Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure. Other forms of anal sex include fingering, the use of sex toys for anal penetration, oral sex performed on the anus (anilingus), and pegging. Though the term anal sex most commonly means penile-anal penetration, sources sometimes use the term anal intercourse to refer exclusively to penile-anal penetration, and anal sex to refer to any form of anal sexual activity, especially between pairings as opposed to anal masturbation.
While anal sex is commonly associated with male homosexuality, research shows that not all gay males engage in anal sex and that it is not uncommon in heterosexual relationships. Types of anal sex can also be a part of lesbian sexual practices. People may experience pleasure from anal sex by stimulation of the anal nerve endings, and orgasm may be achieved through anal penetration – by indirect stimulation of the prostate in men, indirect stimulation of the clitoris or an area of the vagina associated with the G-spot in women, and other sensory nerves (especially the pudendal nerve). However, people may also find anal sex painful, sometimes extremely so, which may be primarily due to psychological factors in some cases.
As with most forms of sexual activity, anal sex participants risk contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs). Anal sex is considered a high-risk sexual practice because of the vulnerability of the anus and rectum. The anal and rectal tissues are delicate and do not provide natural lubrication, so they can easily tear and permit disease transmission, especially if lubricant is not used. Anal sex without protection of a condom is considered the riskiest form of sexual activity, and therefore health authorities such as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend safe sex practices for anal sex.
Strong views are often expressed about anal sex. It is controversial in various cultures, especially with regard to religious prohibitions. This is commonly due to prohibitions against anal sex among males or teachings about the procreative purpose of sexual activity. It may be regarded as taboo or unnatural, and is a criminal offense in some countries, punishable by corporal or capital punishment; by contrast, people also regard anal sex as a natural and valid form of sexual activity that may be as fulfilling as other desired sexual expressions. They may regard it as an enhancing element of their sex lives or as their primary form of sexual activity.
Anatomy and stimulation
The abundance of nerve endings in the anal region and rectum can make anal sex pleasurable for men or women. The internal and external sphincter muscles control the opening and closing of the anus; these muscles, which are sensitive membranes made up of many nerve endings, facilitate pleasure or pain during anal sex. The Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia states that "the inner third of the anal canal is less sensitive to touch than the outer two-thirds, but is more sensitive to pressure" and that "the rectum is a curved tube about eight or nine inches long and has the capacity, like the anus, to expand".
Research indicates that anal sex occurs significantly less frequently than other sexual behaviors, but its association with dominance and submission, as well as taboo, makes it an appealing stimulus to people of all sexual orientations. In addition to sexual penetration by the penis, people may use sex toys such as butt plugs or anal beads, engage in fingering, anilingus, pegging, anal masturbation or fisting for anal sexual activity, and different sex positions may also be included. Fisting is the least practiced of the activities, partly because it is uncommon that people can relax enough to accommodate an object as big as a fist being inserted into the anus.
In a male receptive partner, being anally penetrated can produce a pleasurable sensation due to the inserted penis rubbing or brushing against the prostate (also known as the "male G-spot") through the anal wall. This can result in pleasurable sensations and can lead to an orgasm in some cases. Prostate stimulation can produce a "deeper" orgasm, sometimes described by men as more widespread and intense, longer-lasting, and allowing for greater feelings of ecstasy than orgasm elicited by penile stimulation only. The prostate is located next to the rectum and is the larger, more developed male homologue (variation) to the female Skene's glands. However, though the experiences are different, male orgasms by penile stimulation are also centered in the prostate gland. It is also common, and likely most typical, that men will not reach orgasm as receptive partners solely from anal sex.
General statistics indicate that 70–80% of women require direct clitoral stimulation to achieve orgasm. The clitoris is composed of more than the externally visible glans (head). With its glans or body as a whole estimated to have around 8,000 sensory nerve endings, the clitoris surrounds the vagina and urethra, and may have a similar connection with the anus. The vagina is flanked on each side by the clitoral crura, the internal "legs" of the clitoris, which are highly sensitive and become engorged with blood when sexually aroused. In addition to nerve endings present within the anus and rectum, women may find anal stimulation pleasurable due to indirect stimulation of these "legs". Indirect stimulation of the clitoris through anal penetration may also be caused by the shared sensory nerves, especially the pudendal nerve, which gives off the inferior anal nerves and divides into two terminal branches: the perineal nerve and the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.
The Gräfenberg spot, or G-spot, is a debated area of female anatomy, particularly among doctors and researchers, but it is typically described as being located behind the female pubic bone surrounding the urethra and accessible through the anterior wall of the vagina; it and other areas of the vagina are considered to have tissue and nerves that are related to the clitoris. Besides the shared anatomy of the aforementioned sensory nerves, orgasm by indirect stimulation of the clitoris or G-spot area through anal penetration is possible because of the close proximity between the vaginal cavity and the rectal cavity. Achieving orgasm solely by anal stimulation is rare among women. Direct stimulation of the clitoris, a G-spot area, or both, during anal sex can help some women enjoy the activity and reach orgasm from it.
Stimulation from anal sex can additionally be affected by popular perception or portrayals of the activity, such as erotica or pornography. In pornography, anal sex is commonly portrayed as a desirable, painless routine that does not require personal lubricant; this can result in couples performing anal sex without care, and men and women believing that it is unusual for women, as receptive partners, to find discomfort or pain instead of pleasure from the activity. By contrast, each person's sphincter muscles react to penetration differently, the anal sphincters have tissues that are more prone to tearing, and the anus and rectum, unlike the vagina, do not provide natural lubrication for sexual penetration. Researchers say adequate application of a personal lubricant, relaxation, and communication between sexual partners are crucial to avoid pain or damage to the anus or rectum. Additionally, ensuring that the anal area is clean and the bowel is empty, for both aesthetics and practicality, may be desired by participants.
Male to female
Behaviors and views
The anal sphincters are usually tighter than the pelvic muscles of the vagina, which can enhance the sexual pleasure for the inserting male during male-to-female anal intercourse because of the pressure applied to the penis. Men may also enjoy the penetrative role during anal sex because of its association with dominance, because it is made more alluring by a female partner or society in general insisting that it is forbidden, or because it presents an additional option for penetration.
While some women find being a receptive partner during anal intercourse painful or uncomfortable, or only engage in the act to please a male sexual partner, other women find the activity pleasurable or prefer it to vaginal intercourse. The vaginal walls contain significantly fewer nerve endings than the clitoris and anus, and therefore intense sexual pleasure, including orgasm, from vaginal sexual stimulation is less likely to occur than from direct clitoral stimulation in the majority of women. However, anal sexual stimulation is not necessarily more likely to result in orgasm than vaginal sexual stimulation; the types of nerves and how they interact with each other are factors, as the belief that there is complete separation between the vagina and clitoris is a misconception aided by misunderstandings of what and how big the clitoris actually is.
In a 2010 clinical review article of heterosexual anal sex, the term anal intercourse is used to refer specifically to penile-anal penetration, and anal sex is used to refer to any form of anal sexual activity. The review suggests that anal sex is exotic among the sexual practices of some heterosexuals and that "for a certain number of heterosexuals, anal intercourse is pleasurable, exciting, and perhaps considered more intimate than vaginal sex".
Anal intercourse is sometimes used as a substitute for vaginal intercourse during menstruation. The likelihood of pregnancy occurring during anal sex is greatly reduced, as anal sex alone cannot lead to pregnancy unless sperm is somehow transported to the vaginal opening. Because of this, some couples practice anal intercourse as a form of contraception, often in the absence of a condom.
Male-to-female anal sex is commonly viewed as a way of preserving female virginity because it is non-procreative and does not tear the hymen; a person, especially a teenage girl or woman, who engages in anal sex or other sexual activity with no history of having engaged in vaginal intercourse is often regarded among heterosexuals and researchers as not having yet experienced virginity loss. This is sometimes termed technical virginity. Heterosexuals may view anal sex as "fooling around" or as foreplay, a view that "dates to the late 1600s, with explicit 'rules' appearing around the turn of the twentieth century, as in marriage manuals defining petting as 'literally every caress known to married couples but does not include complete sexual intercourse'".
Because most research on anal intercourse addresses men who have sex with men, little data exists on the prevalence of anal intercourse among heterosexual couples. In Kimberly R. McBride's 2010 clinical review on heterosexual anal intercourse and other forms of anal sexual activity, it is suggested that changing norms may affect the frequency of heterosexual anal sex. McBride and her colleagues investigated the prevalence of non-intercourse anal sex behaviors among a sample of men (n=1,299) and women (n=1,919) compared to anal intercourse experience and found that 51% of men and 43% of women had participated in at least one act of oral–anal sex, manual–anal sex, or anal sex toy use. The report states the majority of men (n=631) and women (n=856) who reported heterosexual anal intercourse in the past 12 months were in exclusive, monogamous relationships: 69% and 73%, respectively. The review added that because "relatively little attention [is] given to anal intercourse and other anal sexual behaviors between heterosexual partners", this means that it is "quite rare" to have research "that specifically differentiates the anus as a sexual organ or addresses anal sexual function or dysfunction as legitimate topics. As a result, we do not know the extent to which anal intercourse differs qualitatively from coitus."
According to a 2010 study from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB) that was authored by Debby Herbenick et al., although anal intercourse is reported by fewer women than other partnered sex behaviors, partnered women in the age groups between 18–49 are significantly more likely to report having anal sex in the past 90 days. Women engaged in anal intercourse less commonly than men. Vaginal intercourse was practiced more than insertive anal intercourse among men, but 13% to 15% of men aged 25 to 49 practiced insertive anal intercourse.
With regard to adolescents, limited data also exists. This may be because of the taboo nature of anal sex and that teenagers and caregivers subsequently avoid talking to one another about the topic. It is also common for subject review panels and schools to avoid the subject. A 2000 study found that 22.9% of college students who self-identified as virgins had anal sex. They used condoms during anal sex 20.9% of the time as compared with 42.9% of the time with vaginal intercourse.
Anal sex being more common among heterosexuals today than it was previously has been linked to the increase in consumption of anal pornography among men, especially among those who view it on a regular basis. Seidman et al. argued that "cheap, accessible and, especially, interactive media have enabled many more people to produce as well as consume pornography", and that this modern way of producing pornography, in addition to the buttocks or anus having become more eroticized, has led to a significant interest in or obsession with anal sex among men.
Male to male
Behaviors and views
Historically, anal sex has been commonly associated with male homosexuality. However, many gay men and men who have sex with men in general (those who identify as gay, bisexual, heterosexual or have not identified their sexual identity) do not engage in anal sex. Among men who have anal sex with other men, the insertive partner may be referred to as the top and the one being penetrated may be referred to as the bottom. Those who enjoy either role may be referred to as versatile.
Gay men who prefer anal sex may view it as their version of intercourse and a natural expression of intimacy that is capable of providing pleasure. The notion that it might resonate with gay men with the same emotional significance that vaginal sex resonates with heterosexuals has also been considered. Some men who have sex with men, however, believe that being a receptive partner during anal sex questions their masculinity.
Men who have sex with men may also prefer to engage in frot or other forms of mutual masturbation because they find it more pleasurable or more affectionate, to preserve technical virginity, or as safe sex alternatives to anal sex, while other frot advocates denounce anal sex as degrading to the receptive partner and unnecessarily risky.
Reports regarding the prevalence of anal sex among gay men and other men who have sex with men vary. A survey in The Advocate in 1994 indicated that 46% of gay men preferred to penetrate their partners, while 43% preferred to be the receptive partner. Other sources suggest that roughly three-fourths of gay men have had anal sex at one time or another, with an equal percentage participating as tops and bottoms. A 2012 NSSHB sex survey in the U.S. suggests high lifetime participation in anal sex among gay men — 83.3% report ever taking part in anal sex in the insertive position and 90% in the receptive position, even if only between a third and a quarter self-report very recent engagement in the practice, defined as 30 days or less.
Oral sex and mutual masturbation are more common than anal stimulation among men in sexual relationships with other men. According to Weiten et al., anal intercourse is generally more popular among gay male couples than among heterosexual couples, but "it ranks behind oral sex and mutual masturbation" among both sexual orientations in prevalence. Wellings et al. reported that "the equation of 'homosexual' with 'anal' sex among men is common among lay and health professionals alike" and that "yet an Internet survey of 180,000 MSM across Europe (EMIS, 2011) showed that oral sex was most commonly practised, followed by mutual masturbation, with anal intercourse in third place".
Female to male
Women may sexually stimulate a man's anus by fingering the exterior or interior areas of the anus; they may also stimulate the perineum (which, for males, is between the base of the scrotum and the anus), massage the prostate or engage in anilingus. Sex toys, such as a dildo, may also be used. The practice of a woman penetrating a man's anus with a strap-on dildo for sexual activity is called pegging.
Commonly, heterosexual men reject the idea of being receptive partners during anal sex because they believe it is a feminine act, can make them vulnerable, or contradicts their sexual orientation (for example, that it is indicative that they are gay). National Institutes of Health (NIH) information published in the BMJ in 1999, however, states:
There are little published data on how many heterosexual men would like their anus to be sexually stimulated in a heterosexual relationship. Anecdotally, it is a substantial number. What data we do have almost all relate to penetrative sexual acts, and the superficial contact of the anal ring with fingers or the tongue is even less well documented but may be assumed to be a common sexual activity for men of all sexual orientations.
Reece et al. reported in 2010 that receptive anal intercourse is infrequent among men overall, stating that "an estimated 7% of men 14 to 94 years old reported being a receptive partner during anal intercourse".
Female to female
With regard to lesbian sexual practices, anal sex includes fingering, use of a dildo or other sex toys, or anilingus. Some lesbians do not like anal sex, and anilingus is less often practiced among female same-sex couples.
There is less research on anal sexual activity among women who have sex with women compared to couples of other sexual orientations. In 1987, a non-scientific study (Munson) was conducted of more than 100 members of a lesbian social organization in Colorado. When asked what techniques they used in their last ten sexual encounters, lesbians in their 30s were twice as likely as other age groups to engage in anal stimulation (with a finger or dildo). While author Tom Boellstorff, when particularly examining anal sex among gay and lesbian individuals in Indonesia, stated that he had not heard of oral-anal contact or anal penetration as recognized forms of lesbian sexuality but assume they take place, author Felice Newman, in The Whole Lesbian Sex Book, cites anal sex as a part of lesbian sexual practices. A 2014 study of partnered lesbian women in Canada and the U.S. found that 7% engaged in anal stimulation or penetration at least once a week; about 10% did so monthly and 70% did not at all.
Anal sex can expose its participants to two principal dangers: infections due to the high number of infectious microorganisms not found elsewhere on the body, and physical damage to the anus and rectum due to their fragility. Unprotected penile-anal penetration, colloquially known as barebacking, carries a higher risk of passing on sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs) because the anal sphincter is a delicate, easily torn tissue that can provide an entry for pathogens. The high concentration of white blood cells around the rectum, together with the risk of tearing and the colon's function to absorb fluid, are what place those who engage in anal sex at high risk of STIs. Use of condoms, ample lubrication to reduce the risk of tearing, and safer sex practices in general, reduce the risk of STI transmission. However, a condom can break or otherwise come off during anal sex, and this is more likely to happen with anal sex than with other sex acts because of the tightness of the anal sphincters during friction.
As with other sexual practices, people without sound knowledge about the sexual risks involved are susceptible to STIs. Because of the view that anal sex is not "real sex" and therefore does not result in virginity loss, or pregnancy, teenagers and other young people may consider vaginal intercourse riskier than anal intercourse and believe that a STI can only result from vaginal intercourse. It may be because of these views that condom use with anal sex is often reported to be low and inconsistent across all groups in various countries.
Unprotected receptive anal sex (with an HIV positive partner) is the sex act most likely to result in HIV transmission. Other infections that can be transmitted by unprotected anal sex are human papillomavirus (HPV) (which can increase risk of anal cancer); typhoid fever; amoebiasis; chlamydia; cryptosporidiosis; E. coli infections; giardiasis; gonorrhea; hepatitis A; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; herpes simplex; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8); lymphogranuloma venereum; Mycoplasma hominis; Mycoplasma genitalium; pubic lice; salmonellosis; shigella; syphilis; tuberculosis; and Ureaplasma urealyticum.
There are a variety of factors that make male-to-female anal intercourse riskier for a female than for a male. For example, besides the risk of HIV transmission being higher for anal intercourse than for vaginal intercourse, the risk of injury to the woman during anal intercourse is significantly higher than the risk of injury to her during vaginal intercourse because of the durability of the vaginal tissues compared to the anal tissues. Additionally, if a man moves from anal intercourse immediately to vaginal intercourse without a condom or without changing it, infections can arise in the vagina (or urinary tract) due to bacteria present within the anus; these infections can also result from switching between vaginal sex and anal sex by the use of fingers or sex toys.
Though anal sex alone does not lead to pregnancy, pregnancy can still occur with anal sex or other forms of sexual activity if the penis is near the vagina (such as during intercrural sex or other genital-genital rubbing) and its sperm is deposited near the vagina's entrance and travels along the vagina's lubricating fluids; the risk of pregnancy can also occur without the penis being near the vagina because sperm may be transported to the vaginal opening by the vagina coming in contact with fingers or other non-genital body parts that have come in contact with semen.
Pain during receptive anal sex among gay men (or men who have sex with men) is formally known as anodyspareunia. In one study, 61% of gay or bisexual men said they experienced painful receptive anal sex and that it was the most frequent sexual difficulty they had experienced. By contrast, 24% of gay or bisexual men stated that they always experienced some degree of pain during anal sex, and about 12% of gay men find it too painful to pursue receptive anal sex; it was concluded that the perception of anal sex as painful is as likely to be psychologically or emotionally based as it is to be physically based. Factors predictive of pain during anal sex include inadequate lubrication, feeling tense or anxious, lack of stimulation, as well as lack of social ease with being gay and being closeted. Research has found that psychological factors can in fact be the primary contributors to the experience of pain during anal intercourse and that adequate communication between sexual partners can prevent it, countering the notion that pain is always inevitable during anal sex.
Physical damage and cancer
Anal sex can exacerbate hemorrhoids and therefore result in bleeding; in other cases, the formation of a hemorrhoid is attributed to anal sex. If bleeding occurs as a result of anal sex, it may also be because of a tear in the anal or rectal tissues (an anal fissure) or perforation (a hole) in the colon, the latter of which being a serious medical issue that should be remedied by immediate medical attention. Because of the rectum's lack of elasticity, the anal mucous membrane being thin, and small blood vessels being present directly beneath the mucous membrane, tiny tears and bleeding in the rectum usually result from penetrative anal sex, though the bleeding is usually minor and therefore usually not visible. By contrast to other anal sexual behaviors, anal fisting poses a more serious danger of damage due to the deliberate stretching of the anal and rectal tissues; anal fisting injuries include anal sphincter lacerations and rectal and sigmoid colon (rectosigmoid) perforation, which might result in death.
Repetitive penetrative anal sex may result in the anal sphincters becoming weakened, which may cause rectal prolapse or affect the ability to hold in feces (a condition known as fecal incontinence). Rectal prolapse is relatively uncommon, however, especially in men, and its causes are not well understood. Kegel exercises have been used to strengthen the anal sphincters and overall pelvic floor, and may help prevent or remedy fecal incontinence.
Most cases of anal cancer are related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). Anal sex alone does not cause anal cancer; the risk of anal cancer through anal sex is attributed to HPV infection, which is often contracted through unprotected anal sex. Anal cancer is relatively rare, and significantly less common than cancer of the colon or rectum (colorectal cancer); the American Cancer Society states that it affects approximately 7,060 people (4,430 in women and 2,630 in men) and results in approximately 880 deaths (550 in women and 330 in men) in the United States, and that, though anal cancer has been on the rise for many years, it is mainly diagnosed in adults, "with an average age being in the early 60s" and it "affects women somewhat more often than men." Though anal cancer is serious, treatment for it is "often very effective" and most anal cancer patients can be cured of the disease; the American Cancer Society adds that "receptive anal intercourse also increases the risk of anal cancer in both men and women, particularly in those younger than the age of 30. Because of this, men who have sex with men have a high risk of this cancer."
Other cultural views
Different cultures have had different views on anal sex throughout human history, with some cultures more positive about the activity than others. Historically, anal sex has been restricted or condemned, especially with regard to religious beliefs; it has also commonly been used as a form of domination, usually with the active partner (the one who is penetrating) representing masculinity and the passive partner (the one who is being penetrated) representing femininity. A number of cultures have especially recorded the practice of anal sex between males, and anal sex between males has been especially stigmatized or punished. In some societies, if discovered to have engaged in the practice, the individuals involved were put to death, such as by decapitation, burning, or even mutilation.
Anal sex has been more accepted in modern times; it is often considered a natural, pleasurable form of sexual expression, with some people, men in particular, only interested in anal sex for sexual satisfaction; this has been partly attributed to pornography normalizing sexual penetration of a woman's mouth and anus in addition to her vagina. Engaging in anal sex is still, however, punished in some societies. For example, regarding LGBT rights in Iran, Iran's Penal Code states in Article 109 that "both men involved in same-sex penetrative (anal) or non-penetrative sex will be punished" and "Article 110 states that those convicted of engaging in anal sex will be executed and that the manner of execution is at the discretion of the judge".
Ancient and non-Western cultures
The term Greek love has long been used to refer to anal intercourse, and in modern times, "doing it the Greek way" is sometimes used as slang for anal sex. Ancient Greeks accepted romantic or sexual relationships between males as a balanced sex life (having males and women as lovers), and they considered this "normal (as long as one partner was an adult and the other was aged between twelve and fifteen)".
Male-male anal sex was not a universally accepted practice in Ancient Greece; it was the target of jokes in some Athenian comedies. Aristophanes, for instance, mockingly alludes to the practice, claiming, "Most citizens are europroktoi (wide-arsed) now." The terms kinaidos, europroktoi, and katapygon were used by Greek residents to categorize men who chronically practiced passive anal intercourse. While pedagogic pederasty was an essential element in the education of male youths, these relationships, at least in Athens and Sparta, were expected to steer clear of penetrative sex of any kind. There are few works of pottery or other art that display anal sex between men and adolescent boys, let alone between adult men. Greek artwork of sexual interaction between men and boys usually depicted fondling or intercrural sex, which was not condemned for violating or feminizing boys, while male-male anal intercourse was usually depicted between males of the same age-group. Intercrural sex was not considered penetrative and two males engaging in it was considered a "clean" act. Some sources explicitly state that anal sex between men and boys was criticized as shameful and seen as a form of hubris. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that the younger partner in pederastic relationships (i.e., the eromenos) did engage in receptive anal intercourse so long as no one accused him of being 'feminine'.
In later Roman-era Greek poetry, anal sex became a common literary convention, represented as taking place with "eligible" youths: those who had attained the proper age but had not yet become adults. Seducing those not of proper age (for example, non-adolescent children) into the practice was considered very shameful for the adult, and having such relations with a male who was no longer adolescent was considered more shameful for the young male than for the one mounting him; Greek courtesans, or hetaerae, are said to have frequently practiced male-female anal intercourse as a means of preventing pregnancy.
A male citizen taking the passive (or receptive) role in anal intercourse (paedicatio in Latin) was condemned in Rome as an act of impudicitia (immodesty or unchastity); free men, however, frequently took the active role with a young male slave, known as a catamite or puer delicatus. The latter was allowed because anal intercourse was considered equivalent to vaginal intercourse in this way; men were said to "take it like a woman" (muliebria pati, "to undergo womanly things") when they were anally penetrated, but when a man performed anal sex on a woman, she was thought of as playing the boy's role. Likewise, women were believed to only be capable of anal sex or other sex acts with women if they possessed an exceptionally large clitoris or a dildo. The passive partner in any of these cases was always considered a woman or a boy because being the one who penetrates was characterized as the only appropriate way for an adult male citizen to engage in sexual activity, and he was therefore considered unmanly if he was the one who was penetrated; slaves could be considered "non-citizen". Although Roman men often availed themselves of their own slaves or others for anal intercourse, Roman comedies and plays presented Greek settings and characters for explicit acts of anal intercourse, and this may be indicative that the Romans thought of anal sex as something specifically "Greek".
In Japan, records (including detailed shunga) show that some males engaged in penetrative anal intercourse with males, and evidence suggestive of widespread male-female anal intercourse in a pre-modern culture can be found in the erotic vases, or stirrup-spout pots, made by the Moche people of Peru; in a survey, of a collection of these pots, it was found that 31 percent of them depicted male-female anal intercourse significantly more than any other sex act. Moche pottery of this type belonged to the world of the dead, which was believed to be a reversal of life. Therefore, the reverse of common practices was often portrayed. The Larco Museum houses an erotic gallery in which this pottery is showcased.
19th century anthropologist Richard Francis Burton theorized that there is a geographical Sotadic zone wherein penetrative intercourse between males is particularly prevalent and accepted; moreover he was one of the first writers to advance the premise that such an orientation is biologically determined.
In many western countries, anal sex has generally been taboo since the Middle Ages, when heretical movements were sometimes attacked by accusations that their members practiced anal sex among themselves. At that time, celibate members of the Christian clergy were accused of engaging in "sins against nature", including anal sex.
The term buggery originated in medieval Europe as an insult used to describe the rumored same-sex sexual practices of the heretics from a sect originating in Bulgaria, where its followers were called bogomils; when they spread out of the country, they were called buggres (from the ethnonym Bulgars). Another term for the practice, more archaic, is pedicate from the Latin pedicare, with the same meaning.
The Renaissance poet Pietro Aretino advocated anal sex in his Sonetti Lussuriosi (Lust Sonnets). While men who engaged in homosexual relationships were generally suspected of engaging in anal sex, many such individuals did not. Among these, in recent times, have been André Gide, who found it repulsive; and Noël Coward, who had a horror of disease, and asserted when young that "I'd never do anything – well the disgusting thing they do – because I know I could get something wrong with me".
The Mishneh Torah, a text considered authoritative by Orthodox Jewish sects, states "since a man’s wife is permitted to him, he may act with her in any manner whatsoever. He may have intercourse with her whenever he so desires and kiss any organ of her body he wishes, and he may have intercourse with her naturally or unnaturally [traditionally, unnaturally refers to anal and oral sex], provided that he does not expend semen to no purpose. Nevertheless, it is an attribute of piety that a man should not act in this matter with levity and that he should sanctify himself at the time of intercourse."
Christian texts may sometimes euphemistically refer to anal sex as the peccatum contra naturam (the sin against nature, after Thomas Aquinas) or Sodomitica luxuria (sodomitical lusts, in one of Charlemagne's ordinances), or peccatum illud horribile, inter christianos non nominandum (that horrible sin that among Christians is not to be named).
Liwat, or the sin of Lot's people, which has come to be interpreted as referring generally to same-sex sexual activity, is commonly officially prohibited by Islamic sects; there are parts of the Quran which talk about smiting on Sodom and Gomorrah, and this is thought to be a reference to unnatural sex, and so there are hadith and Islamic laws which prohibit it. While, concerning Islamic belief, it is objectionable to use the words al-Liwat and luti to refer to homosexuality because it is blasphemy toward the prophet of Allah, and therefore the terms sodomy and homosexuality are preferred, same-sex male practitioners of anal sex are called luti or lutiyin in plural and are seen as criminals in the same way that a thief is a criminal, meaning that they are giving in to a universal temptation.
The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics is the Five Precepts. These precepts take the form of voluntary, personal undertakings, not divine mandate or instruction. The third of the Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct". However, "sexual misconduct" (Sanskrit: Kāmesu micchācāra, literally "sense gratifications arising from the 5 senses") is subject to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers. Buddhism, in its fundamental form, does not define what is right and what is wrong in absolute terms for lay followers. Therefore, the interpretation of what kinds of sexual activity are acceptable for a layman is not a religious matter as far as Buddhism is concerned.
Although Hindu society does not formally acknowledge sexuality between men, it formally acknowledges and gives space to sexuality between men and third genders as a variation of male-female sex (meaning a part of heterosexuality, rather than homosexuality, if analyzed in western terms). Hijras, Alis, Kotis, etc. (the various forms of third gender that exist in India today) are all characterized by the gender role of having receptive anal and oral sex with men. However, sexuality between males (as distinct from third genders) has thrived, mostly unspoken and informally, without being seen as different in the way it is seen in the west; young men involved in "such relationships do not consider themselves to be 'homosexual' but conceive their behavior in terms of sexual desire, opportunity and pleasure".
- "Anal Sex Safety and Health Concerns". WebMD. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Barry R. Komisaruk; Beverly Whipple; Sara Nasserzadeh; Carlos Beyer-Flores (2009). The Orgasm Answer Guide. JHU Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-8018-9396-4. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- See pages 270–271 for anal sex information, and page 118 for information about the clitoris. Janell L. Carroll (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. pp. 629 pages. ISBN 978-0-495-60274-3. Retrieved December 19, 2010.
- John Dean; David Delvin. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2010.
- Vern LeRoy Bullough; Bonnie Bullough (1994). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0824079728. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Kimberly R. McBrideab; J. Dennis Fortenberry (March 2010). "Heterosexual anal sexuality and anal sex behaviors: a review". Journal of Sex Research. 47 (2–3): 123–136. doi:10.1080/00224490903402538. PMID 20358456.
- "Anal Sex, defined". Discovery.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2002. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Not all gay men have anal sex". Go Ask Alice!. June 13, 2008. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Bell, Robin (February 1999). "ABC of sexual health: Homosexual men and women". BMJ. National Institutes of Health/BMJ. 318 (7181): 452–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7181.452. PMC . PMID 9974466.
- Kaye Wellings; Kirstin Mitchell; Martine Collumbien (2012). Sexual Health: A Public Health Perspective. McGraw-Hill International. p. 91. ISBN 0335244815. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Felice Newman (2004). The Whole Lesbian Sex Book: A Passionate Guide For All Of Us. Cleis Press. pp. 205–224. ISBN 978-1-57344-199-5. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- "The male hot spot — Massaging the prostate". Go Ask Alice!. March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- See page 3 for women preferring anal sex to vaginal sex, and page 15 for reaching orgasm through indirect stimulation of the G-spot. Tristan Taormino (1997). The Ultimate Guide to Anal Sex for Women. Cleis Press. pp. 282 pages. ISBN 978-1-57344-221-3. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- "Pain from anal sex, and how to prevent it". Go Ask Alice!. June 26, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- Joel J. Heidelbaugh (2007). Clinical men's health: evidence in practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-4160-3000-3. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- Robert I Krasner (2010). The Microbial Challenge: Science, Disease and Public Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 416–417. ISBN 0763797359. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Dianne Hales (2008). An Invitation to Health Brief 2010-2011. Cengage Learning. pp. 269–271. ISBN 0495391921. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Werner W. K. Hoeger; Sharon A. Hoeger (2010). Lifetime Fitness and Wellness: A Personalized Program. Cengage Learning. p. 455. ISBN 1133008585. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research Global strategy for the prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections: 2006–2015. Breaking the chain of transmission, 2007, ISBN 978-92-4-156347-5
- Wayne Weiten; Margaret A. Lloyd; Dana S. Dunn; Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2008). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st century. Cengage Learning. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-495-55339-7. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
- Joann S. DeLora; Carol A. B. Warren; Carol Rinkleib Ellison (2008) . Understanding Sexual Interaction. Houghton Mifflin (Original from the University of Virginia). p. 123. ISBN 978-0-395-29724-7. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
Many men find anal intercourse more exciting than penile-vaginal intercourse because the anal opening is usually smaller and tighter than the vagina. Probably the forbidden aspect of anal intercourse also makes it more exciting for some people.
- Hunko, Celia (February 6, 2009). "Anal sex: Let's get to the bottom of this". The Daily of the University of Washington. Retrieved April 26, 2010.[dead link]
- Hawley, John C (2008). LGBTQ America Today: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Greenwood Press. p. 977. ISBN 0313339902. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Zdrok, Victoria (2004). The Anatomy of Pleasure. Infinity Publishing. pp. 100–102. ISBN 0741422484. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-0-618-75571-4. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Gretchen M Lentz; Rogerio A. Lobo; David M Gershenson; Vern L. Katz (2012). Comprehensive Gynecology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 41. ISBN 0323091318. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
- Ellen Lewin; William Leap; William L. Leap (2002). Out in Theory: The Emergence of Lesbian and Gay Anthropology. University of Illinois Press. pp. 215–216. ISBN 0252070763. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Michael W. Ross (1988). Psychopathology and Psychotherapy in Homosexuality. Psychology Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 0866564993. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Joseph A. Flaherty; John Marcell Davis; Philip G. Janicak (1993). Psychiatry: Diagnosis & therapy. A Lange clinical manual. Appleton & Lange (Original from Northwestern University). p. 217. ISBN 978-0-8385-1267-8.
The amount of time of sexual arousal needed to reach orgasm is variable — and usually much longer — in women than in men; thus, only 20–30% of women attain a coital climax. b. Many women (70–80%) require manual clitoral stimulation...
- Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Rogers, Rebecca G. (June 2008). "Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction". Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America. 35 (2): 169–183. doi:10.1016/j.ogc.2008.03.006. PMID 18486835.
Most women report the inability to achieve orgasm with vaginal intercourse and require direct clitoral stimulation ... About 20% have coital climaxes...
- Di Marino, Vincent (2014). Anatomic Study of the Clitoris and the Bulbo-Clitoral Organ. Springer. p. 81. ISBN 3319048945. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- O'Connell HE, Sanjeevan KV, Hutson JM (October 2005). "Anatomy of the clitoris". The Journal of Urology. 174 (4 Pt 1): 1189–95. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000173639.38898.cd. PMID 16145367.
- "Difference between clitoral and vaginal orgasm". Go Ask Alice!. March 28, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Yang, Claire J.; Cold, Christopher; et al. (April 2006). "Sexually responsive vascular tissue of the vulva". BJUI. 97 (4): 766–772. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.05961.x. PMID 16536770.
- Mulhall, John P.; Incrocci, Luca; Goldstein, Irwin; Rosen, Ray (2011). Cancer and Sexual Health. Springer. p. 783. ISBN 978-1-60761-915-4. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
- "Doin' the butt – objects in anus?". Go Ask Alice!. March 26, 2010. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2009). Sex and Society, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-7614-7907-9. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
- Kilchevsky A, Vardi Y, Lowenstein L, Gruenwald I (January 2012). "Is the female g-spot truly a distinct anatomic entity?". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 9 (3): 719–726. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02623.x. PMID 22240236.
- Cox, Lauren (January 19, 2012). "G-Spot does not exist, 'Without a Doubt,' say researchers". The Huffington Post.
- Jerrold S. Greenberg; Clint E. Bruess; Sara B. Oswalt (2014). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 102–104. ISBN 1449648517. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Mindy A. Smith; Leslie A. Shimp (2000–2008). 20 Common Problems in Women's Health Care. McGraw-Hill Health Professions Division. pp. 138–139. ISBN 0070697671. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Natasha Janina Valdez (2011). Vitamin O: Why Orgasms Are Vital to a Woman's Health and Happiness, and How to Have Them Every Time!. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-61608-311-3. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- See page 560 for effects of viewing pornography with regard to anal sex, and pages 286–289 for anal sex as a birth control method. Robert Crooks; Karla Baur (2010–2011). Our Sexuality. Cengage Learning. pp. 570 pages. ISBN 0495812943. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Flood, Michael (2010), "Young men using pornography", in Boyle, Karen, Everyday pornography, London New York: Routledge, pp. 170–171, ISBN 9780415543781. Pdf. Preview.
- Thomas Johansson (2007). The Transformation of Sexuality: Gender And Identity In Contemporary Youth Culture. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 56–58. ISBN 1409490785. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Z.; Saez, H.; Dolezal, C.; Nieves-Rosa, L.; Diaz, F. (2000). "Frequent use of lubricants for anal sex among men who have sex with men" (PDF). American Journal of Public Health. 90 (7): 1117–1121. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.7.1117. PMC . PMID 10897191.
- Adrian Howe (2008). Sex, Violence and Crime: Foucault and the 'Man' Question. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 0203891279. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Sandra Alters; Wendy Schiff (2012). Essential Concepts for Healthy Living. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 144. ISBN 1449630626. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
- Wayne Weiten; Dana S. Dunn; Elizabeth Yost Hammer (2011). Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century. Cengage Learning. p. 386. ISBN 9781111186630. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- SIECUS Prevalence of Unprotected Anal Sex among Teens Requires New Education Strategies" Accessed January 26, 2010
- See here and pages 48–49 for the majority of researchers and heterosexuals defining virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter (2005). Virginity lost: an intimate portrait of first sexual experiences. NYU Press. pp. 295 pages. ISBN 978-0-8147-1652-6. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Bryan Strong; Christine DeVault; Theodore F. Cohen (2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. p. 186. ISBN 0-534-62425-1. Retrieved October 8, 2011.
Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual (vaginal) intercourse. But occasionally we hear people speak of 'technical virginity' [...] Data indicate that 'a very significant proportion of teens ha[ve] had experience with oral sex, even if they haven't had sexual intercourse, and may think of themselves as virgins' [...] Other research, especially research looking into virginity loss, reports that 35% of virgins, defined as people who have never engaged in vaginal intercourse, have nonetheless engaged in one or more other forms of heterosexual sexual activity (e.g., oral sex, anal sex, or mutual masturbation).
- Jayson, Sharon (October 19, 2005). "'Technical virginity' becomes part of teens' equation". USA Today. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- Ken Plummer (2002). Modern Homosexualities: Fragments of Lesbian and Gay Experiences. Routledge. pp. 187–191. ISBN 1134922426. Retrieved August 24, 2013.
The social construction of 'sex' as vaginal intercourse affects how other forms of sexual activity are evaluated as sexually satisfying or arousing; in some cases whether an activity is seen as a sexual act at all. For example, unless a woman has been penetrated by a man's penis she is still technically a virgin even if she has had lots of sexual experience.
- Hardin L.K. Coleman, Christine Yeh (2011). Handbook of School Counseling. Routledge. p. 247. ISBN 1135283591. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Janell L. Carroll (2012). Discovery Series: Human Sexuality (1st ed.). Cengage Learning. pp. 285–286. ISBN 1111841896. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB). Findings from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, Center for Sexual Health Promotion, Indiana University. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, Vol. 7, Supplement 5. 2010.
- Steven Seidman; Nancy Fischer; Chet Meeks (2011). Introducing the New Sexuality Studies (2nd ed.). Routledge. pp. 108–112. ISBN 1136818103. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Edwin Clark Johnson; Toby Johnson (2008). Gay Perspective: Things Our Homosexuality Tells Us about the Nature of God & the Universe. Lethe Press. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59021-015-4. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Goldstone, Stephen E.; Welton, Mark L. (2004). "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus". Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 17 (4): 235–239. doi:10.1055/s-2004-836944. PMC . PMID 20011265.
- Steven Gregory Underwood (2003). Gay Men and Anal Eroticism: Tops, Bottoms, and Versatiles. Harrington Park Press. pp. 4–225. ISBN 978-1-56023-375-6. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
-  Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru. In: The Journal of Sex Research, August 2007
- Raymond A. Smith (1998). Encyclopedia of AIDS: A Social, Political, Cultural and Scientific Record of the HIV Epidemic. Taylor & Francis. pp. 73–76. ISBN 0203305493. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "The New Sex Police". The Advocate. April 12, 2005. pp. 39–40, 42. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- John H. Harvey; Amy Wenzel; Susan Sprecher (2004). The handbook of sexuality in close relationships. Routledge. pp. 355–356. ISBN 0805845488. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- Odets, Walt (1995). In the Shadow of the Epidemic: Being Hiv-negative in the Age of AIDS. Duke University Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN 0822316382. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Joseph Gross, Michael (2003). Like a Virgin. The Advocate, Here Publishing. pp. 44–45. 0001-8996. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Dolby, Tom (February 2004). "Why Some Gay Men Don't Go All The Way". Out. pp. 76–77. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Brian Dodge; et al. (2016). "Sexual Behaviors of U.S. Men by Self-Identified Sexual Orientation: Results From the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior". J Sex Med. 13: 37e649. doi:10.1016/j.jsxm.2016.01.015.
- Linda Brannon (2015). Gender: Psychological Perspectives, Sixth Edition. Psychology Press. p. 484. ISBN 1317348133. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- Keesling, Barbara (2005). Sexual Pleasure: Reaching New Heights of Sexual Arousal and Intimacy. Hunter House. p. 221. ISBN 9780897934350. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Savage, Dan (June 21, 2001). "We Have a Winner!". The Stranger. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Janell L. Carroll (2012). Discovery Series: Human Sexuality (1st ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 285. ISBN 1111841896. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- JoAnn Loulan (1984). Lesbian Sex. The University of California. p. 53. ISBN 0-933216-13-0. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Kat Harding (2006). The Lesbian Kama Sutra. Macmillan. p. 31. ISBN 0-312-33585-7. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- Jonathan Zenilman; Mohsen Shahmanesh (2011). Sexually Transmitted Infections: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 329–330. ISBN 0495812943. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
- Diamant AL, Lever J, Schuster M (Jun 2000). "Lesbians' Sexual Activities and Efforts to Reduce Risks for Sexually Transmitted Diseases". J Gay Lesbian Med Assoc. 4 (2): 41–8. doi:10.1023/A:1009513623365.
- Tom Boellstorff (2005). The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia. Princeton University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-691-12334-9. Retrieved March 12, 2011.
- Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra (2014). "Beyond Lesbian Bed Death: Enhancing Our Understanding of the Sexuality of Sexual-Minority Women in Relationships". JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH. 51 (8): 893–903. doi:10.1080/00224499.2013.795924. ISSN 0022-4499.
- Partridge, Eric; Dalzell, Tom; Victor, Terry (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: A-I (reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-415-25937-8.
Bareback – to engage in sex without a condom.
- Donna D. Ignatavicius; M. Linda Workman (2013). Medical-Surgical Nursing: Patient-Centered Collaborative Care. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1655. ISBN 0323293441. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
- Bhushan Kumar, Somesh Gupta (2014). Sexually Transmitted Infections. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 123. ISBN 8131229785. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- Katharine O'Connell White (2010). Talking Sex With Your Kids: Keeping Them Safe and You Sane - By Knowing What They're Really Thinking. Adams Media. pp. 85–86. ISBN 1440506841. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Twila Pearson (2012). The Challenging Years: Shedding Light on Teen Sexuality. WestBow Press. p. 63. ISBN 1449773281. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- "Detailed Guide: Anal Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Anal Cancer?". American Cancer Society. May 2, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- "What are the risk factors for anal cancer?". American Cancer Society. May 2, 2014. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- Reller, Megan E.; Olsen, Sonja J.; Kressel, Amy B.; Moon, Troy D.; Kubota, Kristy A.; Adcock, Kristy A.; Nowicki, Scott F.; Mintz, Eric D. (2003). "Sexual Transmission of Typhoid Fever: A Multistate Outbreak among Men Who Have Sex with Men". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 37 (1): 141–4. doi:10.1086/375590.
- Pauk J, Huang ML, Brodie SJ, et al. (November 2000). "Mucosal shedding of human herpesvirus 8 in men". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (19): 1369–77. doi:10.1056/NEJM200011093431904. PMID 11070101.
- Weiss, Margaret D.; Wasdell, Michael B.; Bomben, Melissa M.; Rea, Kathleen J.; Freeman, Roger D.; Xue, H; Yang, H; Zhang, G; Shao, C (February 2006). "High Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Jiangsu Province, China". Sex Transm Dis. 33 (2): 118–123. doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000199763.14766.2b. PMID 16432484.
- Dianne Hales (2014). An Invitation to Health. Cengage Learning. p. 363. ISBN 1305142969. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Leichliter, Jami S (2008). "Heterosexual Anal Sex: Part of an Expanding Sexual Repertoire?". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35 (11): 910–911. doi:10.1097/olq.0b013e31818af12f.
- M. Sara Rosenthal (2003). The Gynecological Sourcebook. McGraw Hill Professional. p. 153. ISBN 0071402799. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Deborah Dortzbach; W. Meredith Long (2006). The AIDS Crisis: What We Can Do. InterVarsity Press. p. 97. ISBN 0830833722. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
- Nikol Hasler (2015). An Uncensored Introduction. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 91. ISBN 1936976846. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Thomas, R. Murray (2009). Sex and the American Teenager: Seeing through the Myths and Confronting the Issues. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Education. p. 81. ISBN 9781607090182. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Edlin, Gordon (2012). Health & Wellness. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 213. ISBN 9781449636470. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Handbook of affirmative psychotherapy with lesbians and gay men By Kathleen Ritter, Anthony I. Terndrup; p350
- Janet R. Weber; Jane H. Kelley (2013). Health Assessment in Nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 588. ISBN 1469832224. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- John J. Miletich; Tia Laura Lindstrom (2010). An Introduction to the Work of a Medical Examiner: From Death Scene to Autopsy Suite. ABC-CLIO. p. 29. ISBN 0275995089. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Donato F. Altomare; Filippo Pucciani (2008). Rectal Prolapse: Diagnosis and Clinical Management. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 12–14. ISBN 8847006848. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Mark D. Walters; Mickey M. Karram (2015). Urogynecology and Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 501. ISBN 0323262570. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
- Hagen S, Stark D (2011). "Conservative prevention and management of pelvic organ prolapse in women". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 12 (12): CD003882. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003882.pub4. PMID 22161382.
- Jeffrey S. Nevid (2008). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Cengage Learning. p. 417. ISBN 0547148143. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
Some cultures are more permissive with respect to such sexual practices as oral sex, anal sex, and masturbation, whereas others are more restrictive.
- George Haggerty (2000–2013). Encyclopedia of Gay Histories and Cultures. Routledge. pp. 788–790. ISBN 1135585067. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- "PUBLIC AI Index: MDE 13/010/2008. UA 17/08 Fear of imminent execution/ flogging". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on January 21, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Christie Davies (2011). Jokes and Target. Indiana University Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 0253223024. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- Paul Baker (2005). Public Discourses of Gay Men. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 0203643534. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
- Joan Roughgarden (2004). Evolution's Rainbow: Diversity, Gender, and Sexuality in Nature and People. University of California Press. pp. 367–376. ISBN 0520240731. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Ralph Mark Rosen; Ineke Sluiter (2003). Andreia: Studies in Manliness and Courage in Classical Antiquity. Brill. p. 115. ISBN 9004119957. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (1994). "Platonic Love and Colorado Law: The Relevance of Ancient Greek Norms to Modern Sexual Controversies". Virginia Law Review. 80 (7): 1562–3. JSTOR 1073514 – via JSTOR. (registration required (. ))
the kinaidos is clearly a person who chronically plays the passive role [...] More recently, I have been convince by arguments of the late John J. Winkler that kinaidos usually connotes willingness to accept money for sex, as well as habitual passivity [...] In any case, there is no doubt that we are not dealing with an isolated act, but rather a type of person who habitually chooses activity that Callicles finds shameful. That, and no view about same-sex relations per se, is the basis of his criticism. In fact, Callicles is depicted as having a young boyfriend of his own. *The boyfriend is named Demos, also the name for the Athenian "people," to whom Callicles is also devoted. It is likely that the pun on the name is sexual: as Callicles seduces Demos, so also the demos. (It would be assumed that he would practice intercrural intercourse with this boyfriend, thus avoiding putting him in anything like the kinaidos shamed position
- Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember (2004). Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender: Men and Women in the World's Cultures Topics and Cultures A-K - Volume 1; Cultures L-Z -. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 207. ISBN 030647770X. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Anna Clark (2012). Desire: A History of European Sexuality. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 1135762910. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Dover, Kenneth J. (1978). Greek Homosexuality. Harvard University Press. p. 99. ISBN 0674362616.
- David Cohen, "Sexuality, Violence, and the Athenian Law of Hubris" Greece and Rome; V.38.2, pp 171-188
- Dover, Kenneth J. (1978). Greek Homosexuality. Harvard University Press. p. 107. ISBN 0674362616.
- Miller, James E. (1995). "The Practices of Romans 1:26: Homosexual or Heterosexual?". Novum Testamentum. 37 (1): 9. doi:10.1163/1568536952613631.
Heterosexual anal intercourse is best illustrated in Classical vase paintings of hetaerae with their clients, and some scholars interpret this as a form of contraception
- Marilyn B. Skinner (1997). Invading the Roman Body: Manliness and Impenetrability in Roman Thought. Roman Sexualities. Princeton University Press. pp. 14–31. ISBN 0-691-01178-8. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
- Thomas K. Hubbard (2003). Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook of Basic Documents. University of California Press. p. 309. ISBN 0520234308. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Gary P. Leupp (1997). Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. University of California Press. p. 122. ISBN 052091919X. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Reay Tannahill (1989). Sex In History. Abacus Books. pp. 297–298. ISBN 0349104867. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- "Larco Museum - Lima Peru - Experience Ancient Peru - Permanent Exhibition ::". Museolarco.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1885). "Section D: Pederasty". "Terminal Essay", from his translation of The Arabian Nights. Fordham University.
- Herbenick, Debby. Good in Bed Guide to Anal Pleasuring. Good in Bed Guides. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-9843221-6-9.
- Robert Aldrich; Garry Wotherspoo (2002). Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History Vol.1: From Antiquity to the Mid-Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 020398675X. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Erin McKean, ed. (2005). New Oxford American Dictionary, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517077-6.
- Pollini, John (March 1999). "The Warren Cup: Homoerotic Love and Symposial Rhetoric in Silver". BJUI. 81 (1): 21–52. doi:10.1080/00043079.1999.10786870.
"I have derived the word pedicate from the Latin paedicare or pedicare, meaning "to penetrate anally." Note 6.
- Daileader, Celia R. (Summer 2002). "Back Door Sex: Renaissance Gynosodomy, Aretino, and the Exotic" (PDF). English Literary History. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 69 (2): 303–334. doi:10.1353/elh.2002.0012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2007.
- Kevin Kopelson (1994). Love's Litany: The Writing of Modern Homoerotics. Stanford University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0804723451. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Philip Hoare (1998). Noël Coward: A Biography. University of Chicago Press. p. 18. ISBN 0226345122. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
- Isidore Twersky, Introduction to the Code of Maimonides (Mishneh Torah), Yale Judaica Series, vol. XII (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1980). passim, and especially Chapter VII, "Epilogue", pp. 515–538.
- Maimonides, Moshe. Mishneh Torah. p. Laws Concerning Forbidden Relations 21:9.
- Albrecht Classen (2010). Sexuality in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Times: New Approaches to a Fundamental Cultural-historical and Literary-anthropological Theme. Walter de Gruyter. p. 13. ISBN 3110205742. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Byrne Fone (2001). Homophobia: A History. Macmillan. p. 133. ISBN 1466817070. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Louis Crompton (2009). Homosexuality and Civilization. Harvard University Press. p. 529. ISBN 0674030060. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Mark M Leach (2014). Cultural Diversity and Suicide: Ethnic, Religious, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Perspectives. Routledge. p. 121. ISBN 1317786599. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Yahaya Yunusa Bambale (2008) . Crimes and Punishments Under Islamic Law. Malthouse Press Limited. p. 40. ISBN 9780231595. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Randy P. Conner; David Hatfield Sparks; Mariya Sparks (2006) . Cassell's Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol, and Spirit: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Lore. Cassell. pp. 20; 216. ISBN 0304337609. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
Indeed, homoeroticism in general and anal intercourse in particular are referred to as liwat, while those (primarily men) engaging in these behaviors are referred to as qaum Lut or Luti, 'the people of Lot.'
- Higgins, Winton. "Buddhist Sexual Ethics". BuddhaNet Magazine. Archived from the original on January 21, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2007.
- Po, Jeffrey. "Sexual Misconduct – The third Precept". 4ui.com. Retrieved March 22, 2010
- GLBT in World Religions, Sermon by Rev. Gabriele Parks, along with Phil Manos and Bill Weber.
- The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India, by S Asthana and R. Oostvogels, published in 'Social Science & Medicine', vol 52(2001), Quote: "Indian culture is highly homosocial and displays of affection, body contact and the sharing of beds between men is socially acceptable (Kahn, 1994) This creates opportunities for sexual contact, though sexual behavior in this context is rarely seen as real sex, but as play. Much of this same-sex sexual activity begins in adolescence between school friends and within family environments and is non-penetrative... Young men who cultivate such relationships do not consider themselves to be 'homosexual' but conceive their behavior in terms of sexual desire, opportunity and pleasure."
- Bentley, Toni The Surrender: An Erotic Memoir, Regan Books, 2004.
- Brent, Bill Ultimate Guide to Anal Sex for Men, Cleis Press, 2002.
- DeCitore, David Arouse Her Anal Ecstasy (2008) ISBN 978-0-615-39914-0
- Hite, Shere The Hite Report on Male Sexuality
- Houser, Ward Anal Sex, Encyclopedia of Homosexuality Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.), Garland Publishing, 1990. pp. 48–50.
- Manning, Lee The Illustrated Book Of Anal Sex, Erotic Print Society, 2003. ISBN 978-1-898998-59-4
- Morin, Jack Anal Pleasure & Health: A Guide for Men and Women, Down There Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-940208-20-9
- Sanderson, Terry The Gay Man's Kama Sutra, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004.
- Strong, Bill with Lori E. Gammon Anal Sex for Couples: A Guaranteed Guide for Painless Pleasure Triad Press, Inc.; First edition, 2006. ISBN 978-0-9650716-2-8
- Tristan Taormino The Ultimate Guide to Anal Sex for Women, Cleis Press, 1997, 2006. ISBN 978-1-57344-028-8
- Underwood, Steven G. Gay Men and Anal Eroticism: Tops, Bottoms, and Versatiles, Harrington Park Press, 2003
- Webb, Charlotte Masterclass: Anal Sex, Erotic Print Society, 2007.