctive form which is used as both the present and the future subjunctive.
  • However, it is - that is used as the perfective stem in the rare instance of an intransitive verb like jānā being expressed passively, such as in a passivized imperative/subjunctive construction: ghar jāyā jāye? "Shall [we] go home?" (lit. "Shall home be gone to [by us]?").[48]

Set of related verbsEdit

Transitives are morphologically contrastive in Hindustani, leading to the existence of related verb sets divisible along such lines. While the derivation of such forms shows patterns, they do reach a level of variegation so as to make it somewhat difficult to outline all-encompassing rules. Furthermore, some sets may have as many as four to five distinct members; also, the meaning of certain members of given sets may be idiosyncratic.[49]

These below are the verb forms that a verb in Hindi can have —

  1. Intransitive
    1. Involitional — these are actions that cannot be done intentionally.
      1. Dative — these inviolitional verbs require the subject to be in the dative case.[50]
      2. Non-dative — these verbs require the verb to be in the nominative case.
    2. Volitional — these are actions that can be intentionally done.[51]
      1. Ergative — these verbs can take in the ergative case (the subject can be in the ergative case).
      2. Non-ergative — these verbs cannot take in the ergative case (the subject can only be in the nominative case).
  2. Transitive
    1. Direct — the subject themself experiences the action but the subject and the object are not the same
    2. Indirect — the subject imparts the action onto the object, the object is the experiencer of the action, it is usually translated into English as "to make (someone/something) verb"
    3. Reflexive — the verb does action on the subject itself, the doer and experiencer of the action is the same subject
    4. Causative — the subject causes the action to happen. Translationː "to cause to be verbed", the agent takes the instrumental postposition se. Thus Y se Z banvānā = "to cause Z to be made by Y" = "to cause Y to make Z" = "to have Z made by Y" = "to have Y make Z", etc.

Starting from direct transitive verb forms, the other verb stems i.e., intransitive, causative, reflexive, indirect stems are produced according to these following (not exhaustive) assorted rules[52][53]

  1. Root vowel changeː
    • a → ā
    • u / ū → o
    • i / ī → e
  2. Sometimes the root vowel change accompanies the root's final consonant changeː
    • k → c
    • ṭ → r̥
    • l → Ø
  3. Suffixation of to form the indirect or reflexive formː
    • Root vowel changeː ū/o → u; e/ai/ā/ī → i
    • Insertion of semivowel l between such vowel-terminating stems
  4. Suffixation of - (in place of where it would occur) to form the causative verb stem
Set of related verbs
English

verbs

Intransitive Transitive
involitional volitional direct indirect reflexive causative
non-dative dative non-ergative ergative
be, become honā
happen, have honā hovānā
do karnā karānā karvānā
fall girnā girānā girvānā
prepare bannā banānā banvānā
send bhijnā bhejnā bhejānā bhijvānā
dance nacnā nācnā nacānā nacvānā
be found milnā
unite, mix milānā milvānā
receive milnā dilvānā
open khulnā kholnā khulānā khulvānā
kholānā kholvānā
learn sīkhnā sikhānā sikhvānā
eat khānā khilānā khilvānā
come anā
to know how to anā
drink pīnā pilānā pilvānā
sell biknā becnā becānā bikvānā
see dikhnā dekhnā dikhānā dikhvānā
appear, look like dikhnā
look like lagnā
stick/put together lagnā lagānā lagvānā
feel, feel like lagnā
tell, be called kêhnā kêhlānā kêhêlvānā
say, call bolnā bulānā bulvānā
sit biṭhnā baiṭhnā baiṭhānā baiṭhvānā
break ṭūṭnā tor̥nā tur̥ānā tur̥vānā
understand samajhnā samjhānā samajhvānā
tear faṭnā fār̥nā far̥ānā far̥vānā
blast, shatter fūṭnā, faṭnā for̥nā for̥ānā for̥vānā
beat piṭnā pīṭnā piṭānā piṭvānā
bathe nahānā nêhlānā nêhêlnā nêhêlvānā
know jānnā janvānā
laugh hãsnā hãsānā hãsvānā

Light verbsEdit

Compound verbs, a highly visible feature of Hindi–Urdu grammar, consist of a verbal stem plus a light verb. The light verb (also called "subsidiary", "explicator verb", and "vector"[54]) loses its own independent meaning and instead "lends a certain shade of meaning"[55] to the main or stem verb, which "comprises the lexical core of the compound".[54] While almost any verb can act as a main verb, there is a limited set of productive light verbs.[56] Shown below are prominent such light verbs, with their independent meaning first outlined, followed by their semantic contribution as auxiliaries. Finally, having to do with the manner of an occurrence, compounds verbs are mostly used with completed actions and imperatives, and much less with negatives, conjunctives, and contexts continuous or speculative. This is because non-occurrences cannot be described to have occurred in a particular manner.[57] The auxiliaries when combined with the main verb provides an aspectual sense to the main verb it modifies. Light verbs such as jānā "to go", ānā "to come", cuknā when combined with the main verb give the formed compound verb a perfective aspect, while retaining the original meaning of the main verb.

Perfective aspect compound verbs
Light Verb Explanation Main Verb Examples
jānā "to go" Shows perfective aspect (completed action) of the main verb which

means gives a sense of completeness of the action, finality,

or change of state.[58]

1. ānā "to come"

2. khānā "to eat"

3. marnā "to die"

4. pīnā "to drink"

5. baiṭhnā "to sit"

6. honā "to happen"

1. ā jānā "to arrive" " to have come"

2. khā jānā "to eat up (all/everything/completely)"

3. mar jānā "to be dead"

4. pī jānā "to drink up (all/everything/completely)" "to gulp"

5. baiṭh jānā "to sit down" "to have sit down"

6. ho jānā "to have happened (completely)" "to have finished happening"

lenā "to take" Suggests that the (usually planned/expected) action is completed and the benefit of the action flows

towards the doer.[57] This auxiliary verb can also be used to soften down

the tone of imperatives (commands) and usually is used to give suggestions. Nuance of planned/expected action is not present.

1. paṛhnā

2. karnā

3. calnā

4. mārnā

1. paṛh lenā "to read (for oneself/for own's desire)"

2. kar lenā "to do (something fully for oneself)" "to have finished doing something"

3. cal lenā "to have walked"

4. mār lenā "to (try to) kill (oneself)"

denā "to give" Suggests that the (usually planned/expected) action was completed and the benefit of the action flows

away from the doer.[57] This auxiliary verb can also be used to soften down

the tone of imperatives (commands) and usually is used to ask for favours. Nuance of planned/expected action is not present. This can also mean "to let" in the imperative - to let someone do: karne denā (oblique)

1. paṛhnā

2. mārnā

3. karnā

1. paṛh denā "to read (for someone)" "to read out"

2. mār denā "to kill", "to kill off", "to murder"

3. kār denā "to do (something completely for someone else and not oneself)"

ānā "to come" Shows perfective aspect of the main verb which means gives

a sense of completeness of the action, finality, or change of state.

The meaning conveyed is the doer went somewhere to do something

and came back after completing the action. This can also mean "to know how to" in the indefinite/habitual present tense - to know how to do: karnā ānā

1. karnā 1. kar ānā "to finish (and come back)", "to do (and return)";
cuknā "to have (already) completed something" Shows sense of completness of an action in the past, that the action

was already done/finished/completed by the doer sometime in the past.

1. marnā

2. jītnā

1. mar cuknā "to have already died"

2. jīt cuknā "to have already won"

The first three light verbs in the above table are the most common of auxiliaries, and the "least marked", or "lexically nearly colourless".[59] The nuance conveyed by an auxiliary can often be very subtle, and need not always be expressed with different words in English translation. lenā and denā, transitive verbs, occur with transitives, while intransitive jānā occurs mostly with intransitives; a compound of a transitive and jānā will be grammatically intransitive as jānā is.

Light Verb Explanation Examples
ḍālnā "to throw, pour" Indicates an action done vigorously, decisively, violently or recklessly;[60]

it is an intensifier, showing intensity, urgency, completeness, or violence.[61]

1. mārnā "to hit/ kill" → mār ḍālnā "to kill (violently)"

2. pīnā "to drink" → pī ḍālnā "to drink (hastily)".

baiṭhnā "to sit" Implies an action done foolishly or stubbornly;[62] shows speaker disapproval

or an impulsive or involuntary action.[61]

1. kêhnā "to say" → kêh baiṭhnā "to say something (involuntarily or by mistake)"

2. karnā "to do" → kar baiṭhnā "to do (something as a blunder)"

3. laṛnā "to fight" → laṛ baiṭhnā "to quarrel (foolishly, or without giving it second thought)".

paṛnā "to suddenly fall" "to lie flat" Connotes involuntary, sudden, or unavoidable occurrence.;[59] This can also mean "to have to, must" in the perfect tenses - to have to do: karnā paṛnā 1. uṭhnā "to get up"uṭh paṛnā "to suddenly get up"

2. girnā "to fall down" → gir paṛnā "to collapse"

uṭhnā "to rise" Functions like an intensifier;[63] suggests inception of action or feeling,

with its independent/literal meaning sometimes showing through

in a sense of upward movement.

1. jalnā "to burn" → jal uṭhnā "to burst into flames"

2. nacnā "to dance" → nac uṭhnā "to break into dance".[62]

saknā "to be able to" A modal verb that indicates the capability of performing an action. 1. karnā "to do" → kar saknā "to be able to do"

2. dekhnā "to see" → dekh sakhnā "to be able to see"

rakhnā "to keep, maintain" Implies a firmness of action, or one with possibly long-lasting results or implications;[64]

occurs with lenā and denā, meaning "to give/take (as a loan)",

and with other appropriate verbs, showing an action performed beforehand.[61]

It usually works almost the same as cuknā the main difference being the nuance conveyed

by rakhnā is that the action has either "continued effect till the present time" or "is more

recent than the same action conveyed using the cuknā.". cuknā signifies distant past.

1. dekhnā "to see" → dekh rakhnā "to have already seen."
rahnā "to remain/stay" The continuous aspect marker rahā apparently originated as a compound verb with rahnā ("remain"):

thus ma͠i bol rahā hū̃ = "I have remained speaking" → "I have continued speaking" → "I am speaking".

However, it has lost the ability to take any form other than the imperfective, and is thus considered

to have become grammaticalized.[65]

Finally, having to do with the manner of an occurrence, compounds verbs are mostly used with completed actions and imperatives, and much less with negatives, conjunctives, and contexts continuous or speculative. This is because non-occurrences cannot be described to have occurred in a particular manner.[57]

ConjunctsEdit

Another notable aspect of Hindi–Urdu grammar is that of "conjunct verbs", composed of a noun or adjective paired up with a general verbaliser, most commonly transitive karnā "to do" or intransitive honā "to be", "to happen", functioning in the place of what in English would be single unified verb. All conjunct verbs formed using karnā are transitive verbs and all conjunct verbs formed using the verb honā are intransitive verbs.

In the case of an adjective as the non-verbal element, it is often helps to think of karnā "to do" as supplementarily having the senses of "to cause to be", "to make", "to render", etc.

Adjective Conjunct Literal Meaning
sāf "clean" sāf karnā to do clean to clean
nyuktH / muqarrarU "appointed" nyukt / muqarrar karnā to do appointed to appoint
band "closed" band honā to be closed to close (intransitive)
xatam "finished" xatam honā to be finished to finish (intransitive)

In the case of a noun as the non-verbal element, it is treated syntactically as the verb's (direct) object (never taking the ko marker; governing agreement in perfective and infinitival constructions), and the semantic patient (or agent: see gālī khānā below) of the conjunct verbal expression is often expressed/marked syntactically as a genitive postposition (-kā ~ ke ~ ) of the noun.[66]

Noun Conjunct Conjunct + patient Literal Meaning
intezār "wait" intezār karnā kisī kā intezār karnā to do somebody's wait to wait for somebody
istemāl "use" istemāl karnā fon kā istemāl karnā to do a phone's use to use a phone
bāt "talk" bāt karnā samīr kī bāt karnā to do Sameer's talk to talk about Sameer
gālī "cuss/bad word" gālī khānā sanam kī gālī khānā to eat a lover's curse to be cursed out by one's own lover
tasvīr "picture" tasvīr khīñcnā Ibrāhīm kī tasvīr khīñcnā to pull Ibrahim's picture to take Ibrahim's picture

With English it is the verb stems themselves that are used. All English loan words are used by forming compound verbs in Hindi by using either honā (intransitive) or karnā (transitive).

English Verb Hindi Verb Stem Conjuncts Meaning
check cêk cêk honā to be/get checked
cêk karnā to check (someone/something)
bore bor bor honā to be/get bored
bor karnā to bore (someone)
apply aplāi aplāi honā to be/get applied
aplāi karnā to apply (for something)

PassiveEdit

The passive construction is periphrastic. It is formed from the perfective participle by addition of the auxiliary jānā "to go"; i.e. likhnā "to write" → likhā jānā "to be written". The agent is marked by the instrumental postposition se. Furthermore, both intransitive and transitive verbs may be grammatically passivized to show physical/psychological incapacity, usually in negative sentences. Lastly, intransitives often have a passive sense, or convey unintentional action.[67]

SyntaxEdit

Word orderEdit

Hindustani is a word order free language, in the sense that word order does not usually signal grammatical functions in the language.[68] However, the unmarked word order in Hindustani is SOV. It is neither purely left- nor right-branching, and phenomena of both types can be found. The order of constituents in sentences as a whole lacks governing "hard and fast rules", and frequent deviations can be found from normative word position, describable in terms of a small number of rules, accounting for facts beyond the pale of the label of "SOV".[69]

  • Subject precedes the direct object of the sentence if both the dative and the accusative case marks the objects of a sentence. Prescriptively, the relative position is fixed in order to make it unambiguous which is the direct object and which is the in-direct object in the sentence as both the dative case and the accusative case is the same in Hindustani and are marked by the same postposition ko.
  • Attributive adjectives precede the noun they qualify by default, but can also be placed after the noun, doing that usually makes the sentence sound either more poetic or gives as stronger emphasises on the attribute that the adjective describes.
  • Adverbs usually can appear either before or after the verb they qualify.
  • Negative markers (nahī̃, na, mat) and interrogatives precede the verb by default but can also appear after it, however the position for negation can be more flexible and the negation can occur before or after the auxiliary verbs too if the sentence has an auxiliary verb. Whenever the negation comes after the verbs instead of before the verb, it always emphasises the negation. The negation can never come before a noun.
  • kyā ("what?") as the yes-no question marker occurs at the beginning or the end of a clause as its unmarked positions but it can be put anywhere in the sentence except before a verb, where it is instead interpreted as the its interrogative meaning "what".[70] This is frequently dropped in colloquial conversation, and instead, the last word of the question has a higher pitch.

In the example below, it is shown that all word orders make sense for simple sentences, which do not have adjectives, negations and adverbs. As a general rule, whatever information comes first in the sentence gets emphasised and the information which appears at the end of a sentence gets emphasised the least.[71][72]

[ma͠i].1P.NOM.SG [baccā].kid.NOM.SG.MASC [hū̃].be.1P.SG [mujhe].1P.DAT [karnā].INF.PTCP.MASC.SG [hai].be.3P.SG
Sentence Literal Translation Sentence Literal Translation
1. ma͠i baccā hū̃ [I] [kid] [am] I am a kid. 2. mujhe karnā hai [to me] [to do] [is] I have/want to do.
ma͠i hū̃ baccā [I] [am] [kid] mujhe hai karnā [to me] [is] [to do]
baccā ma͠i hū̃ [kid] [I] [am] karnā mujhe hai [to do] [to me] [is]
baccā hū̃ ma͠i [kid] [am] [I] karnā hai mujhe [to do] [is] [to do]
hū̃ ma͠i baccā [am] [I] [kid] hai mujhe karnā [is] [to me] [to do]
hū̃ baccā ma͠i [am] [kid] [I] hai karnā mujhe [is] [to do] [to me]

As long as both dative and the accusative case are not used in the sentence, the word order flexibility remains. For example, in the table below the locative and the accusative case is used in the same sentence, the word order is flexible because the markers for the locative and the accusative cases are different but in Hindustani, the marker for the accusative and the dative case are the same, which is ko for nouns and the oblique case pronouns or they have their own unique pronoun forms which are the same for dative and the accusative case.[72]

Translation: He/she wants/have to go [up] on that.
[use].he/she.DEM.DAT [uspe].that.DEM.LOC [jānā].go.INF [hai].be.3P.SG
use uspe jānā hai uspe use jānā hai jānā use uspe hai hai use uspe jān̄ā
use uspe hai jānā uspe use hai jānā jānā use hai uspe hai use jān̄ā uspe
use jānā hai uspe uspe hai use jānā jānā hai use uspe hai jānā use uspe
use jānā uspe hai uspe hai jānā use jānā hai uspe use hai jānā uspe use
use hai uspe jānā uspe jānā hai use jānā uspe use hai hai uspe use jānā
use hai jānā uspe uspe jānā use hai jānā uspe hai use hai uspe jānā use
Note: All word orders make sense but each has its own nuance and specific context of usage.


Usage of dative/accusative noun + accusative/dative pronoun

When noun and pronoun are used together in a sentence and one is in accusative case while the other is in the dative case, there is no way to differentiate which one is which just by looking at the sentence. Usually in such cases, owing to the default word order of Hindi (which is SOV) which noun/pronoun comes earlier in the sentence becomes the subject of the sentence and what comes later becomes the object of the sentence.

1. [use].DEM.ACC [kutte-ko].dog.DAT [do].give.IMP.2P
2. [use].DEM.DAT [kutte-ko].dog.ACC [do].give.IMP.2P
use kutte-ko do Either "Give it/him/her to the dog."

or "Give the dog to it/him/her."

(Prescriptively, what comes

first becomes the subject of the sentence)

use do kutte-ko
kutte-ko use do
kutte-ko do use
do kutte-ko use
do use kutte-ko


Usage of dative noun + accusative noun[73][68]

Nouns in Hindi are put in the dative or accusative case first having the noun in the oblique case and then by adding the postposition ko after it. However, when two nouns are used in a sentence in which one of them is in the accusative case and the other in the dative case, the sentence becomes ambiguous and stops making sense, so, to make sense of the sentence, one of the noun (which is assumed to be in the accusative case) is put into the nominative case and the other one is left as it is (in the dative case). The noun which is put into the nominative case becomes the direct object of the sentence and the other one (which is now in the Accusative case) becomes the indirect object of the sentence.

When both the nouns use the ko marker, generally, all permutations in which the nouns with the same case marker are adjacent to one another become ambiguous or convey no sense.[73]

Sentence Note Translation
?sā̃p-ko sapere-ko do with proper intonation it makes sense[71] give the snake to the snake-charmer.
*sā̃p-ko do sapere-ko doesn't make sense -
?sapere-ko sā̃p-ko do with proper intonation it makes sense[71] give the snake-charmer to the snake.
*sapere-ko do sā̃p-ko doesn't make sense -
*do sapere-ko sā̃p-ko doesn't make sense -
*do sā̃p-ko sapere-ko doesn't make sense -

Removing the ko from the word sā̃p leaves it in the nominative case. Now, it acts as the direct object of the sentence and saperā becomes the indirect object of the sentence. The English translation becomes "Give the snake-charmer a snake." and when the opposite is done, the English translation of the sentence becomes "Give the snake a snake-charmer."

Sentence Translation Sentence Translation
sā̃p sapere-ko do Give the snake-charmer a snake sā̃p-ko sapere do Give the snake a snake-charmer
sā̃p do sapere-ko sā̃p-ko do sapere
sapere-ko sā̃p do sapere sā̃p-ko do
sapere-ko do sā̃p sapere do sā̃p-ko
do sapere-ko sā̃p do sapere sā̃p-ko
do sā̃p sapere-ko do sā̃p-ko sapere


Usage of dative pronoun + accusative pronoun

When two pronouns are used in a sentence, all the sentences remain grammatically valid but the ambiguity of precisely telling the subject and the object of the sentence remains.[73] However, just as we did above, converting one the pronoun into nominative case does not work for all pronouns but only for the 3rd person pronouns and doing that for any other pronoun will leave the sentence ungrammatical and without sense. The reason that this works only for the 3rd person pronoun because these are not really the "regular" 3rd person pronouns but are instead the demonstrative pronouns. Hindustani lacks the regular 3rd person pronouns and hence compensates for them by using the demonstrative pronouns.

So, the ambiguity cannot completely be removed in this case here, unless of course it is interpreted that what comes first becomes the subject of the sentence. The English translation becomes either "Give me to that/him/her/it." or "Give me that/him/her/it." depending on which pronoun appears first in the sentence.

Sentence Translation Sentence Translation
mujhe use do Give me to that/him/her/it.

or

Give me that/him/her/it.

mujhe vo do Give me that.
mujhe do use mujhe do vo
do mujhe use do mujhe vo
do use mujhe do vo mujhe
use mujhe do vo mujhe do
use do mujhe vo do mujhe

PossessionEdit

Unlike English and many other Indo-European languages, Hindustani doesn't have a verb which uniquely translate to "to have" of English. Possession is reflected in Hindustani by the genitive marker (inflected appropriately) or the postposition ke pās ("near") and the verb honā. Possible objects of possession fall into the following four main categories in Hindustani,

  1. Fundamental possessions: These are possessions that are of permanent nature, which one has not obtained but got naturally and cannot be owned. These include, family relations, body parts, etc.
    • For indicating fundamental possessions, appears after the subject of the possession. With personal pronouns, this requires the use of the possessive pronoun (inflected appropriately).
  2. Non-Fundamental possessions: These are possessions that one has obtained or can be owned. These include possession of any object, living beings (including humans), etc.
    • For indicating non-fundamental possessions, the compound postposition ke pās (literally, "of near") is used. However, this postposition cannot ever be translated as "near", showing proximity.
  3. Proximal possessions: These are possessions that show that someone or something has something near themselves.
    • For indicating proximity of the object to the subject, the double compound postposition ke pās mẽ (literally, "of near in") is used. It translates as "nearby".
  4. Dative/Abstract possessions: These are abstract possessions such as pain, problems, issue, wanting, happiness, etc. but sometimes it can also be used to show number of children one has (gave birth to and not adopted).
    • For indicating dative possessions, the pronouns in their dative case or the dative postposition ko is used.
Fundamental possessions
Sentence Literal Translation Explanation
1. merī mā̃ hai. [my] [mother] [there is] I have a mother. means that your mother is still alive, and hence in a fundamental way you still possess her, as in, the relationship "she is your mother" is true.
2. uskī do ā̃khẽ ha͠i. [his] [two] [eyes] [there are] He/She has two eyes. means that a person fundamentally/naturally has two eyes. The person was born like that.
3. mere do bacce ha͠i. [mine] [two] [children] [there are] I have two children. means you are the parent of two kids. The relationship is permanent.
4. merī nazar acchī nahī̃ hai. [mine] [vision] [good] [not] [is] My vision is not good. as vision is a fundamental property of a person and hence it cannot be owned and so the fundamental possession is used.

Note: The verb honā can be translated as "to be", "to have/possess", "to exist" or "to happen" depending on the context. The third person singular and plural conjugations depending on the context could also be translated as "there is" and "there are" respectively.

Non-fundamental possessions
Sentence Literal Translation Explanation
1. mere pās mā̃ hai. [mine] [near] [mother] [there is] I have a mother. means the same as the non-fundamental possession, but with the nuance that you and your mother are physically together or close.
2. uske pās do ā̃khẽ ha͠i. [his] [near] [two] [eyes] [there are] He/she has two eyes. means the same as the non-fundamental possession with an emphasis on the current ability of one's eyes (as opposed to blindness),

but also has an additional meaning of possession of someone else's eye. [yes, creepy.]

3. mere pās do bacce ha͠i. [mine] [near] [two] [kids] [there are] I have two kids. means that you have kids of some other person, usually used in situations of school (teacher-student), kidnapping, etc.
4. mere pās ek idea hai. [mine] [near] [one] [idea] [there is] I have an idea. means that you possess an idea. An idea occurred to you.

Note: Sometimes when talking about physical objects (including animals) both the fundamental and non-fundamental possessions are used interchangeably when the meaning conveyed in both cases doesn't lead to confusion. For example, mere do kutte haĩ and mere pās do kutte haĩ (both translating as, "I have two dogs.") are often used interchangeably when referring to pet dogs, with the sentence with the fundamental possession showing or having more emotional attachment. The reason these both are used interchangeably because it is a priori understood that the dogs in the context must be pet dogs. Same happens with the second example above on both the tables conveying the possession of eyes; it is understood that the eyes in the context are one's own. In the contexts where such a priori information is not immediately understood, these two types of possessions cannot be used interchangeably.

Proximal possessions
Sentence Literal Translation
1. mere pās mẽ mā̃ hai. [mine] [nearby] [mother] [there is] "Mother is near me." or, "I have mother near me."
2. uske pās mẽ do kutte ha͠i. [his] [nearby] [two] [dogs] [there are] "There are two dogs near him/her." or, "He/She/It has two dogs near him/her/it."
3. mere pās mẽ do bacce ha͠i. [mine] [nearby] [two] [kids] [there are] "I have two kids near me."
4. mere pās mẽ ek ghar hai. [mine] [nearby] [one] [idea] [there is] "I have a house near me."
Dative/Abstract possessions
Sentence Explanation
1.

mujhe

to me

ek

one

dikkat

problem

hai.

there is

mujhe ek dikkat hai.

{to me} one problem {there is}

I have a problem.

since problem is an abstract noun, the dative/abstract possession is used.
2.

use

to him/her

usse

from him/her

do

two

bacce

kids

ha͠i.

there are

use usse do bacce ha͠i.

{to him/her} {from him/her} two kids {there are}

She has two kids with him.

dative/abstract possession is used to show number of children someone has (gave birth to, and not adopted).
3.

tujhe

to you

intī

this much

khušī

happiness

kyõ

why

hai?

there is

tujhe intī khušī kyõ hai?

{to you} {this much} happiness why {there is}

Why are you so happy? (lit. why do you have so much happiness?)

since happiness is an abstract noun, the dative/abstract possession is used.

RelativisationEdit

Rather than using relative clauses after nouns, as in English, Hindustani uses correlative clauses. In Hindustani, a correlative clause can go before or after the entire clause, the adjective, the noun, the pronoun or the verb it relativises.[74]

Relative pronouns positions
Sentence Note
1.

jo

who.REL

laṛkī

girl.FEM.SG

khaṛī

stand.PTCP.FEM.SG

hai

be.PRS.3P.SG.

vo

she.DEM

lambī

tall.ADJ.FEM.SG

hai.

be.PRS.3P.SG.

jo laṛkī khaṛī hai vo lambī hai.

who.REL girl.FEM.SG stand.PTCP.FEM.SG be.PRS.3P.SG. she.DEM tall.ADJ.FEM.SG be.PRS.3P.SG.

The girl who is standing, she is tall.

pre-noun relative clause[75]
2.

bacca

kid.MASC.SG.

jo

who.REL

cillātā

shout.PTCP.MASC.SG

hai

be.PRS.3P.SG

bura

bad.ADJ.MASC.SG

hai.

be.PRS.3P.SG

bacca jo cillātā hai bura hai.

kid.MASC.SG. who.REL shout.PTCP.MASC.SG be.PRS.3P.SG bad.ADJ.MASC.SG be.PRS.3P.SG

The kid who shouts is bad.

post-noun relative clause[76]
3.

vo

he.DEM

khātā

eat.PTCP.MASC.SG

hai

be.PRS.3P.SG

jo

what.REL

vo

he.DEM

khātā

eat.PTCP.MASC.SG

hai.

be.PRS.3P.SG

vo khātā hai jo vo khātā hai.

he.DEM eat.PTCP.MASC.SG be.PRS.3P.SG what.REL he.DEM eat.PTCP.MASC.SG be.PRS.3P.SG

He eats what he eats.

post-verb relative clause[74]
4.

karo

do.IMP.2P.SG

jo

what.REL

karnā

do.INF.PTCP

hai

be.PRS.3P.SG

[tumko].

 

karo jo karnā hai [tumko].

do.IMP.2P.SG what.REL do.INF.PTCP be.PRS.3P.SG {}

Do what you want/have to do.

pre-verb relative clause[77]
5.

jo

what.REL

karo

do.SUBJ.2P.SG

sahī

correct.ADJ

karo.

do.IMP.2P.SG

jo karo sahī karo.

what.REL do.SUBJ.2P.SG correct.ADJ do.IMP.2P.SG

Do right what you do.

pre-verb relative clause[74]
6.

acchī̃

good.ADJ.FEM.PL

nahī̃

not.NEG

ha͠i

be.PRS.3P.PL

vo

they.NOM.FEM.

jo

who.REL

gātī̃

sing.PTCP.FEM.PL

ha͠i.

be.PRS.3P.PL

acchī̃ nahī̃ ha͠i vo jo gātī̃ ha͠i.

good.ADJ.FEM.PL not.NEG be.PRS.3P.PL they.NOM.FEM. who.REL sing.PTCP.FEM.PL be.PRS.3P.PL

Those [women] who sing are not good.

post-pronoun relative clause[78]
7.

jo

what.REL

tum

you.NOM

karoge

do.FUT.MASC.2P.SG

sahī

correct.ADJ

karoge.

do.FUT.MASC.2P.SG

jo tum karoge sahī karoge.

what.REL you.NOM do.FUT.MASC.2P.SG correct.ADJ do.FUT.MASC.2P.SG

What(ever) you'll do, you'll do correct(ly)/right.

pre-pronoun relative clause[77]
8.

acchī

good.ADJ.FEM.SG

jo

who.REL

haī

be.PRS.3P.SG

vo

she.DEM

vo

that.DEM

laṛkī

girl.NOM.SG.

haī.

be.PRS.3P.SG.

acchī jo haī vo vo laṛkī haī.

good.ADJ.FEM.SG who.REL be.PRS.3P.SG she.DEM that.DEM girl.NOM.SG. be.PRS.3P.SG.

The girl who is good is her.

post-adjective relative clause[74]
9.

jo

who.REL

acchī

good.ADJ.FEM.SG

haī

be.PRS.3P.SG

vo

that.DEM

vo

she.DEM

laṛkī

girl.NOM.SG.

haī.

be.PRS.3P.SG.

jo acchī haī vo vo laṛkī haī.

who.REL good.ADJ.FEM.SG be.PRS.3P.SG that.DEM she.DEM girl.NOM.SG. be.PRS.3P.SG.

The girl who is good is her.

pre-adjective relative clause[79]

Note: The relative pronoun jo can be used as both relative "what" and relative "who".

Case-marking and verb agreementEdit

Hindustani has tripartite case-marking, which means that the subject in intransitive clauses, and the agent and the object in transitive clauses each can be marked by a distinct case form. The full set of case distinctions is however only realized in certain clause types.[80][81]

In intransitive clauses, the subject is in nominative case. The verb displays agreement with the subject: depending on aspect and mood, the verb agrees in gender and number, and/or person and number.[80]

laṛkā

boy:NOM

kal

yesterday

āyā

come:PRF:MASC:SG

laṛkā kal āyā

boy:NOM yesterday come:PRF:MASC:SG

'The boy came yesterday.'

In transitive clauses, there are three patterns:[82]

1. Perfective clauses with animate/definite object

Fully distinctive case marking is found in perfective clauses with animate and/or definite objects. Here, the agent takes the ergative case marker ne, while the object takes the accusative case marker ko. The verb does not agree with either of the core arguments (agent and object), but is marked per default as third person masculine singular (calāyā hai).[a]

laṛke=ne

boy:OBL=ERG

gāṛī=ko

car=ACC

calāyā

drive:PRF:MASC:SG

hai

be:PRES:3.SG

laṛke=ne gāṛī=ko calāyā hai

boy:OBL=ERG car=ACC drive:PRF:MASC:SG be:PRES:3.SG

'The boy has driven the car.'

2. Perfective clauses with inanimate/indefinite object

In perfective clauses with an indefinite object, the agent keeps the ergative case marker, but the object is in nominative case. The verb agrees with the object: the perfective form calāyī hai is marked for feminine gender, agreeing with the gender of the object gāṛī.

laṛke=ne

boy:OBL=ERG

gāṛī

car

calāyī

drive:PRF:FEM:SG

hai

be:PRES:3.SG

laṛke=ne gāṛī calāyī hai

boy:OBL=ERG car drive:PRF:FEM:SG be:PRES:3.SG

'The boy has driven the car.'

3. Non-perfective clauses

In all other clause types, the agent is in nominative case and triggers agreement on the verb. The object is either in nominative case or accusative case, depending on animacy/definiteness

laṛkā

boy:NOM

gāṛī

car:NOM

calātā

drive:IMPF:MASC:SG

hai

be:PRES:3.SG

laṛkā gāṛī calātā hai

boy:NOM car:NOM drive:IMPF:MASC:SG be:PRES:3.SG

'The boy drives a car.'

The following table summarises the three basic case-marking and agreement types.

Case marking Verb agreement
S* A O transitive intransitive
Perfective clauses definite object nominative ergative accusative none with S
indefinite object nominative ergative nominative with O
Non-perfective clauses nominative nominative nominative/accusative with A with S
*S is the subject in intransitive clauses. A and O are the agent and the object in transitive clauses, respectively.

Differential argument markingEdit

Hindustani, like other Indo-Aryan languages, displays differential case marking on both subjects (DSM) and objects (DOM).[83] Diachronically, differential argument marking developed very differently for subjects and objects, but for both became prevalent in the 17th century. For subjects, it is predicate-licensed and dependent on semantics, whereas for objects it is discourse-driven.[84]

For subjects, on top of the previously discussed split ergativity (in which perfective case verbs take the ergative ne on the subject, while other conjugations have an unmarked subject), certain modal auxiliary verbs take different case markers for their subjects.

The most notable instance of DSM is the experiencer dative subject (a type of quirky subject). Verbs indicating sensations (lagnā "to seem"), emotions (mêhsūs honā "to feel"), and cognition (patā honā "to be known"), all license the dative case marker ko on their subjects. This is a cross-lingual phenomenon.

us=ko

3.SG:OBL=DAT

terī

2.SG:GEN

bāt

talk:NOM

acchī

good:FEM

lag

seem

rahī

PROG:FEM

hai

be:3.SG:PRS

us=ko terī bāt acchī lag rahī hai

3.SG:OBL=DAT 2.SG:GEN talk:NOM good:FEM seem PROG:FEM be:3.SG:PRS

'She likes what you're saying.'

Passive subjects taking the modal auxiliary jānā 'to go', usually connoting reduced agentivity, take the instrumental se. This construction can also be used to indicate ability.

bacce=se

child:OBL=INS

śīśā

mirror:NOM

ṭūṭ

break

gayā

go:PRF:MASC:SG

bacce=se śīśā ṭūṭ gayā

child:OBL=INS mirror:NOM break go:PRF:MASC:SG

'The mirror was broken by the child.'

The dative ko indicates obligation or necessity. The modal honā 'to be' and paṛnā 'to fall' both take this on their subjects.

logõ=ko

people:OBL:PL=DAT

kām

work:NOM

karnā

do:INF

hai

be:PRS:3.SG

logõ=ko kām karnā hai

people:OBL:PL=DAT work:NOM do:INF be:PRS:3.SG

'The people have to work.'

The accusative marker ko is only applied when the object is definite, similar to the distinction between the and a(n) in English.

ma͠i=ne

1.SG=ERG

laṛkõ=ko

boy:OBL:PL=ACC

bacāyā

save:PRF:MASC:SG

ma͠i=ne laṛkõ=ko bacāyā

1.SG=ERG boy:OBL:PL=ACC save:PRF:MASC:SG

'I saved the boys.'

ma͠i=ne

1.SG=ERG

laṛke

boy:NOM:PL

bacāye

save:PRF:MASC:PL

ma͠i=ne laṛke bacāye

1.SG=ERG boy:NOM:PL save:PRF:MASC:PL

'I saved boys.'

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In the sample clause, the agent happens to be masculine singular, but the verb would not change even if the agent were plural or feminine.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shapiro (2003:258)
  2. ^ Shapiro (2003:260)
  3. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, ... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when / و/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ...
  4. ^ Masica (1991:110)
  5. ^ Masica (1991:117–118)
  6. ^ /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  7. ^ Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi (12th ed.). John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027238122.
  8. ^ Shapiro 2003, pp. 262–263.
  9. ^ a b Shapiro, Michael C. (1989). A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 263. ISBN 81-208-0475-9.
  10. ^ a b c VAN OLPHEN, HERMAN (1975). "Aspect, Tense, and Mood in the Hindi Verb". Indo-Iranian Journal. 16 (4): 284–301. doi:10.1163/000000075791615397. ISSN 0019-7246. JSTOR 24651488.
  11. ^ Shapiro 2003, p. 262.
  12. ^ a b c Snell & Weightman 1989, p. 24.
  13. ^ Snell & Weightman 1989, p. 43.
  14. ^ Shapiro 2003, p. 263.
  15. ^ Schmidt 2003, p. 313.
  16. ^ a b Shapiro (2003:264)
  17. ^ Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi. Philadelphia PA 19118-0519: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 65. ISBN 90-272-3812-X.CS1 maint: location (link)
  18. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:117)
  19. ^ a b Shapiro (2003:265)
  20. ^ McGregor, Ronald Stuart (1987), Outline of Hindi Grammar (2nd revised ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 61–62
  21. ^ a b c Shapiro (2003:266)
  22. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (2003). Experiencer subjects. Handout from MIT course “Structure of the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages”.
  23. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:80–81)
  24. ^ Shapiro (2003:264–265)
  25. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:21)
  26. ^ Shapiro, Michael C. (2003a). A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 265. ISBN 81-208-0475-9.
  27. ^ a b Schmidt (2003:293)
  28. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:68)
  29. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:106)
  30. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:79)
  31. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:80)
  32. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:198)
  33. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:199)
  34. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:88)
  35. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:89)
  36. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:90)
  37. ^ Schmidt (2003:322)
  38. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:150)
  39. ^ Masica (1991:257)
  40. ^ a b Schmidt (2003:323)
  41. ^ Shapiro (2003:268)
  42. ^ Bhatia, Tej. K. (1996). Colloquial Hindi. Great Britain: Routledge. p. 276. ISBN 0-415-11087-4.
  43. ^ Schmidt (2003:324)
  44. ^ a b c Schmidt (2003:328)
  45. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:140)
  46. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:64)
  47. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:113, 125)
  48. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989:179)
  49. ^ Shapiro (2003:270)
  50. ^ Hong, Sungok; Bhatt Kumar, Sunil; Ranjan, Rajiv; Gusain, Lakhan. "Hindi-Urduː Dative Subject Construction". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. ^ Piepers, J. (2016). "Optional ergative case marking in Hindi". www.semanticscholar.org. S2CID 197863131. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  52. ^ Shapiro (2003ː pg. 270)
  53. ^ Snell & Weightman (1989ː pg. 243-244)
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  56. ^ Shapiro (2003:269–270)
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  62. ^ a b Snell & Weightman (1989:221)
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  81. ^ Verbeke, Saartje (2013). Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  82. ^ Butt, Miriam (2017). "Hindi/Urdu and Related Languages". In Coon, Jessica; Massam, Diane; Travis, Lisa Demena (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity. Oxford University Press. pp. 807–831.
  83. ^ de Hoop, Helen; Narasimhan, Bhuvana (2005). "Differential Case-Marking in Hindi". In Amberber, Mengistu; de Hoop, Helen (eds.). Competition and Variation in Natural Languages: The Case for Case. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-0-08-044651-6.
  84. ^ Montaut, Annie (2018). "The rise of differential object marking in Hindi and related languages". In Seržant, Ilja A.; Witzlack-Makarevich, Alena (eds.). Diachrony of differential argument marking (PDF). Berlin: Language Science Press.

BibliographyEdit

Further readingEdit

ABBR1:meaning1 ABBR2:meaning2