Citizens (Spanish political party)
Citizens (Spanish: Ciudadanos [θjuðaˈðanos] listen (help·info); Catalan: Ciutadans [siwtəˈðans]; Basque: Hiritarrak; Galician: Cidadáns; shortened as Cs—C's until January 2017), officially Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Ciudadanos–Partido de la Ciudadanía), is a centre to centre-right political party in Spain.
|Secretary-General||José Manuel Villegas|
|Spokesperson in Congress||Juan Carlos Girauta|
|Founded||7 June 2005 (CC)|
4 March 2006 (Cs) in Catalonia
|Headquarters||Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes 751 A, 1º 2ª|
08013 Barcelona, Catalonia
|Youth wing||Group of Young Citizens (J's)|
|Political position||Centre to |
|European affiliation||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe|
|European Parliament group||Renew Europe|
|Congress of Deputies|
57 / 350
10 / 265
6 / 54
117 / 1,248
1,527 / 67,611
1 / 19
Originating in Catalonia in 2006, the party received 25.4% of votes and 36 deputies in the December 2017 Catalan regional election, making it the largest single party in the Parliament of Catalonia. Nevertheless, it has never taken power so their actual political stance remains a source of controversy between supporters and adversaries beyond their strong opposition to Catalan nationalism and the Catalan independence movement, of which there is no disputation. The party used the phrase "Catalonia is my homeland, Spain is my country and Europe is our future" to outline the party's ideology which the party self-describes as postnationalist. In spite of that, it has deemed by a variety of sources to profess a populist Spanish nationalist ideology.
Citizens used to present itself as a centre-left party that offered a mix of social-democratic and liberal-progressive positions on its platform, but it dropped any mention to social democracy from its principles in February 2017 and by 2018 and 2019 is reported to have experienced a further swing to the right as it began to compete with the PP and later also with Vox to become the leading right-of-centre party in the country. It has recently been described by media and CIS (a Spanish public research institute) as right-oriented. A core topic of its platform is opposition to Catalan nationalism and the independence of Catalonia.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Controversy
- 4 Electoral performance
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Citizens was formed in Catalonia in July 2006 in response to the call made in a manifesto by a group of well-known figures in Catalan civic society (among them Albert Boadella, Félix de Azúa, Francesc de Carreras and Arcadi Espada) in which they called for a new political force to "address the real problems faced by the general public". In this manifesto, they also warned that "the rhetoric of hatred promulgated by official Catalan government media against everything Spanish is more alarming than ever" and that "the (Catalan) nation, promoted as an homogenous entity, has taken over the space where an undeniably diverse society lived".
In July 2005, this group of personalities, almost entirely based in Barcelona, formed a political platform called Ciutadans de Catalunya, or Citizens of Catalonia. They organised several round tables and conferences and by 2006 they had announced the formation of a new political party. In their first conference of 2006, Albert Rivera, a young lawyer from Barcelona, was elected president.
In the 2006 elections for the Parliament of Catalonia, Cs won 3% of the votes and returned three MPs. In the 2010 elections, a similar result was achieved (3.4%, 3 MPs). Mainly as a counter to the growing public support for independence in Catalonia, Cs has since further grown substantially in support as one of the most outspoken opponents of this movement. In the 2012 snap elections, the number of votes more than doubled (7.6%, 9 MPs). All but one of these seats were in the Province of Barcelona. In the 2015 elections, Cs more than doubled its votes again (17.9%, 25 MPs), becoming the second largest faction in the Catalan parliament.
In 2013, the party started organising in the rest of Spain with a manifesto called "La conjura de Goya" ("Confederacy of Goya") that took place in the Congress Palace of Madrid. In the 2015 general elections, Cs entered parliament with 13.9% and 40 seats. As PP's Mariano Rajoy refused the mandate to form a government, Cs promised the second-largest party PSOE support in parliament in exchange for a number of political concessions. However, this pact would have needed the support of Podemos and finally did not gain a parliamentarian majority, paving the way for a repeat election. In the 2016 snap elections, Cs lost 0.8% of the popular vote and 8 seats due to Spain's electoral system. After these elections, Cs could strike a deal with the conservative PP in supporting its government in exchange for a number of political concessions. After a 10-month political deadlock, PP leader Mariano Rajoy was able to become Prime Minister thanks to Cs support and an abstention of PSOE.
The party was accepted into the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party on 4 June 2016.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (October 2017)
At first, Citizens branded itself as a centre-left party in its statement of principles (ideario). While Rivera refused to locate Citizens on the political spectrum for a time, he has recently been placing Cs in the political centre. Although some observers agreed with the party's ideario by describing Cs as centre-left and others agree with Rivera's last definition by describing the party as centrist, the vast majority of them have positioned Citizens on the centre-right. In a 2014 interview, Congress spokesman Juan Carlos Girauta explicitly stated that he did not perceive any significant differences between Citizens, the centrist Union, Progress and Democracy and the far-right Spanish nationalist party Vox.
Ideologically, Cs describes itself as a progressive, secular, constitutional, European federalist and postnationalist political party. Ciudadanos rejects the autonomous communities' right to self-determination outside of the Spanish state. As an originally Catalan party, it specifically opposes Catalan nationalism due to viewing it as an outdated, authoritarian and socially divisive ideology which fuels hatred among both Catalans and Spaniards.[clarification needed] Rivera uses the phrase "Catalonia is my homeland, Spain is my country and Europe is our future" to describe the party's ideology.
The party opposes separatist movements such as the Catalan independence movement and federating the autonomous communities. Even though Citizens is currently a supporter of European federalism, it ran in the 2009 European Parliament election in coalition with the pan-European, Eurosceptic party Libertas. Although reconsidering the current head of state is not a priority for the party, Rivera has said that Citizens is "a republican party which claims that Spanish citizens are who have to decide whether they prefer a once-modernized monarchy or a republic through a referendum in the context of a constitutional reform". According to its declared identity signs, Cs advocates four basic lines of action:
- Defence of individual rights
- Defence of social rights as well as the welfare state
- Uphold the State of Autonomies and Europe's unity[clarification needed]
- Regeneration of democracy and of political life[clarification needed]
Cs displays a political discourse mainly centered around opposition to Catalan nationalism, to the extent that it has been frequently criticised for being a single issue party, a label rejected by its members. In the 2006–2012 period, the number of Cs voters who had voted for centre-right parties in previous elections was similar to the number who had voted for centre-left parties, suggesting that the party's positions on general economic and social issues are not its main draw. Cs criticise any sort of nationalism, "including the Spanish nationalism that Mr. Ynestrillas defends".
One of the main issues raised by the party is the Catalan language policy which actively promotes the use of Catalan language as the sole working language of Catalan public administration. The party challenges this policy and defends equal treatment of the Spanish and Catalan languages. It also opposes the current language policy within the Catalan educational system in accordance with which all public schooling is delivered in Catalan. The party also supports strengthening the powers of the Spanish central institutions and curtailing the powers of regional administrations.
Other topics include a thorough reform of the electoral system with the aim of creating greater proportionality that would give less weight to single constituencies. They also support some changes in the 1978 Constitution, especially regarding regional organisation. Regarding the chartered autonomous communities' tax regimes, the party respects and does not want to remove the Basque Country's and Navarre's chartered regimes because it believes that "they aren't discriminatory in and of themselves". However, it criticises what it calls the miscalculation of the quota or contribution which is negotiated between governments and has been causing significant differences that they regard as haviing become outrageous. It proposes a review and a recalculation of the Basque and Navarrese Economic Agreements[clarification needed] in order to stop the Basque Country and Navarre being "net beneficiaries". Among other policies, they also support a regulation[clarification needed] of prostitution, marijuana and euthanasia.
Prominent meetings of the party have been reportedly picketed by Catalan separatist groups on several occasions. Its leader Albert Rivera has received anonymous death threats urging him to quit politics. Two members of the ERC Youth were sentenced to prison for it. Members of Ciudadanos have repeatedly taken part in violent attacks on Catalan targets and far-right and ultranationalist groups are usually present in their demonstrations. In one instance, a Telemadrid cameraman was assaulted, allegedly because he was mistaken for a member of Catalan broadcaster TV3.
The Cs outlined some policies for the 2015 general election:
- Lower corporation tax to 25%
- Lower and harmonise VAT to a rate between 16% and 19%
- Cap the top-rate of income tax at 40%
- Increase research and development spending to 3% of GDP
- Abolish or merge municipalities with a population of less than 5,000
- Reduce bureaucracy and red tape
- More transparent party funding
- Crack down on corruption
- Reform or abolish the Senate.
- Instate an earned income tax credit to fight in-work poverty
- "Austrian Backpack" transferable unemployment compensation where a worker accumulates funds throughout their career which are accessible upon job loss or retirement
- Devolve training to the citizens from employers associations and trade unions
- Ease immigration policies to attract talent and investors
- Legalize marijuana
Although the party defines itself as postnationalist, it has been deemed by a variety of sources (including peer-reviewed expert texts) to profess a populist Spanish nationalist ideology. In a party conference held on 20 May 2018 to present its platform España Ciudadana, Rivera said in a hall filled with Spanish flags:
I do not see reds and blues, I see Spaniards. I do not see, as they say, urban people and rural people, I see Spaniards. I do not see young or old, I see Spaniards. I do not see workers and entrepreneurs, I see Spaniards. I do not see believers or agnostics, I see Spaniards. [...] So, compatriots, with Citizens, let's go for that Spain, let's feel proud of being Spaniards again.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (October 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Alternative views and past membershipEdit
In 2006, the newspaper El Periódico de Catalunya revealed that Rivera was a card-carrying member of the conservative People's Party (PP) between 2002 and 2006 and that he had left the PP only three months before running for election for the Citizen's Party. This was corroborated by El Mundo and El País. Despite these revelations, Rivera denied having been a full member of PP and implied that he had voted for the PSOE until recently. Past PP membership is common among Cs members. Former PSC activist Juan Carlos Girauta had joined the PP and became a prolific contributor to conservative journalism from his Libertad Digital column before becoming a Citizens member and candidate in the 2014 European election. During his long tenure as Libertad Digital columnist and COPE debater, Girauta expressed strong sympathies for right-wing Zionism (to the point of calling then-President Zapatero an antisemite) and lent credibility  to the now discredited book by Victor Farías dismissing socialist politician Salvador Allende as a racist and a social Darwinist, without clarifying that the quotations about genetic determinism in Allende's doctoral dissertation were themselves quotations from other authors (mostly Cesare Lombroso) or the fact that Allende was highly critical of these conclusions in his thesis which was later published as a rebuttal to Farías' position. Farías was later sued for this, but Girauta never retracted his statements.
In 2015, a member of the Citizens electoral list for Gijón to the city council and regional elections posted pro-Falangist, pro-Blue Division and pro-Hitler Youth messages on Facebook. Those same elections carried news of at least five other former card-carrying Falange and/or España 2000 members.
An altercation took place in Canet de Mar on 21 Ma, 2018 between pro-independence local residents, who had planted yellow crosses on the beach to honor imprisoned and fugitive politicians; and anti-independence individuals who decided to remove said crosses. The altercation left at least three people wounded, including an 82-year-old man and a local CUP councilor who explicitly accused Citizens and Falange militants from across the whole region to be among the provocateurs. Citizens Member of Parliament Carlos Carrizosa dismissed the claim that either "councillors or party activists" from the party were involved in the incidents. Four days later and despite admonishments and warnings by President of the Parliament Roger Torrent, Carrizosa himself removed a yellow ribbon from the seats reserved for absent Cabinet ministers, forcing the President to suspend the entire session.
Relations with the mediaEdit
During the 2006 Catalan election campaign, the party's president Albert Rivera appeared completely naked in a poster in order to attract publicity to the party. In the beginning, the party frequently complained about an alleged boycott on the part of Catalan media. In their opinion, the party was given too little airtime to present its views on the Catalan public television.
2009 European election internal disputeEdit
In 2009, it was announced that Cs would run for the European election allied with the Libertas coalition. The party's association with Declan Ganley's Libertas platform raised some concern on account of the coalition formed by the latter with nationalist and ultranationalist parties in each of its local European chapters, seemingly at odds with the professed ideology of Cs.
Several intellectuals that had participated in the formation of Ciutadans later withdrew their support. For instance, Albert Boadella, became one of the co-founders of the Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) party led by former Basque Socialist politician Rosa Díez.
According to some members of Cs, the negotiations prior to this electoral pact were led personally and secretly by the party leader Albert Rivera. This alienated the other two MPs (besides Rivera himself) and a significant part of the party from his leadership. In turn, the official stance of Cs is that the critics are using the dispute as a pretext to canvass support for the ideologically similar UPyD.
2019 European electionEdit
Links with VoxEdit
In 2019 June 24, The party’s economics spokesman, Toni Roldán, announced on Monday that he was leaving Citizens and renouncing his seat in the Spanish parliament in protest at the party’s drift to the right and its willingness to enter alliances with the far right after regional and municipal elections. Following Roldán's resignation, MEP Javier Nart and the Asturian leader Juan Vázquez stepped down as well, leaving their political offices in the party's committee and the Asturian Parliament, respectively.
Some days later, Francesc de Carreras, one of the party's founders, and Francisco de la Torre, MP and economist, also announced that they would leave the party due to its stances against the PSOE and in favor of alliances with the far-right.
In 2017, the Court of Audit found irregularities in the accounting books of several political groups, Citizens among them. In respect of Citizens, the irregularities included illegal expenses for advertising on local television in 2015.
Cs member Jorge Soler appeared in December 2017 on the TV3 debate Preguntes Freqüents, during which journalist Beatriz Talegón addressed him about the 2.1 million euros spent by Cs in the 21-D Catalan election campaign—higher than the budget spent by any other party on that election. Talegón inquired about the sources of this funding. Soler replied that this ample budget could be ascribed to the austerity of their party.
- The party did not contest the 2011 general election.
|Election||Congress||Senate||Leader||Status in legislature|
0 / 350
0 / 208
|0||Albert Rivera||No seats||2008–2015|
40 / 350
0 / 208
32 / 350
0 / 208
57 / 350
4 / 208
0 / 54
2 / 54
7 / 54
|Last election||Vote||%||Score||Seats||Status in legislature|
21 / 109
|Minority coalition (PP–Cs)|
12 / 67
5 / 45
5 / 59
0 / 75
2 / 70
3 / 35
|Castile and León||2019||205,855||14.94%||3rd||
12 / 81
|Majority coalition (PP–Cs)|
4 / 33
36 / 135
7 / 65
0 / 75
4 / 33
26 / 132
|Minority coalition (PP–Cs)|
6 / 45
|Minority coalition (PP–Cs)|
3 / 50
18 / 99
- "Rivera gana las primarias de Ciudadanos con el apoyo tan solo de 7.792 afiliados y un 32% de participación" (in Spanish). eldiario.es. 9 March 2019.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- "Spaniens Liberale ziehen in den Kampf gegen die Regierung". 10 March 2015 – via www.welt.de.
- Flesher Fominaya & Garvía Soto 2008, p. 233: "El núcleo duro C's es el no-nacionalismo y el laicismo identitario".
- Leonardo Morlino; Francesco Raniolo (2017). The Impact of the Economic Crisis on South European Democracies. Springer. p. 50. ISBN 978-3-319-52371-2.
- Omar G. Encarnación. "Why Spain's Top Populist Is a Centrist". Retrieved 8 June 2018.
- Niall Walsh (2 January 2018). "Catalonia: The rise of Ciudadanos". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- Eva Anduiza; Marc Guinjoan; Guillem Rico (2018). "Economic Crisis, Populist Attitudes, and the Birth of Podemos in Spain". In Marco Giugni; Maria T. Grasso (eds.). Citizens and the Crisis: Experiences, Perceptions, and Responses to the Great Recession in Europe. Springer. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-319-68960-9.
- "Spanien geht auf eine politische Umwälzung zu" (in German). Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- "Andalusien-Wahl: Rechte Reconquista in Spanien" (in German). Der Standard. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.
- Keeley, Graham (19 March 2018). "Two-party era in Spain is dead, says Citizens leader". The Times. Madrid. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "The Latest: Spain's Socialists Rule Out Coalition After Vote". The New York Times. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- McNulty, Tim (21 April 2019). "Political leaders set for TV debate ahead of Spain's election". The Olive Press. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
- "Catalonia election: full results". The Guardian.
- "Carles Puigdemont demands Madrid reinstates Catalonia regional government". The Daily Telegraph.
- Georgia Mavrodi; Michalis Moutselos (2017). "Is Spain Becoming a Country of Emigration Again? Data Evidence and Public Responses". In Jean-Michel Lafleur; Mikolaj Stanek (eds.). South-North Migration of EU Citizens in Times of Crisis. Springer. p. 93. ISBN 978-3-319-39763-4.
- "Manual de Identidad Corporativa" (PDF).
- Wolfram Nordsieck. "SPAIN". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
Citizens - Party of the Citizenry
- José M. Magone (2017). Contemporary Spanish Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-351-95904-9.
- Stephen Burgen. "Spanish government approves exhumation of Francisco Franco".
- día, Salamanca RTVE al. "Albert Rivera: "El nacionalismo es una ideología obsoleta"".
- "Albert Rivera, a los que le llaman facha: "En Cataluña, lo más progresista es facha"".
- "Catalexit?". The Economist. January 7th-13th: 19. 2017.
- Ciudadanos – Partido de la Ciudadanía. "Citizens' Ideario" (PDF). ciudadanos-cs.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
Tercera, por el vacío de representación que existía en el espacio electoral de ultra-derecha no nacionalista
- Diari de Terrassa (9 April 2009). "Javier González: 'Nuestro objetivo es impulsar una tercera vía política en España". ciudadanos-cs.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 September 2016.
Somos postnacionalistas y no queremos luchar contra un nacionalismo con otro. Vamos sin banderas, casi desnudos, abriendo camino sin fronteras desde la Constitución
- "Nacionalismo y cinismo". Ara.cat. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "¿Adónde va el nacionalismo español?". Eldiario.es. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Albert Rivera, la cara visible de Ciutadans". laSexta. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
Somos un partido de tradición socialdemócrata y liberal-progresista
- Mateo, Juan José (4 February 2017). "Ciudadanos elimina la socialdemocracia de su ideario y abraza el liberalismo progresista". El País.
- Juliá, Santos (20 April 2019). "Derechas". El País.
- Torres, Diego (3 May 2018). "All-out war on the Spanish right". Politico.
- "Spain's open election highlights its polarisation problem". The Financial Times. 20 April 2019.
- Jones, Sam (3 December 2018). "Far-right success in Andalucía reflects Spain's fragmented politics". The Guardian.
- "Ciudadanos: del centro a la derecha según el CIS".
- What's at Stake in Spain's Election Aprial 28, Sebastian Balfour, London School of Economics and Politics
- Manifesto signed by some intellectuals which preceded the formation of the party Archived February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. February 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Delgado Ramos, David (2011). "Elecciones al Parlament 2010: fin de ciclo en Cataluña" (PDF). Revista de Derecho Político (in Spanish). UNED. 80. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
El incremento se produjo a costa del PSC, donde en algunos de sus tradicionales «feudos» su electorado optó por votar a Ciutadans como opción «españolista» y de centro-izquierda más adecuada para no votar a su otra opción, el Partido Popular, más alejada ideológicamente de sus postulados.[permanent dead link]
- Gutiérrez Díez, José Manuel (January 2014). "A case of misreckoning: the Catalan election of 2012" (PDF). BORDA: Working Papers (University of Salamanca). Retrieved 8 August 2015.
Cs (Ciudadanos). Catalan party (in practice), without reference in Spain. Centre-left
- Catalan vote sends mixed messages - Economist Intelligence Unit
- Díez, Anabel (9 February 2015). "Latest poll shows support for new party Podemos leveling out". El País. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
new left-wing party Podemos and the center-left non-nationalist Catalan formation Ciudadanos are faring well in the polls
- (in Spanish) «Cs Ciudadanos Centro-izquierda», Ayuntamiento de Barcelona
- Ciutadans ja es veu amb grup parlamentari propi al nou Parlament - Directe!cat
- "Spanish politics: Socialists attempt to end political impasse by forming coalition with centrist Ciudadanos party". The Independent.
Spain’s Socialists have taken a first step towards ending weeks of political paralysis by joining by the centrist Ciudadanos party in a bid to form a new coalition government.
- "Spain's centrist pro-unity party gains from Catalan chaos". Financial Times.
- "Spain's centrist Ciudadanos are on the march". The Economist.
His party was formed by disillusioned Catalan Socialists who disliked temporising with nationalists. Last year Mr Rivera repositioned it as a centrist, progressive liberal party.
- Castillo, Jésus (18 March 2015). "Spain: Podemos, or how to square a circle". Flash Economics, Economic Research. Natixis (243): 2. ISSN 2117-9387. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
C's - Ciudadanos - Partido de la Ciudadanía (Citizens - Party of the Citizenry). Creation: 2006. Positioning: Republican centre
- EUROPA PRESS (20 December 2015). "Rivera: Ciudadanos ha demostrado que "el centro político existe" y será "fundamental en la nueva Transición"". Navarra News. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- RAPHAEL MINDER (2 December 2015). "Citizens made his way from the center and shakes to the political establishment in Spain". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Ashifa Kassam (10 December 2015). "Centre party Ciudadanos throws Spanish election results into question". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Medda-Windischer & Carlà 2015, p. 178: «It should be said that not all political parties and social entities signed the Agreement: the People's Party (center-right) and Ciutadans (center-right, recently-created pro-Spanish party in the Catalan Parliament) rejected the Agreement on the basis that it had been conceived in a clearly nationalist fashion, whereas the NGO SOS-Racisme and the Trade Union Commissions Obreres considered the document not progressive enough».
- Ancelovici, Dufour & Nez 2016, p. 86: «The voters have been turning to either Podemos, a new radical left-wing party that grew out of the Indignados movement, or to Ciudadanos, a new center-right party that originated in Catalonia but has mobilized more broadly in recent years».
- Ferrán & Hilbink 2016, p. 144: «Ciudadanos is a center-right political party launched in Catalonia in 2006 by a group of self-styled intellectuals (who had published a “manifesto” in 2005) that extended across Spain after the Catalan elections of 2012».
- Butler 2016, p. 24: «On the centre-right of the political continuum, the Ciudadanos ('Citizens') party had less impact in the Basque Country or Navarre».
- Cohen & Muñoz 2016, p. 6: «A center-right party in Spain also emerged, which is called Ciudadanos (“Citizens”), whose base is primarily young and urban and whose focus for addressing income disparity and unemployment is by concentrating on growing the innovation economy in cities throughout the country».
- After Syriza: What's next for Spain?, Eastminster
- Protesters march against austerity measures in Madrid, The Guardian
- Buck, Tobias (24 February 2015). "Rajoy promises jobs and growth as fringe parties gain ground". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
On the center-right, Ciudadanos is winning backing from former supporters of the PP, suggesting the ruling party's stranglehold on the conservative camp is drawing to an end
- Triviño Salazar, Juan Carlos (2014). "Immigrant Organizations and the Politicization of Cultural Diversity in the City" (PDF). European University Institute-Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
Party: Ciutadans (Cs) (Citizens). Left/right cleavage: Centre-rightCite journal requires
- Gómez Fortes, Braulio; Urquizu, Ignacio (23 September 2015). "Political Corruption and the End of two-party system after the May 2015 Spanish Regional Elections". Regional and Federal Studies. Routledge. 25 (4): 379–389. doi:10.1080/13597566.2015.1083013. ISSN 1743-9434. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
Yet the real change that makes these elections so groundbreaking has been the emergence of two change that makes these elections so groundbreaking has been the emergence of two new political forces in all the regional parliaments—one leftist party, Podemos, and one centre-right party, Ciudadanos—which have accounted for 20% of the regional vote and proved decisive in forming regional governments in the 17 autonomous communities, whether via coalition pacts, investiture agreements or legislative pacts
- "Spanish voters head back to polls in bid to break deadlock". bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 26 June 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
The centre-right, pro-business party Ciudadanos (Citizens) is forecast to take fourth place.
- Marcos Lema (16 February 2014). "Juan Carlos Girauta: "Entre UPyD, Ciutadans y VOX no encuentro las diferencias"".
- Finchelstein, Federico (28 July 2019). "Nacionalismos transatlánticos". Clarín.
- (in Spanish) «Cs es un partido progresista y constitucionalista», El País
- Rivera: "Hemos visto documentos que demuestran que CiU se ha estado llevando una parte de las comisiones de obras en Cataluña", Crónica Global
- Auzias & Labourdette 2014, p. 31: «Enfin, Ciutadans (C's), avec 9 députés au parlement, s'oppose aux nationalistes et défend le modèle de l'Etat des autonomies».
- Citizens – Party of the Citizenship (Cs) Archived July 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine July 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. July 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. July 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. July 15, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. , The Democratic Society
- (in Spanish) Ciutadans se divide tras aprobar acudir a las europeas con la coalición derechista Libertas, RTVE
- Albert Rivera: "Si un día la Monarquía no sirve, nosotros decidiremos", El Periódico
- Albert Rivera, president de Ciutadans, proposa un debat sobre monarquia o república, CCMA
- Albert Rivera: 'Sigo soltero', El Mundo
- "Pro-Spain Ciutadans group demands Mas step down as regional premier". El País. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Lluís Orriols (13 August 2013). "Ciutadans, ¿un partido de izquierdas o de derechas?" (in Spanish). El País. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- (in Spanish) , Diario Crítico
- "City Council of Barcelona: "Catalan will continue to be the Council's working language"". City Council of Barcelona. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Albert Rivera, Ciutadans candidate: "An independent Catalonia would fail"" (in Spanish). 20 minutos. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "Ciudadanos - Modelo de estado". Ciudadanos-cs.org. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- (in Spanish) Futuro incierto en País Vasco y Navarra para Podemos, UPyD y Ciudadanos: ¿quitarán los fueros? - Vozpópuli
- (in Spanish) Ciutadans propone revisar el cupo vasco y navarro reformando la Constitución - Lainformación.com
- "Agreden al periodista Arcadi Espada en un acto de Ciutadans de Catalunya en Girona contra el Estatut". elmundo.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- 20Minutos. "El presidente de Ciutadans, amenazado de muerte por "luchar contra el nacionalismo"". 20minutos.es - Últimas Noticias. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Orbyt - El Mundo". elmundo.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- Ediciones El País. "El presidente de Ciutadans denuncia haber recibido amenazas de muerte". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Albert Rivera denuncia amenazas de muerte para que deje su política "contra el nacionalismo"- Lavanguardia.es – Noticias, actualidad, última hora en Cataluña y España". Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- Europa Press (16 June 2009). "Los acusados de amenazar a Rivera aceptan un año y diez meses de cárcel". europapress.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Ciudadanos". ciudadanos-cs.org. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Ciudadanos". ciudadanos-cs.org. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- @Albert_Rivera (20 May 2018). "Recorriendo España yo no veo 'rojos' y 'azules', veo españoles; no veo jóvenes y mayores, veo españoles; no veo creyentes y agnósticos, veo españoles. Vamos a unirnos para recuperar el orgullo de pertenecer a esta gran nación. #EspañaCiudadana" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Susto de las redes con Albert Rivera: "Ha hecho un discurso peligrosísimo que sentó las bases de cosas espantosas el siglo pasado"". Publico.es. 20 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- Mundinteractivos. "Albert Rivera estuvo afiliado en el PP hasta tres meses antes de presidir Ciutadans". elmundo.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- ""El presidente de Ciutadans militó en el PP hasta abril de 2006" (The president of Ciutadans was a PP member until April 2006)". elpais.es. Retrieved 23 November 2006.
- "Ciutadans - Partido de la Ciudadanía - Comunicats". ciutadans-ciudadanos.com. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Untitled Document". elmundo.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "liberalismo.org: La Hora de Todos: Juan Carlos Girauta se explica". www.liberalismo.org.
- abc. "Nart, Girauta y Punset, candidatos de Ciudadanos a las elecciones europeas". ABC.es. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "Juan Carlos Girauta - El presidente y el gobierno, antisemitas". 21 July 2006.
- "Juan Carlos Girauta - ¿Quién era realmente Salvador Allende? (I)".
- "Juan Carlos Girauta - ¿Quiénn era realmente Salvador Allende? (y II)".
- "Victor Farías and his phobia against Salvador Allende". /www.lanacion.cl.
- Salvador Allende: Mental Hygiene and Delinquency (Doctoral Thesis)
- (in Spanish) Extracts from the suit filed by the Fundación Salvador Allende.
- Guzmán, Cecilia (14 May 2015). "Admirador de Hitler, falangista y candidato de Ciudadanos en Gijón".
- "Elecciones Municipales y Autonómicas - Otros dos simpatizantes de Falange Española de las JONS se cuelan en las listas de Ciudadanos".
- "Hooded unionists remove yellow crosses at Barcelona beach, injuring five".
- "Un enfrontament entre independentistes i unionistes a Canet de Mar acaba amb una trentena d'identificats i cinc ferits".
- "Roger Torrent suspende el pleno del Parlament después de que Carrizosa retire un lazo amarillo".
- "Desnudo para presidir la Generalitat | Actualidad | EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 16 September 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "El partido Ciutadans de Catalunya presenta desnudo a su candidato a las autonómicas". elmundo.es. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "El CAC pide que se regule la publicidad institucional | Edición impresa | EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 9 October 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Albert Rivera acusa a Robles y Domingo de buscar el fracaso de Ciutadans | Barcelona". elmundo.es. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Dos de los tres diputados de Ciutadans se unen para destronar a Rivera | Actualidad | EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Miguel Durán, cabeza de lista de la coalición Ciudadanos-Libertas". Libertad Digital. 15 April 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Dos de los tres diputados de Ciutadans se unen para destronar a Rivera | Actualidad | EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- "Ciutadans acusa a Rosa Díez de azuzar la revuelta contra Rivera | Edición impresa | EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 19 May 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Europa, News (29 December 2018). "Luis Garicano will be the candidate of Citizens to the European elections". News Europa (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Javier Nart sigue los pasos de Toni Roldán y dimite de la ejecutiva de Ciudadanos". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 24 June 2019.
- "Juan Vázquez, candidato de Cs a la Presidencia de Asturias se suma a las dimisiones de Roldán y Javier Nart". europapress.es (in Spanish). 24 June 2019.
- Blas, Elsa García de (19 July 2019). "Francesc de Carreras: "Ciudadanos ha evolucionado hacia un nacionalismo español contrario a su ideario"". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
- Blas, Elsa García de (26 July 2019). "Dimite de la dirección de Ciudadanos el diputado Francisco de la Torre por la estrategia de Albert Rivera". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Valdivia, Ana Garcia. "Ciudadanos: Spanish Liberal Party Alliance With Far-Right Provokes Macron's Government Rejection". Forbes. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
- "¿Quién financia a Ciudadanos? El partido de Rivera gastó 250.000 euros en Andalucía". 29 March 2015.
- "El Tribunal de Cuentas rechaza la contabilidad de Ciudadanos". 30 December 2017.
- "Soler explains the honesty and transparency of Citizens". 24 December 2017.
- Auzias, Dominique; Labourdette, Jean-Paul (2014), Barcelone 2014 Petit Futé (avec cartes, photos + avis des lecteurs) (in French), Petit Futé, 340, ISBN 978-2-7469-7924-6
- López Basaguren, Alberto; Escajedo San Epifanio, Leire (2013), The Ways of Federalism in Western Countries and the Horizons of Territorial Autonomy in Spain: Volume 2, Springer Science & Business Media, 924, ISBN 978-3-642-27717-7
- Medda-Windischer, Roberta; Carlà, Andrea (2015), Migration and Autonomous Territories: The Case of South Tyrol and Catalonia, Hotei Publishing, 308, ISBN 978-90-04-28279-7
- Rodríguez Teruel, Juan; Barrio, Astrid (December 2015). "Going national: Ciudadanos from Catalonia to Spain". South European Society and Politics. Taylor and Francis. 21 (4): 587–607. doi:10.1080/13608746.2015.1119646. Published online.
- Flesher Fominaya, Cristina; Garvía Soto, Roberto (2008). Nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación, democracia y participación política (PDF). Colección Mediterráneo Económico: Modernidad, crisis y globalización: problemas de política y cultura (in Spanish). 14. Publicaciones Cajamar. ISBN 978-84-95531-41-4.
- Ancelovici, Marcos; Dufour, Pascale; Nez, Héloïse (2016), Street politics in the age of austerity: from the indignados to occupy, Amsterdam University Press, ISBN 978-90-485-2546-1
- Ferrán, Ofelia; Hilbink, Lisa (2016), Legacies of Violence in Contemporary Spain: Exhuming the Past, Understanding the Present, Routledge, 384, ISBN 978-1-317-53295-8
- Butler, Stuart (2016), The Basque Country and Navarre: France. Spain, Bradt Travel Guides, 288, ISBN 978-1-84162-482-2
- Cohen, Boyd; Muñoz, Pablo (2016), The Emergence of the Urban Entrepreneur: How the Growth of Cities and the Sharing Economy Are Driving a New Breed of Innovators, ABC-CLIO, 175, ISBN 978-1-4408-4456-0
- Príncipe, Catarina; Sunkara, Bhaskar (2016), Europe in Revolt: Mapping the New European Left, Haymarket Books, 280, ISBN 978-1-60846-658-0