Bayamón (Spanish pronunciation: [baʝaˈmon], locally [baʝaˈmoŋ]) is a city, municipality of Puerto Rico and suburb of San Juan located in the northern coastal valley, north of Aguas Buenas and Comerío; south of Toa Baja and Cataño; west of Guaynabo; and east of Toa Alta and Naranjito. Bayamón is spread over 11 barrios and Bayamón Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city). It is part of the San Juan-Caguas-Guaynabo Metropolitan Statistical Area and the second most populous municipality in both the metropolitan area and Puerto Rico.

Municipio Autónomo de Bayamón
Flag of Bayamón
Silver leaves around the inside perimeter of a heraldic shield, in the center a blue cross and five golden towers atop
"La Ciudad del Chicharrón" (The Porkrind City), "La Ciudad de Vaqueros" (The City of Cowboys), La Ciudad de las Ciencias ("The City of Science"), "La Ciudad del Tapón" (The City of Traffic Jams)
In Hoc Signo Vinces (Latin for: "By this sign you will conquer")
Anthem: "Bayamón, ciudad hermosa"
Map of Puerto Rico highlighting Bayamón Municipality
Map of Puerto Rico highlighting Bayamón Municipality
Coordinates: 18°22′48″N 66°09′48″W / 18.38000°N 66.16333°W / 18.38000; -66.16333
Sovereign state United States
Commonwealth Puerto Rico
FoundedMay 22, 1772
 • MayorRamón Luis Rivera Jr. (PNP)
 • Senatorial dist.2 – Bayamón
 • Representative dist.7, 8, 9
 • Total44.53 sq mi (115.34 km2)
 • Land44.38 sq mi (114.95 km2)
 • Water0.15 sq mi (0.39 km2)
52 ft (16 m)
 • Total185,187
 • Rank2nd in Puerto Rico
 • Density4,200/sq mi (1,600/km2)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
ZIP Codes
00956, 00957, 00959, 00961, 00960, 00958
Area code787/939
Major routes

History edit

Postcard from 1903 depicting Bayamón.

The Taíno people, the indigenous peoples who encountered European explorers and settlers, were the long-time settlers in this area. The Spanish colonist Juan Ramírez de Arellano established Bayamón as a Spanish settlement on May 22, 1772. Two theories exist about the origin of the name Bayamón. According to one, it was named after the local Taíno chief, Bahamon. The other theory states the name was derived from the Taíno word Bayamongo, which is the native name of the river that runs across this region, implying that Bayamón is the area around this main river, which later on became the center of the city's development.

In 1821, Marcos Xiorro, an African slave, planned to lead a revolt against the sugarcane plantation owners and the Spanish colonial government in Puerto Rico. The slave conspiracy was revealed and suppressed, but Xiorro became a hero among the slaves. He is part of Puerto Rico's folklore. Marco Xiorro was owned by Vicente Andino, a militia captain who owned a sugarcane plantation in Bayamón.[2]

Puerto Rico was ceded by Spain in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 and became a territory of the United States. In 1899, the United States Department of War conducted a census of Puerto Rico finding that the population of Bayamón was 19,940.[3] The city grew considerably during the start of the 20th century. The area became home to numerous factories specializing in textiles, fertilizer, aluminum between 1901 and 1920. During this time the city also became home to financial institutions such as the Puerto Rico Commercial Bank (Banco Comercial de Puerto Rico), the American Colonial Bank, the First National City Bank of New York, the Chase Manhattan Bank and the Banco Popular de Puerto Rico. This developed and strengthened Bayamón's economy and turned it into both an industrial and commercial hub. The city's infrastructure also developed with the establishment of a bigger sewer system.[4]

The city was also host to some of the events of the VIII Pan American Games in 1979.

Hurricane Maria relief efforts in Bayamón on Oct. 17

Hurricane Maria struck Puerto Rico on September 20, 2017, causing large-scale damage and destruction to infrastructure. Numerous landslides occurred in Bayamón as a result of the hurricane's significant amount of rainfall.[5][6] In Bayamón, around 300 homes were destroyed, and two people were killed by Hurricane María. Many municipal buildings, and the Goya Foods factory in Bayamón sustained significant damage.[7]

Geography edit

Bayamón lies in the Northern Coastal Plain region of Puerto Rico. It is bordered by the municipalities of Toa Baja, Cataño, Comerío, Aguas Buenas, Toa Alta, Naranjito, and Guaynabo. Bayamón has a surface area of 43.5 square miles (113.1 km2). The terrain is mostly flat, but it does include some large hills such as La Peña and Vergaras.[8]

Bayamón is Puerto Rico's second-most populous municipality and is part of the large metropolitan area centered around San Juan. Other cities included in the metropolitan area are Guaynabo, Cataño, Toa Baja, Canóvanas, Carolina and Trujillo Alto. Bayamón is served by the Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport. Despite the city's size, it has no weather station.

Water features edit

The rivers that pass through Bayamón include the Río Bayamón, Río Hondo, Río Minillas, Río Bucarabones and Río Cuesta Arriba.

Barrios edit

Subdivisions of Bayamón

Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Bayamón is subdivided into barrios. The municipal buildings, central square and large Catholic church are located in a small barrio referred to as "el pueblo".[9][10][11]

Sectors edit

Barrios (which are, in contemporary times, roughly comparable to minor civil divisions)[12] and subbarrios,[13][14][15] are further subdivided into smaller areas called sectores (sectors in English). The types of sectores may vary, from normally sector to urbanización to reparto to barriada to residencial, among others.[16][17][18]

Special Communities edit

Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico (Special Communities of Puerto Rico) are marginalized communities whose citizens are experiencing a certain amount of social exclusion. A map shows these communities occur in nearly every municipality of the commonwealth. Of the 742 places that were on the list in 2014, the following barrios, communities, sectors, or neighborhoods were in Bayamón: Abra Estrecha, Barriada Vista Alegre, Juan Sánchez, Nuevo, Bda. Cedeño in Pájaros, Collores in Santa Olaya, Corea, Dajaos, El Chícharo, Sector Gandul, El Volcán, La Cambija, La Caridad, La Morenita, Los Viejitos, Papito, Sergio Reyes, Parcelas Sabanas, and Punta Brava.[19]

Tourism edit

House where José Celso Barbosa was born
Marqués de la Serna Bridge in Bayamón's City Center, built in 1869. It is the first metal bridge to have been built in the island, and the only metal arch bridge that exists in Puerto Rico.

Bayamón is the site of several notable Puerto Rican landmarks and places of interest. Bayamón Central Park is a public park where people gather and relax. Bayamon also hosts the Braulio Castillo Theater, the Francisco Oller Museum, and the José Celso Barbosa Monument. The Bayamón City Hall building is notable by being built across a major divided highway. While walking through a connecting corridor, right above the road, pedestrians can see passing cars underneath. It is believed to be the only building of its class in the world.[20]

One of the most popular attractions in Bayamón is the Parque de las Ciencias. It is a science-themed park with various exhibitions and attractions. It is located in the middle of karstic hills. An observation building on one of the hills provides a good view of the metropolitan area. The building hosts antennas for government and civil communication.

El parque del tren was a park featuring what was then Puerto Rico's only working train. It featured a DC-3, which had been used by United Airlines. In 2001, the park was dismantled and destroyed in the course of major road construction. What is left of the park is a small plaza for activities and an area for jogging and passive entertainment. The area is now known as "Parque del Nino" or "Children's Park".

Shopping is a major tourist activity in Bayamón. Plaza del Sol and Plaza Rio Hondo are large commercial centers in the city. Many American restaurant franchises such as Famous Dave's (replaced by Red Lobster) and Olive Garden were first inaugurated in Bayamón before expanding to other locations throughout the island.[citation needed]

A suspension bridge in Bayamón is a pedestrian-only bridge, at the time it was built, it was believed to be one of only three of its kind in Puerto Rico.[21]

To stimulate local tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Tourism Company launched the Voy Turistiendo (I'm Touring) campaign in 2021. The campaign featured a passport book with a page for each municipality. The Voy Turisteando Bayamón passport page lists Centro de Conservación de Manatíes, Paseo Lineal over the Bayamón River, and Ron Del Barrilito in the Hacienda Santa Ana, as places of interest.[22]

Ron del Barrilito located in the Hacienda Santa Ana is the oldest rum distillery in Puerto Rico.[23] The hacienda features a nature trail.[24]

Culture edit

Festivals and events edit

Bayamón celebrates its patron saint festival in May. The Festival de la Santa Cruz is a religious and cultural celebration that generally features parades, games, artisans, amusement rides, regional food, and live entertainment.[25]

Other festivals and events celebrated in Bayamón include:

  • José Celso Barbosa Birthday Commemoration – July
  • Tree Lighting Ceremony – November
  • Caminata por la diabetes (Diabetes Walk) – November

Sports edit

The mayor watching the Puerto Rico Islanders at Juan Ramon Loubriel
Puerto Rico Islanders fans at Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium

There are several professional and amateur sports team based in Bayamón. The Vaqueros de Bayamón are the local basketball team that plays at the Baloncesto Superior Nacional league. They are currently the leaders as the team with the most championships in the history of the league (15), the last of which was achieved in 2020. The team's host venue is the Coliseo Rubén Rodríguez.

The Vaqueros de Bayamón was also the name of the baseball club which played from 1974 through 2003 in the Professional Baseball League of Puerto Rico, and played its home games at Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium.

The city also has a female volleyball team, named the Vaqueras de Bayamón, which plays for the Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino.

Bayamón was the home of the Puerto Rico Islanders and Puerto Rico FC of the North American Soccer League. The teams played at Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium in Bayamón. The city's main soccer team, Bayamón FC, was founded in 1999, and play at matches at Bayamón Soccer Complex.

The famous boxing fight between Alexis Argüello and Alfredo Escalera dubbed The Bloody Battle of Bayamon (their first; their equally legendary rematch was held in Rimini, Italy) was held in Bayamón in 1978. Also, professional boxers Luis Del Valle, Wilfredo Vazquez and Wilfredo Vazquez Jr. are from Bayamón. International Boxing Hall of Fame member Hector Camacho was born in Bayamon. Current boxing prospect Jean "Chapito" Rivera is from the Bayamon.

Bayamón sports teams
Club Sport League Venue League Championships
Bayamón FC Football Liga Puerto Rico Bayamón Soccer Complex
Vaqueros de Bayamón Basketball Baloncesto Superior Nacional Rubén Rodríguez Coliseum BSN Championships (15)
Vaqueras de Bayamón Volleyball Liga de Voleibol Superior Femenino Rubén Rodríguez Coliseum

Recreation edit

The municipal government of Bayamón manages a wide variety of recreational programs and recreational facilities for public use. The Onofre Carballeira Sports Complex consists of the Juan Ramón Loubriel Soccer Stadium, home of Puerto Rico's only professional soccer team, the Ruben Rodríguez Coliseum, home of the city's male basketball team and female volleyball team, and the Miguel J. Frau Gymnasium. The Rafael Martínez Nadal Sports Complex's main feature is the Pepín Cestero indoor court, where much of the city's minor league basketball and volleyball major events take place. Also, the Efraín Calcaño Alicea Sports Complex located in the Lomas Verdes community is home to much of the track and field and swimming events in the region. The Honda Tennis Center, inaugurated in 2002, is composed of 16 tennis courts and is used by local tennis clubs as well as visitors.

A pioneer in the development of soccer in Puerto Rico, mayor Ramón Luis Rivera Jr. inaugurated the Bayamón Soccer Complex in 2011, which consists of three professional soccer fields located off the PR-5 Highway.

The Paseo del Rio (Paseo Lineal) near the Bayamón River is a 6-mile stretch shared by joggers, walkers and cyclists. It is divided in two lanes, one for the bicycles and the other for running or walking. The Rio Bayamón Golf Course is located near one of the endpoints of the trail and is home to most golf activity in the region.

Julio Enrique Monagas Park has trails used by mountain bikers to train and compete. It also has cliffs where rappelling enthusiasts can practice. Monagas, as the locals refer to it, has trails for mountain bike riders of all skill levels. Unpaved roads for beginners, single tracks and very technical single tracks, some of them with downhills. After Hurricane Maria, the tracks were lost, yet by 2019, most of them had been repaired and reopened.

The city also has many smaller baseball parks, open basketball courts, soccer fields, gymnasiums, and communal centers available to the community.

Economy edit

Agriculture edit

The founding of the town of Bayamón is closely tied to the cultivation of sugarcane. The products currently grown in Bayamón include coffee, grapefruit, sugarcane, tobacco and vegetables. Bayamón was also the site where the first hydraulic sugar mill on the island was built in 1549.[26]

Business edit

Notable malls are:

Goya Foods has its Puerto Rico offices in Bayamón.[27]

Demographics edit

Puerto Rico was ceded by Spain in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 and became a territory of the United States. In 1899, the United States conducted its first census of Puerto Rico finding that the population of Bayamón was 19,940.

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[28]
1899 (shown as 1900)[29] 1910–1930[30]
1930–1950[31] 1960–2000[32] 2010[10] 2020[33]
Race – Bayamón, Puerto Rico – 2020 Census
Race Population % of Total
White 33,084 17.9%
Black/Afro-Puerto Rican 30,159 16.3%
American Indian/Alaska Native 5,470 3.0%
Asian 555 0.3%
Two or more races/Some other race 115,919 62.5%

Government edit

All municipalities in Puerto Rico are administered by a mayor, elected every four years. The current mayor of Bayamón is Ramón Luis Rivera Jr., of the New Progressive Party (PNP). He was elected at the 2000 general elections, succeeding his father, Ramón Luis Rivera, after 23 years. For a list of all the mayors of Bayamón see "External Links".

The city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district II, which is represented by two Senators. Migdalia Padilla and Carmelo Ríos Santiago have served as District Senators since 2005.[35]

Symbols edit

The municipio has an official flag and coat of arms.[36]

Flag edit

The current flag of Bayamón features the Nordic cross found in many Northern European flags and is colored in blue and yellow over a white field. It was embroidered by Gloria M. León and maintains the design and colors of its coat of arms.

Coat of arms edit

This shield is a symbol and synthesis of the history and the values which distinguish the city of Bayamón. The main colors of the shield are blue and silver, representing the waters of the Bayamón River and recalling that it was on these banks that the first hydraulic sugarcane refinery of Puerto Rico was established in 1549. The center contains the Holy Cross (Santa Cruz), patron of the first church of the municipality and the name of the old sugarcane refinery "Santa Cruz", which was the historical origin of the town of Bayamón. The sugarcane flowers (guajana) allude directly to the sugarcane industry that is of social and economic importance to the origin and development of Bayamón.[37]

The five-tower crown, which is used for cities, was assigned to Bayamón as an exception for its extraordinary urban development, the magnitude of its population and for its religious dignity, which will possibly be raised to become Episcopal seat. The motto "IN HOC SIGNO VINCES" makes reference to Emperor Constantine when in the 4th century had the vision in which the victory was promised to him if it accepted the cross of Christianity as his banner.

Education edit

Like all municipalities, public education is administered by Puerto Rico Department of Education. Due to its population and location within the San Juan metropolitan region, Bayamón is home to many public and private schools. During the 2014–2015 academic year, over 150 public schools ranging from elementary school to high school were located in the Bayamón school region. On the other hand, the city is also home to numerous private schools of which most have a religious affiliation. Some of the better known religious private schools include Colegio De La Salle, Academia Santo Tomás de Aquino, Academia Santa Rosa, Colegio Beato Carlos Manuel Rodríguez, and Academia Discípulos de Cristo (non-Catholic). Non-religious schools in the city include Bayamón Military Academy and the American School.

Bayamón also has many higher-learning institutions such as the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón, which is one of the eleven campuses that comprise the University of Puerto Rico public university system. Furthermore, the city is also home to some of the most recognized private universities in the island, such as the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico and its School of Optometry, Bayamón Central University, American University of Puerto Rico, Universidad Central del Caribe, and some community colleges. In addition, the Metropolitan University (Universidad Metropolitana), better known as UMET, has a campus in downtown Bayamón.

Transportation edit

Tren Urbano at Bayamón Station

The lone line of the Tren Urbano of the San Juan metropolitan area ends at Bayamón station, and three of its stops are located within the city. The Deportivo station, located off the PR-2 Highway, is near the Santa Rosa Mall, the Bayamón Court of First Instance, and the Onofre Carballeira Sports Complex which contains the Juan Ramón Loubriel Stadium and the Ruben Rodríguez Coliseum.

The city also has a trolley service with regular routes within Downtown Bayamón.

There are 77 bridges in Bayamón.[38]

Diplomacy edit

Bayamón serves as the host city for foreign consular representation in Puerto Rico for the following nations:

Notable natives and residents edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "PUERTO RICO: 2020 Census". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  2. ^ Guillermo A. Baralt, Slave Revolts in Puerto Rico: Conspiracies and Uprisings, 1795–1873, Markus Wiener Publishers; ISBN 1-55876-463-1, ISBN 978-1-55876-463-7
  3. ^ Joseph Prentiss Sanger; Henry Gannett; Walter Francis Willcox (1900). Informe sobre el censo de Puerto Rico, 1899, United States. War Dept. Porto Rico Census Office (in Spanish). Imprenta del gobierno. p. 161. Archived from the original on November 15, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  4. ^ "Historia de la Ciudad de Bayamón" (PDF). Ciudad de Bayamón. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved September 10, 2021.
  5. ^ "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico". USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS. Archived from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico" (PDF). USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  7. ^ "María, un nombre que no vamos a olvidar. María hizo añicos la infraestructura eléctrica de Bayamón" [Maria, a name we will never forget. María shattered the electrical infrastructure of Bayamón]. El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). June 13, 2019. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
  8. ^ "Bayamón Municipality". Fundación Puertorriqueña de las Humanidades (FPH). Archived from the original on June 18, 2019. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
  9. ^ Gwillim Law (May 20, 2015). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 through 1998. McFarland. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4766-0447-3. Retrieved December 25, 2018.
  10. ^ a b Puerto Rico:2010:population and housing unit counts.pdf (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 20, 2017. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  11. ^ "Map of Bayamón at the Wayback Machine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2018. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  12. ^ a b "US Census Barrio-Pueblo definition". US Census. Archived from the original on May 13, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  13. ^ "P.L. 94-171 VTD/SLD Reference Map (2010 Census): Bayamón Municipio 000, PR" (PDF). U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  14. ^ "P.L. 94-171 VTD/SLD Reference Map (2010 Census): Bayamón Municipio 001, PR" (PDF). U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  15. ^ "P.L. 94-171 VTD/SLD Reference Map (2010 Census): Bayamón Municipio 002, PR" (PDF). U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economics and Statistics Administration U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  16. ^ "Agencia: Oficina del Coordinador General para el Financiamiento Socioeconómico y la Autogestión (Proposed 2016 Budget)". Puerto Rico Budgets (in Spanish). Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  17. ^ Rivera Quintero, Marcia (2014), El vuelo de la esperanza: Proyecto de las Comunidades Especiales Puerto Rico, 1997–2004 (first ed.), San Juan, Puerto Rico Fundación Sila M. Calderón, ISBN 978-0-9820806-1-0
  18. ^ "Leyes del 2001". Lex Juris Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  19. ^ Rivera Quintero, Marcia (2014), El vuelo de la esperanza:Proyecto de las Comunidades Especiales Puerto Rico, 1997–2004 (Primera edición ed.), San Juan, Puerto Rico Fundación Sila M. Calderón, p. 273, ISBN 978-0-9820806-1-0
  20. ^ "Bayamon City Hall, Puerto Rico | By Puerto Rico Channel". Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  21. ^ "Bayamon, Puerto Rico | By Puerto Rico Channel". Archived from the original on July 9, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  22. ^ Pasaporte: Voy Turisteando (in Spanish). Compañia de Turismo de Puerto Rico. 2021.
  23. ^ Guerrero, Claudia (September 17, 2021). "Ron del Barrilito New Visitor's Center is a Blast From The Past". The Weekly Journal. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  24. ^ "Ron del Barrilito sponsors plantain harvest to benefit Puerto Rico nonprofits". News is My Business. September 3, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  25. ^ J.D. (May 2, 2006). "Bayamón". Link To Puerto (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  26. ^ "Municipalities: Bayamón". Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2016.
  27. ^ "Contact Us Archived 2011-04-24 at the Wayback Machine." Goya Foods. Retrieved on March 26, 2016. "Goya Foods of Puerto Rico, Inc. Urbanización Industrial Luchetti Avenida Francisco de Goya Esquina 5 Bayamon, Puerto Rico 00961"
  28. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  29. ^ "Report of the Census of Porto Rico 1899". War Department Office Director Census of Porto Rico. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  30. ^ "Table 3-Population of Municipalities: 1930 1920 and 1910" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 17, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  31. ^ "Table 4-Area and Population of Municipalities Urban and Rural: 1930 to 1950" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 30, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
  32. ^ "Table 2 Population and Housing Units: 1960 to 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  33. ^ "PUERTO RICO: 2020 Census". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  34. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  35. ^ Elecciones Generales 2008: Escrutinio General Archived November 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine on CEEPUR
  36. ^ "Ley Núm. 70 de 2006 -Ley para disponer la oficialidad de la bandera y el escudo de los setenta y ocho (78) municipios". LexJuris de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  37. ^ "BAYAMON". LexJuris (Leyes y Jurisprudencia) de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). February 19, 2020. Archived from the original on February 19, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  38. ^ "Bayamón Bridges". National Bridge Inventory Data. US Dept. of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.

External links edit