Oblique case

In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated OBL; from Latin: casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr. OBJ) is a nominal case other than the nominative case, and sometimes, the vocative.

A noun or pronoun in the oblique case can generally appear in any role except as subject, for which the nominative case is used.[1] The term objective case is generally preferred by modern English grammarians, where it supplanted Old English's dative and accusative.[2][3] When the two terms are contrasted, they differ in the ability of a word in the oblique case to function as a possessive attributive; whether English has an oblique rather than an objective case then depends on how "proper" or widespread one considers the dialects where such usage is employed.

An oblique case often contrasts with an unmarked case, as in English oblique him and them vs. nominative he and they. However, the term oblique is also used for languages without a nominative case, such as ergative–absolutive languages; in the Northwest Caucasian languages, for example, the oblique-case marker serves to mark the ergative, dative, and applicative case roles, contrasting with the absolutive case, which is unmarked.

HindustaniEdit

Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu) nouns and pronouns decline for an oblique case which exclusively serves to mark the grammatical case roles using the case-marking postpositions.[4][5][6] The nominative and oblique cases for pronouns are shown in the tables below:

Personal pronouns
Case 1st Person 2nd Person
Singular Plural Intimate Neutral Formal
Singular Singular & Plural
Nominative मैं

mɛ̃

हम

ham

तू

तुम

tum

आप

āp

Oblique Ergative
Regular मुझ

mujh

तुझ

tujh

Emphatic मुझी

mujhī

हमीं

hamī̃

तुझी

tujhī

तुम्हीं

tumhī̃

Genitive Masculine मेरे

mērē

हमारे

hamārē

तेरे

tērē

तुम्हारे

tumhārē

Feminine मेरी

mērī

हमारी

hamārī

तेरी

tērī

तुम्हारी

tumhārī

Third person pronouns
Case Demonstrative1 Relative Interrogative
Proximal Distal
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative यह

yah

ये

वह

vah

वे

जो

jo

कौन, क्या

kaun, kyā

ये

वो

vo

Oblique Ergative इस

is

इन्हों

inhõ

उस

us

उन्हों

unhõ

जिस

jis

जिन्हों

jinhõ

किस

kis

किन्हों

kinhõ

Regular इन

in

उन

un

जिन

jin

किन

kin

Emphatic इसी

isī

इन्हीं

inhī̃

उसी

usī

उन्हीं

unhī̃

किसी

kisī

किन्हीं

kinhī

1 Hindustani does not have true third person pronouns and the demonstratives double as the third person pronouns.

There are six noun declension patterns in Hindustani.[7] They are mentioned in the table below:

Case Masculine Feminine
ending in -आ (-ā) ending in -इ/ई (-i/ī) ending in -उ/ऊ (-u/ū) ending in -ø ending in -इ/ई (-i/ī) ending in -ø
Boy Man Knife Tree Girl Mother
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative लड़का

lar̥kā

लड़के

lar̥kē

आदमी

ādmī

आदमी

ādmī

चाकू

cakū

चाकू

cakū

पेड़

per̥

पेड़

per̥

लड़की

lar̥kī

लड़कियाँ

lar̥kiyā̃

माता

mātā

माताएँ

mātāẽ

Oblique लड़के

lar̥kē

लड़कों

lar̥kõ

आदमियों

ādmiyõ

चाकुओं

cakuõ

पेड़ों

per̥õ

लड़कियों

lar̥kiyõ

माताओं

mātāõ

Note: means anything other than -ā, -i, and for masculine and anything other than -i/ī for feminine.

The oblique case is used exclusively with these 8 case-marking postpositions.[8][9] Out of these 8 postpositions, the genitive and semblative postpositions decline to agree with the gender, number, and case of the object it shows possession of, or the subject it semblance of to something/someone.

Postpositional case-markers
Case Case Marker Example English Example English
Nominative लड़का

lar̥kā

boy तू

you
Ergative ने

लड़के ने

lar̥kē nē

the boy तूने

tūnē

you
Accusative को

ko

लड़के को

lar̥kē ko

the boy तुझको

tujhko

you
Dative to the boy to you
Instrumental से

लड़के से

lar̥kē sē

with/using the boy तुझसे

tujhsē

with/using you
Ablative from the boy from you
Genitive का

लड़के का

lar̥kē kā

boy's तेरा

terā

your
Inessive में

mẽ

लड़के में

lar̥kē mẽ

in/inside the boy तुझमें

tujhmẽ

in/inside you
Adessive पे / पर

pē/par

लड़के पे

lar̥kē pē

on/at the boy तुझपे

tujhpē

on you
Terminative तक

tak

लड़के तक

lar̥kē tak

(up) till the boy तुझतक

tujhtak

till you
Semblative सा

लड़के सा

lar̥kē sā

boy-ish, boy-esque तुझसा

tujhsā

like you
Genitive & Semblative marker declension
Case Masculine Feminine
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative

Oblique

BulgarianEdit

Bulgarian, an analytic Slavic language, also has an oblique case form for pronouns:

Dative role:

  • "Give that ball to me" дай тaзи топка на мен (day tazi topka na men)

(This oblique case is a relic of the original, more complex proto-Slavic system of noun cases, and there are remnants of other cases in Bulgarian, such as the vocative case of direct address)

EnglishEdit

An objective case is marked on the English personal pronouns and as such serves the role of the accusative and dative cases that other Indo-European languages employ. These forms are often called object pronouns. They serve a variety of grammatical functions which they would not in languages that differentiate the two. An example using first person singular objective pronoun me:

Do you see me?
The army sent me to Korea.
  • in a dative role for an indirect object:
Kim passed the pancakes to me.
(Or colloquially, Kim passed me the pancakes.
That picture of me was blurry.
(cf. English possessive#Double genitive as in That picture of mine was stolen.)
[referring to a photograph] This is me on the beach.
  • in existentials (sometimes, but not always, replaceable by the nominative—in very formal style):[10]
It's me again.
(cf. Once again, it is I. [formal])
Who is it?—It's me.
(cf. It is I [to whom you are speaking].)
It's me who should fix it.
(cf. Since I made it, it is I who should fix it.)
  • in a nominative role with predicate or verbal ellipsis:
Who made this bicycle?—Me.
(cf. Who made this bicycle?—I did.)
I like him.—Hey, me too.
(cf. I like him.—Hey, I do too.)
Who's gonna clean up this mess?—Not me!
Me and him are going to the store. (only in highly informal speech)
(cf. Is he going? Yes, he and I are going.)
Me, I like French.

The pronoun me is not inflected differently in any of these uses; it is used for all grammatical relationships except the genitive case of possession (in standard English) and a non-disjunctive nominative case as the subject.

[spoken by Cookie Monster] Me so hungry.
(the above example also employs copula deletion to similar effect)

FrenchEdit

Old French had a nominative case and an oblique case, called cas sujet and cas régime respectively.

In Modern French, the two cases have mostly merged and the cas régime has survived for the majority of nouns. For example, the word "conte (tale)":

  • Old French:
  • Modern French:

In some cases, both the cas sujet and cas régime of one noun have survived but produced two nouns in Modern French with different meanings. Example today's copain means "friend" and compagnon is "companion", but in Old French these were different declensions of the same noun.

KurdishEdit

Kurdish has an oblique for pronouns, objects, and for objects of Izafe constructs.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "oblique" in David Crystal, 2008. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 6th ed.
  2. ^ "Objective case (grammar)". (about) education. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Personal pronoun". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  4. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267724707_CASE_IN_HINDI
  5. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226198692_Ergative_Case-marking_in_Hindi
  6. ^ "case marking in hindi - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  7. ^ "Hindi Noun Cases". hindilanguage.info. 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
  8. ^ http://alt.qcri.org/~ndurrani/pubs/system_grammatical_relations.pdf
  9. ^ https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.708.2327&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  10. ^ Huddleston, Rodney; Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 459. ISBN 0-521-43146-8.