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Al Marhum Maulana Al-Sultan Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, DMN GCB KStJ (28 November 1927 – 11 September 2017) was the 28th Sultan of Kedah, reigning from 1958 to 2017. He served as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 1970 to 1975, and as the 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 2011 to 2016. He was the first person to reign as Yang di-Pertuan Agong twice, as well as the oldest elected to the office. Immediately prior to his death, he was the second longest-reigning living monarch in the world after Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Abdul Halim
Yang di-Pertuan Agong V and XIV
Sultan of Kedah
Abdul Halim of Kedah.jpg
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Reign 13 December 2011 – 12 December 2016
Installation 11 April 2012
Predecessor Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu
Successor Muhammad V of Kelantan
Prime Minister Najib Razak
Reign 21 September 1970 – 20 September 1975
Installation 20 February 1971
Predecessor Ismail Nasiruddin Shah of Terengganu
Successor Yahya Petra of Kelantan
Prime Ministers
Sultan of Kedah
Reign 14 July 1958 – 11 September 2017
Installation 20 February 1959
Predecessor Badlishah
Successor Mahmud Sallehuddin
Chief Ministers
Born (1927-11-28)28 November 1927
Istana Anak Bukit, Alor Setar, Kedah, Unfederated Malay States, British Malaya (now Malaysia)
Died 11 September 2017(2017-09-11) (aged 89)
Istana Anak Bukit, Alor Setar, Kedah
Burial 12 September 2017
Langgar Royal Mausoleum, Alor Setar, Kedah
Spouse Sultanah Bahiyah (1956–2003)
Sultanah Haminah (1975–2017, as Che Puan Kedah 1975-2003)
Issue
Detail
Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz
Tunku Soraya
Tunku Sarina (1960-1991)
Full name
Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah
House Istana Anak Bukit, Alor Setar, Kedah
Father Sultan Badlishah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah
Mother Tunku Sofiah Binti Tunku Mahmud

Contents

BiographyEdit

Early careerEdit

Born at Istana Anak Bukit near Alor Setar as Tunku Abdul Halim, he was the second, but eldest surviving son, of Sultan Badlishah (1894-1958; reigned 1943–1958), who later became the 28th Sultan of Kedah.[1] Of Malay and Thai descent, his mother was the Kedah-born princess Tunku Sofiah binti Tunku Mahmud (born 1899), who died in an automobile accident on 28 February 1934. Abdul Halim's maternal grandfather, Tunku Mahmud, was once Raja Muda (heir presumptive) to the throne of Kedah.[2]

He was educated at Alor Merah and Titi Gajah Malay schools and Sultan Abdul Hamid College in Alor Star between 1946 and 1948. He went on to Wadham College, Oxford and obtained a Diploma in Social Science and Public Administration.[1] He subsequently joined the Kedah Administrative Service, serving in the Alor Star district office and later, the state treasury.[3]

Reign as Sultan of KedahEdit

On 6 August 1949, Tuanku Abdul Halim was appointed Raja Muda or heir apparent, and acceded as the twenty-eighth Sultan of Kedah on his father's death on 14 July 1958.[4] He was installed at the Balai Besar, Kota Star Palace in Alor Star on 20 February 1959, in a ceremony not held since 1710.[5]

Golden Jubilee celebrationsEdit

On 15 July 2008, Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah celebrated his Golden Jubilee as the Sultan of Kedah. He is only the fourth Sultan in a line of 28 Sultans who have celebrated 50 years of reign in Kedah.[6]

In conjunction with the Golden Jubilee, 15 July 2008 was declared as a public holiday for the whole state of Kedah.[7] A ceremony of handing over the contributions in conjunction with the Golden Jubilee was held at the Istana Anak Bukit on 6 July 2008 by Kedah Chief Minister Azizan Abdul Razak. Throughout the whole week of the Golden Jubilee, various events were held to commemorate the Sultan.

Reign as King of MalaysiaEdit

First election as Deputy Yang Di-Pertuan AgongEdit

Tuanku Abdul Halim (as he became) served as Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 21 September 1965 to 20 September 1970.

First election as Yang Di-Pertuan AgongEdit

 
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong in a carriage with Elizabeth II on a state visit to London, 1974.

Tuanku Abdul Halim was elected as the fifth Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia and served his term in office from 21 September 1970 to 20 September 1975. He was the third youngest monarch to ascend the throne of Yang di-Pertuan Agong after Tuanku Syed Putra of Perlis and Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu.

During his kingship, Tuanku Abdul Halim presided over the first transfer of power of the civilian government when his uncle, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman resigned in favour of his deputy Tun Abdul Razak. Tunku Abdul Rahman had felt that he should not serve under a nephew, given strict Malay royal protocol, but agreed to stay on as prime minister for one day of Tuanku Abdul Halim's reign.[8]

Second election as Deputy Yang Di-Pertuan AgongEdit

On 2 November 2006, Tuanku Abdul Halim was for the second time elected Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong to serve a five-year term. He is the first person to have been elected twice to this office.

Second election as Yang Di-Pertuan AgongEdit

In October 2011, Abdul Halim was elected to serve a second term as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which commenced on 13 December 2011. He is the first regnant sultan to hold the position twice.[9] He is also the oldest Malay Ruler to be installed as Yang di-Pertuan Agong at 84 years and 15 days old, surpassing the previous record holder, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz of Selangor, who was installed at 73 years and 49 days old. He was officially installed on 11 April 2012 at Istana Negara.

During his tenure as Yang Di Pertuan Agong, a Council of Regency consisting of his brothers Tunku Annuar (d. May 2014), Tunku Sallehuddin, Tunku Abdul Hamid Thani, and daughter Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz was assigned to discharge Abdul Halim's duties as Sultan of Kedah.[10] His tenure as Yang Di Pertuan Agong ended on 12 December 2016.

Family lifeEdit

Tuanku Abdul Halim had two wives:

1. Sultanah Bahiyah, daughter of Tuanku Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan, married 1956. She served as Sultanah of Kedah (1958-2003) and Raja Permaisuri Agong (1970-1975). She died on 26 August 2003 at Istana Kuala Cegar in Alor Star.[11] They had three daughters:

  • Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Highness) Tunku Soraya (born 30 April 1960), now known as Duli Yang Amat Mulia, Raja Puan Muda Perak.
  • Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Highness) Tunku Sarina (30 April 1960 - 31 August 1991)
  • Yang Teramat Mulia (Her Highness) Brigadier-General Tunku Puteri Dato' Seri Diraja Intan Safinaz binti Tuanku AlHaj Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah, Tunku Panglima Besar Kedah and Member of the Kedah Regency Council (born 22 July 1966). She is the Tunku Temenggong of Kedah.[12]

Through Tunku Soraya, who married Duli Yang Amat Mulia Raja Iskandar Zulkarnain, son of Sultan Idris Shah II of Perak and current Raja di-Hilir Perak (the Heir Presumptive of Perak), they had three grandsons and two granddaughters:

  • Yang Amat Mulia (His Highness) Raja Nabil Imran Aziz (born 1984)
  • Yang Amat Mulia (His Highness) Raja Idris Shah (born 1989)
  • Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness) Raja Sarina Intan Bahiyah (born 1991)
  • Yang Amat Mulia (Her Highness) Raja Safia Azizah (born 1996)
  • Yang Amat Mulia (His Highness) Raja Siffudin Muadzam' Shah (born 2002)

2. Sultanah Haminah, married 1975. A commoner from Perak, she was titled Che Puan Kedah until 9 January 2004 when she was crowned as Sultanah.[13] She served as Raja Permaisuri Agong during his second term as Yang di-Pertuan Agong. They had no children.

DeathEdit

Sultan Abdul Halim died on 11 September 2017, at the age of 89, at Istana Anak Bukit in Alor Setar.[14][15] He was laid to rest at the Langgar Royal Mausoleum in Langgar.[16]

AncestryEdit

Titles and stylesEdit

Styles of
Abdul Halim
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Tuanku
  • 28 November 1927 - 13 May 1943: His Highness (Yang Amat Mulia) Tunku Abdul Halim ibni Tunku Badlishah
  • 13 May 1943 - 6 August 1949: His Highness (Yang Teramat Mulia) Tunku Abdul Halim ibni Sultan Badlishah
  • 6 August 1949 - 15 July 1958: His Highness (Duli Yang Teramat Mulia) Tunku Abdul Halim ibni Sultan Badlishah, The Raja Muda of Kedah
  • 15 July 1958 - 21 September 1970: His Royal Highness (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia) Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, The Sultan of Kedah
  • 21 September 1970 - 20 September 1975: His Majesty (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda) Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, The Yang di-Pertuan Agong V
  • 20 September 1975 - 13 December 2011: His Royal Highness (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia) Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, The Sultan of Kedah
  • 13 December 2011 – 12 December 2016: His Majesty (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda) Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, The Yang di-Pertuan Agong XIV
  • 13 December 2016 – 11 September 2017: His Majesty (Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia) Maulana Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, The Sultan of Kedah

His style and title in full on 13 December 2016 became: Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Maulana Al-Sultan Al-Mu'tassimu Billahi Muhibbudin Tuanku Alhaj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, Sultan Negeri Kedah Darul Aman dan Jajahan Takluknya (His Majesty Maulana Al-Sultan Almu'tasimu Billahi Muhibbudin Tuanku Al-Haj Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah, the Sultan of Kedah Abode of Peace and it’s Territories).

Military gradesEdit

Tuanku Abdul Halim held the rank of Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force[17] in his previous constitutional duties as Commander-in-Chief of the Malaysian Armed Forces as well as the ranks of Field Marshal of the Malaysian Army and Admiral of the Fleet of the Royal Malaysian Navy. Since 1972 he was the Royal Malay Regiment's Colonel-in-Chief, and also performed the same functions for the Malaysian Army's Royal Service Corps.

HonoursEdit

National and State HonoursEdit

Foreign HonoursEdit

Structures, buildings and institutionsEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Information Malaysia. Berita Publ. Sdn. Bhd. 1985. 
  2. ^ Finestone, Jeffrey and Shaharil Talib (1994) The Royal Families of South-East Asia Shahindera Sdn Bhd
  3. ^ Ibrahim Ismail (1987) Sejarah Kedah Sepintas Lalu p209 Penerbit UUM
  4. ^ (3 November 2006) Bernama Online
  5. ^ Ibrahim Ismail (1987) Op Cit pp 214–218
  6. ^ (July 14, 2008) Bernama Online
  7. ^ (July 6, 2008) Bernama Online
  8. ^ Tunku Abdul Rahman (1977) Looking Back p346 Pustaka Antara, Kuala Lumpur
  9. ^ "Sultan of Kedah to be next Yang di-Pertuan Agong, for second time". The Malaysian Insider. 14 October 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 
  10. ^ "Kedah Sultan Reminds Council of Regency To Carry Out Duties With Honesty". Bernama. 12 December 2011. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  11. ^ ( 26 August 2003) Utusan Malaysia
  12. ^ a b Royal Ark
  13. ^ (10 January 2004) Bernama Online
  14. ^ Mohd. Rafie Azimi (11 September 2017). "Sultan Kedah mangkat" [The sultan of Kedah passed away] (in Malay). Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  15. ^ "Kedah's Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim passes away". The Star. 11 September 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  16. ^ "Almarhum Sultan Kedah Dimakamkan Di Makam Diraja Langgar". Addin (in Malay). 12 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017. 
  17. ^ "Photographs of Tuanku Abdul Halim, Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia". Janus. Retrieved 2011-04-26. 
  18. ^ Photo of Sultan Abdul Halim and Sultanah Haminah
  19. ^ a b List of Malay rulers (as of January 2013) with details of orders
  20. ^ Badraie Archived 2004-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Article (in Malay) evoking the awarding of decorations

External linksEdit

Abdul Halim of Kedah
House of Kedah
Born: 14 July 1927 Died: 11 September 2017
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Badlishah
Sultan of Kedah
1958–2017
Succeeded by
Mahmud Sallehuddin
Preceded by
Ismail Nasiruddin
Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
1970–1975
Succeeded by
Yahya Petra
Preceded by
Mizan Zainal Abidin
Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
2011–2016
Succeeded by
Muhammad V