Order of the Chrysanthemum

The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章, Dai-kun'i kikka-shō) is Japan's highest order. The Grand Cordon of the Order was established in 1876 by Emperor Meiji of Japan; the Collar of the Order was added on 4 January 1888. Unlike its European counterparts, the order may be conferred posthumously.

Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
大勲位菊花章
Dai-kun'i kikka-shō
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum.png
Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
Awarded by the Emperor of Japan
Country Japan
Awarded forExceptionally meritorious achievement/service
StatusCurrently constituted
Founder27 December 1876; 146 years ago (1876-12-27)
SovereignHM The Emperor
GradesCollar
Grand Cordon
Precedence
Next (lower)Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Order Chrysantemum Sash.svg
Ribbon of the Order

Apart from the Imperial Family, only seven Japanese citizens have ever been decorated with the collar in their lifetimes; the last such award was to former Prime Minister Saionji Kinmochi in 1928. Eight others have been posthumously decorated with the collar; the last such award was to former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2022.[1] Today, only the reigning Emperor holds this dignity as sovereign of the order; however, exceptions are made for foreign heads of state, who can be awarded the collar in friendship.

The grand cordon is the highest possible honour a Japanese citizen can be awarded during his or her lifetime. Aside from members of the Imperial Family, 53 Japanese citizens have been decorated with the grand cordon; of these, only 23 were living at the time of receipt.

InsigniaEdit

The collar of the order is made of gold, and features the kanji for "Meiji", in classic form, indicating the era of the order's establishment. It is decorated with gold chrysanthemum blossoms and green-enamelled leaves.

The sash of the grand cordon of the order is red with dark blue border stripes. It is worn on the right shoulder.

The star of the order is similar to the badge, but in silver, without the chrysanthemum suspension, and with an eight-pointed gilt medallion (with white-enamelled rays and red-enamelled sun disc) placed at the centre. It is worn on the left chest.

The badge of the order is a four-pointed gilt badge with white-enamelled rays; the centre bears a red enamelled sun disc. On each of the four corners of the badge is a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum blossom with green-enamelled chrysanthemum leaves. The badge is suspended on a yellow-enamelled chrysanthemum, either on the collar or on the grand cordon.

Ribbon bars
 
Collar
 
Grand Cordon

GradesEdit

Name and image Enactment date Purpose of the award

Collar of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
4 January 1888 It is said to be "a special gift for those decorated with the Supreme Order."[2][a]

Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum

badge (top), star (bottom right), rosette (bottom left)
27 December 1876 "Specially awarded... to those who have excellent merit, above the merit for which the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun or the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasures would be awarded".[3]

Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum
27 December 1876 It has never been awarded on its own, instead it has been treated as the star of the Grand Cordon and of the Collar;

officially incorporated as the star of both grades in the 2003 institutional reform.

SovereignsEdit

  • Emperor Meiji (Sovereign from 27 December 1876)
  • Emperor Taishō (Grand Cordon 3 November 1889; Collar 10 May 1900; Sovereign from 30 July 1912)
  • Emperor Shōwa (Grand Cordon 9 September 1912; Collar as Regent 24 September 1921; Sovereign from 25 December 1926)
  • Emperor Akihito (Grand Cordon 10 November 1952; Sovereign from 7 January 1989 to 30 April 2019)
  • Emperor Naruhito (Grand Cordon 23 February 1980; Sovereign since 1 May 2019)

Awards of the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum to members of the Imperial Family and royaltyEdit

Awards made to imperial princes while livingEdit

Posthumous awards to imperial princesEdit

Posthumous award to foreign royaltyEdit

Awards of the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum to members of the Imperial Family and royaltyEdit

Awards made to imperial princes while livingEdit

Posthumous awards to imperial princesEdit

Awards to foreign royaltyEdit

Ordinary awards of the Collar of the Order of the ChrysanthemumEdit

 
Marshal-Admiral Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, with the Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum. Tōgō was one of only seven subjects to whom the Collar was awarded while living.

Awards made to living individualsEdit

Posthumous awardsEdit

* : Awarded with the Grand Cordon[4]

Ordinary awards of the Grand Cordon of the Order of the ChrysanthemumEdit

Awards made to living recipientsEdit

 
Marquis Saigō Tsugumichi
* : Later awarded the Collar
⁑ : Posthumously awarded the Collar

Posthumous awardsEdit

 
Masayoshi Ōhira
* : Awarded with the Collar[4]

Foreign recipients of the Order of the ChrysanthemumEdit

CollarEdit

Grand CordonEdit

Collar (deceased)Edit

 
Dwight D. Eisenhower

Grand Cordon (deceased)Edit

 
Benito Mussolini

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ すなわち、大勲位菊花大綬章受章者であることが授与の条件である。(In other words, being a recipient of the Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a prerequisite for the award.)
  2. ^ Promoted from Grand Cordon in 1987.
  3. ^ Decoration probably conferred during 1969 State Visit to Japan – no specific citation support.
  4. ^ Promoted from Grand Cordon awarded in 1955.
  5. ^ Awarded October 1887.[22]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Japan honors ex-PM Abe with highest decoration, wake held in Tokyo". Archived from the original on 11 July 2022. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  2. ^ Article 2.1, Imperial Ordinance No. 1 of Meiji 21st (1881) (Order of the Precious Crown and Collar of the Supreme Chrysanthemum) (明治21年勅令第1号(宝冠章及大勲位菊花章頸飾ニ関スル件)2条1項, Meiji 21-nen Chokurei dai-1-go (Hōkanshō oyobi dai-kun’i kikka-shō keishoku ni kansuru ken) 2-jō 1-kō)
  3. ^ 勲章の授与基準、2003年(平成15年)5月20日閣議決定 [Criteria for awarding medals, Cabinet decision, as of 20 May 2003 (Heisei 15th year)] (PDF). 20 May 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 November 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b 安倍元首相に「大勲位菊花章頸飾」授与決定 戦後4人目 (in Japanese). NHK. 11 July 2022. Archived from the original on 11 July 2022. Retrieved 12 July 2022.
  5. ^ Ye Wanyong. Kotobank
  6. ^ "外国人叙勲受章者名簿 平成26年 (Gaikokujin jokun jushō-sha meibo Heisei 26-nen (2014))" [Non-Japanese honoree, 2014 (Heisei 26th Year)]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  7. ^ "King Salman to hold talks with Japanese premier today". Arab News. 13 March 2017. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  8. ^ Order awarded 5 Oct. 1971: "Regiments: British, Empire, Commonwealth". Archived from the original on 23 January 2008.
  9. ^ "Danish Crown Prince website". Archived from the original on 19 May 2012.
  10. ^ "H.K.H. Prins Joachim". Kongehuset (in Danish). 28 October 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  11. ^ "外国人叙勲受章者名簿 平成22年 (Gaikokujin jokun jushō-sha meibo 2010 (Heisei 22-nen) )" [Non-Japanese Honoree, 2010 (Heisei 22nd Year)]. www.mofa.go.jp. Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Japan). Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  12. ^ Order awarded 26 May 1994, mentioned in his biography in : The official publication (PDF). the Belgian Senate. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  13. ^ "外国人叙勲受章者名簿 平成25年 (Gaikokujin jokun jushōsha meibo Heisei 25-nen)" [Non-Japanese Honorees, 2013 (Heisei 25th year)]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 5 December 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  14. ^ "President of the Republic of Lithuania – Biography". Government of Lithuania. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
  15. ^ "Polish presidential web page". 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 16 August 2007.
  16. ^ "The Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Japan". 15 November 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2009. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  17. ^ "外国人叙勲受章者名簿 平成29年 (Gaikokujin jokun jushōsha meibo Heisei 29-nen)" [Non-Japanese Honoree, 2017]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  18. ^ During the visit of Prince Komatsu Akihito to the UK in June 1902 to attend his coronation – "Court Circular". The Times. No. 36794. London. 14 June 1902. p. 12.
  19. ^ Honor awarded 1930 – "Japan to Decorate King Alfonso Today; Emperor's Brother Nears Madrid With Collar of the Chrysanthemum for Spanish King". New York Times. 3 November 1930. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  20. ^ "Buradayız > Anasayfa > Belgeler > Japon İmparatorunun II. Abdülhamid Han'a Mektubuabdulhamid hana mektup, japon imparatoru mutsuhito" [DOCUMENTS: Japanese Emperor's II. Letter to Abdulhamid Han]. osmanlihanedanvakfi.com (in Turkish). Ottoman Dynasty. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011 – via Source: Seven Continents Magazine.
  21. ^ a b Bortrick, William (2009). "The Royal Family – HM Queen Elizabeth II". Burke's Peerage & Gentry. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009.
  22. ^ "The Martyrs of Turkish Fleet at the Shore of Ooshima" (slides 5–6 – A Brief Introduction to International Yachting Fellowship of Rotarians (PDF). Rotary Mariners. 8 February 2005. Archived from the original (pdf) on 8 February 2005.
  23. ^ Awarded 20 February 1906. Redesdale, Lord (1906). The Garter Mission to Japan. London: Macmillan. p. 26.
  24. ^ Honor awarded 1929 – "Imperial Garter". Time Magazine. 13 May 1929. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010.
  25. ^ Honor awarded in 1938 – "Flower to Mussolini". Time Magazine. 5 September 1938. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010.
  26. ^ Honor awarded in 1924 – "Japan Decorates Obregon; Order of the Chrysanthemum is Conferred by Special Ambassador". New York Times. 28 November 1924. Archived from the original on 12 December 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  27. ^ Honor awarded 1931 – "Mighty Monarch". Time Magazine. 20 April 1931. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008.
  28. ^ Honor awarded 1989 – Weisman, Stephen (24 October 1989). "Reagan Given Top Award by Japanese". New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  29. ^ Vancouver Maritime Museum Archived 5 January 2013 at archive.today
  30. ^ "Marcos arrives for Japan visit". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 2 November 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  31. ^ Marumoto, Masaji (1976). "Vignette of Early Hawaii-Japan Relations: Highlights of King Kalakaua's Sojourn in Japan on His Trip around the World as Recorded in His Personal Diary" (PDF). eVols at University of Hawaii at Manoa. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  32. ^ 刑部, 芳則; Osakabe, Yoshinori (November 2017). "明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (特集 近代の皇室制度 : その運用と課題)" [The Ritual of Decoration Diplomacy in the Meiji Era (Featured : Modern Imperial household system, its implication and challenges)] (pdf). Journal for the Meiji Seitoku Kinen Gakkai. Meiji Seitoku Kinen Gakkai (明治聖徳記念学会) (54): 139–171. ISSN 0916-0655. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.; (明治聖徳記念学会紀要)
  33. ^ Quismundo, Tarra (3 June 2015). "Aquino gets Japan's highest honor from imperial family". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Tokyo. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 3 June 2015.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit