Skene's gland(Redirected from Skene's glands)
In female human anatomy, Skene's glands or the Skene glands (// SKEEN; also known as the lesser vestibular glands, paraurethral glands, or homologous female prostate) are glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening and may be near or a part of the G-spot. These glands are surrounded with tissue (which includes the part of the clitoris) that reaches up inside the vagina and swells with blood during sexual arousal.
|Latin||glandulae vestibulares minores|
Structure and functionEdit
The location of the Skene's glands are the general area of the vulva, located on the anterior wall of the vagina around the lower end of the urethra. The Skene's glands are homologous with the prostate gland in males, containing numerous microanatomical structures in common with the prostate gland, such as secretory cells. Skene's glands are not, however, explicit prostate glands themselves. The two Skene's ducts lead from the Skene's glands to the surface of the vulva, to the left and right of the urethral opening from which they are structurally capable of secreting fluid. Although there remains debate about the function of the Skene's glands, one purpose is to secrete a fluid that helps lubricate the urethral opening, possibly contributing antimicrobial factors to protect the urinary tract from infections.
The source of female ejaculation has not been proven. It has been postulated that the Skene's glands are the source of female ejaculation. Because the Skene's gland and male prostate act similarly in terms of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), which is an ejaculate protein identically produced in males, and in terms of prostate-specific acid phosphatase, this led to a trend of calling the Skene's glands the female prostate. Female ejaculate, which may emerge during sexual activity for some women, especially during female orgasm, contains biochemical markers of sexual function like human urinary protein 1 and the enzyme PDE5, whereas women without the gland had lower concentrations of these proteins. When examined with electron microscopy, both glands show similar secretory structures.
It has been demonstrated that a large amount of fluid can be secreted from these glands when stimulated from inside the vagina. Some reports indicate that embarrassment regarding female ejaculation, and the debated notion that the substance is urine, can lead to purposeful suppression of sexual climax, leading women to seek medical advice and even undergo surgery to "stop the urine".
Disorders of or related to the Skene's gland include:
- Skene's duct cyst
- Trichomoniasis: The Skene glands (along with other structures) act as a reservoir for Trichomonas vaginalis. This is why topical treatments are not as effective as oral medication.
While the glands were first described by the French surgeon Alphonse Guérin (1816–1895), they were named after the Scottish gynaecologist Alexander Skene, who wrote about it in Western medical literature in 1880. In 2002, Skene's gland was officially renamed to female prostate by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology.
- "paraurethral glands" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Zaviacic, M; Jakubovská, V; Belosovic, M; Breza, J (2000). "Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland)". Anatomy and Embryology. 201 (1): 51–61. doi:10.1007/PL00022920. PMID 10603093.
- "A female prostate?". Berkeley Wellness, University of California at Berkeley. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2017.
- Greenberg, Jerrold S.; Bruess, Clint E.; Oswalt, Sara B. (2014). Exploring the Dimensions of Human Sexuality. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 102–104. ISBN 1449648517. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 231. ISBN 1135825092. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- Zaviacic M, Danihel L, Ruzicková M, Blazeková J, Itoh Y, Okutani R, Kawai T (March 1997). "Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate". Histochem J. 29 (3): 219–27. doi:10.1023/A:1026401909678. PMID 9472384.
- Jones, Nicola (3 July 2002). "Bigger is better when it comes to the G-Spot". New Scientist.
- Castleman, Michael (2 January 2014). "Female Ejaculation: What's Known and Unknown". Psychology Today. Sussex Publishers, LLC. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- Heath D (1984). "An investigation into the origins of a copious vaginal discharge during intercourse: "Enough to wet the bed" – that "is not urine"". J. Sex Res. 20 (2): 194–215. doi:10.1080/00224498409551217.
- Chalker, Rebecca (2002). The Clitoral Truth: The secret world at your fingertips. New York: Seven Stories. ISBN 1-58322-473-4. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- Miranda EP, Almeida DC, Ribeiro GP, Parente JM, Scafuri AG (2008). "Surgical Treatment for Recurrent Refractory Skenitis" (PDF). TheScientificWorldJournal. 8: 658–60. doi:10.1100/tsw.2008.92. PMID 18661053.
- Gittes RF, Nakamura RM (May 1996). "Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?". Western Journal of Medicine. 164 (5): 435–38. PMC 1303542. PMID 8686301.
- McNeeley, S. Gene (December 2008). "Skene's duct cyst". Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. Merck. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G (1998). "Clinical and Microbiological Aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 11 (2): 300–317. PMC 106834. PMID 9564565.
- "Cystoceles, Urethroceles, Enteroceles, and Rectoceles - Gynecology and Obstetrics - Merck Manuals Professional Edition". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
- Skene's glands at Who Named It?
- Skene, A (1880). "The anatomy and pathology of two important glands of the female urethra". Am J Obstet Dis Women Child. 13: 265–70.
- synd/2037 at Who Named It?
- Flam, Faye (2006-03-15). "The Seattle Times: Health: Gee, women have ... a prostate?". seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
|Look up skene's gland in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Davì G, Asta G, Lagalla R, Midiri M, Mercadante G (1999). "Skene's gland pseudocysts. An occasional finding with computed tomography and ultrasound". La Radiologia Medica. 98 (4): 314–16. PMID 10615378.
- Radiology images of the Skene's gland
- Jones N (3 July 2002). "Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot". New Scientist.
- Geddes L (20 February 2008). "Ultrasound nails location of the elusive G spot". New Scientist.
- Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, Carosa E, Di Stasi SM, Morano S, Lenzi A, Jannini EA (March 2008). "Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm" (PDF). J Sex Med. 5 (3): 610–18. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x. PMID 18221286.