2019 Philippine House of Representatives elections
All 306 seats in the House of Representatives of the Philippines.
154 seats needed for a majority
Candidates were expected to be either for or against President Rodrigo Duterte. As the Philippines has a multi-party system, those who are for (or against) Duterte may find themselves running against each other. Other districts that may be seen as safe seats may see a candidate elected unopposed. Several seats have not been apportioned since 1907, gerrymandering on some newly-apportioned seats and entrenchment of political dynasties make competitive races in so-called swing seats rare. The Liberal Party is expected to lead the opposition against PDP-Laban.
The Philippines uses parallel voting for its lower house elections. There are currently 297 seats in the House; 238 of these are district representatives, and 59 are party-list representatives. Philippine law mandates that there should be one party-list representative for every four district representatives. District representatives are elected under the plurality voting system from single-member districts. Party-list representatives are elected via the nationwide vote with a 2% "soft" election threshold, with a 3-seat cap. The party in the party-list election with the most votes usually wins three seats, the other parties with more than 2% of the vote two seats, and the parties with less than 2% of the vote winning a seat each if the 20% quota is not met.
Campaigning for elections from congressional districts seats are decidedly local; the candidates are most likely a part of an election slate that includes candidates for other positions in the locality, and slates may comprise different parties. The political parties contesting the election make no attempt to create a national campaign.
Party-list campaigning, on the other hand, is done on a national scale. Parties usually attempt to appeal to a specific demographic. Polling is usually conducted for the party-list election, while pollsters may release polls on specific district races. In district elections, pollsters do not attempt to make forecasts on how many votes a party would achieve, nor the number of seats a party would win; they do attempt to do that in party-list elections, though.
Contesting district electionsEdit
|Party||Leader||House leader||Support of Duterte's policies||Total seats||Current bloc|
|PDP-Laban||President Rodrigo Duterte||Speaker Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (Pampanga)||Very supportive||94||Majority except for 2 with the minority.|
|Nacionalista||Manny Villar||Deputy Speaker Pia Cayetano (Taguig)||Supportive||37||Majority except for 1 with the minority.|
|NPC||Danding Cojuangco||Arnulfo Fuentebella (Camarines Sur)||Generally supportive||33||Majority except for 1 with the minority.|
|NUP||Albert Garcia||Deputy Speaker Fredenil Castro (Capiz)||Generally supportive||28||Majority.|
|Liberal||Vice President Leni Robredo||Teddy Baguilat (Ifugao)||Generally opposed||18||Split; mostly in the independent minority, 5 with the majority.|
|Lakas||Bong Revilla||Minority Leader Danilo Suarez (Quezon)||Nominally opposed||5||Split; mostly in majority except for 1 with the minority.|
The seats held by each party were expected to change by the time candidacies were declared in late 2018.
Contesting via the party-list systemEdit
The parties under the Makabayan bloc was formerly supportive of Duterte's policies until Duterte suspended peace talks with the Communist Party of the Philippines. Akbayan is seen as opposed to Duterte's policies. Other parties are generally supportive of Duterte's policies.
Reapportioning the number of seats is done via national reapportionment after the release of every census or via piecemeal redistricting for every province or city. National reapportionment has not happened since the 1987 constitution took effect, and aside from piecemeal redistricting, the apportionment was based on the ordinance from the constitution, which was in turn based from the 1980 census.
|Bill No.||District(s)||Current||Proposed||Notes||Status||Current representative|
|HB 93||Maguindanao–1st||1||2||Separation of Cotabato City to become a lone district.||Pending at the committee level.||Bai Sandra Sema||PDP-Laban|
|HB 147||Bacolod||1||2||Bacolod to be split into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Greg Gasataya||NPC|
|HB 514||Surigao del Norte–2nd||1||2||Surigao del Norte–2nd to be split into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Robert Ace Barbers||Nacionalista|
|HB 990||Laguna–2nd||5||6||Separation of Calamba, Laguna to become a lone district.||Signed into law - RA 11078.||Jun Chipeco Jr.||Nacionalista|
|HB 1219, 5585||Iloilo City||1||2||Iloilo City to be split into two districts.||Approved on third reading; transmitted to the Senate.||Jerry Treñas||NUP|
|HB 1913||Nueva Ecija–2nd||1||2||Nueva Ecija–2nd to be split into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Micaela Violago||NUP|
|HB 2341, 5367||Cavite||7||8||Reapportioning of Cavite's 6th and 7th districts from two districts to three.||Signed into law - RA 11069||Roy Loyola|
Luis Ferrer IV
|HB 2348||Pampanga–1st||1||2||Separation of Angeles, Philippines to become a lone district.||Pending at the committee level.||Carmelo Lazatin II Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo||PDP-Laban|
|HB 2528, 6631||Southern Leyte||1||2||Southern Leyte to be split into two districts.||Signed into law - RA 11198||Roger Mercado||PDP-Laban|
|HB 3431||San Jose del Monte||1||2||San Jose del Monte to be split into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Florida Robes||PDP-Laban|
|HB 4072||Quezon||4||7||Reapportioning of Quezon's districts from four districts to seven.||Pending at the committee level.||Various|
|HB 4523||Cebu–6th||1||2||Separation of Mandaue to become a lone district.||Substituted by HB08511||Jonas Cortes||PDP-Laban|
|HB 4670, 7522||Aklan||1||2||Aklan to be split into two districts.||Signed into law - RA 11077.||Carlito Marquez||NPC|
|HB 4678, 5162||South Cotabato–1st||1||2||Separation of General Santos to become a lone district.||Signed into law - RA 11243.||Pedro Acharon Jr.||NPC|
|HB 4692, 7778||Isabela||4||6||Reapportioning of Isabela's districts from four districts to six.||Signed into law - RA 11080.||Various|
|HB 5040||Zamboanga del Norte–3rd||1||2||Separation of a part of Zamboanga del Norte–3rd to become a province of Zamboanga Hermosa and constituting into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Isagani Amatong||Liberal|
|HB 5186||Maguindanao||2||3||Reapportioning of Maguindanao's districts from two districts to three.||Pending at the committee level.||Various|
|HB 6746||Caloocan–1st||1||3||Caloocan–1st to be split into three districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Dale Malapitan||PDP-Laban|
|HB 6895||Bulacan–1st||1||2||Separation of Malolos City to become a lone district.||Pending at the committee level.||Jose Antonio Sy-Alvarado||NUP|
|HB 7413||Palawan–2nd||1||3||Separation of a part of Palawan's 2nd district to divide the province of Palawan into three separate provinces.||Substituted by HB 8055.||Various|
|HB 7999||Bohol||3||5||Reapportioning of Bohol's districts from three districts to five.||Pending at the committee level.||Erico Aristotle Aumentado||NPC|
|HB 8055||Palawan–2nd||1||3||Separation of a part of Palawan's 2nd district to divide the province of Palawan into three separate provinces.||Signed into law - RA 11259.||Various|
|HB 8433||Laguna||1||2||Separation of Santa Rosa City to become a lone district.||Substituted by HB 9080.||Arlene B. Arcillas||PDP-Laban|
|HB 8511||Cebu–6th||1||2||Separation of a Mandaue to become a lone district.||Signed into law - RA 11257.||Jonas Cortes||PDP-Laban|
|HB 8824||Samar||2||1||Separation of a part of Samar-1st to become a province of Northwestern Samar.||Pending at the committee level.||Edgar Sarmiento||Liberal|
|HB 9080||Laguna||1||2||Separation of Santa Rosa City to become a lone district.||Transmitted to the President for signature.|
|SB 1368||Iloilo City||1||2||Iloilo City to be split into two districts.||Pending at the committee level.||Jerry Treñas||NUP|
|SB 1487||South Cotabato–1st||1||2||Separation of General Santos to become a lone district.||Consolidated/Substituted in the Committee Report||Pedro Acharon Jr.||NPC|
|Approved districts||8||Potential new districts||31|
In total, seven new district seats were created. Two were in Isabela, where the entire province was redistricted from four districts to six, and one each in Cavite, where the sixth and seventh districts were redistricted into three, Aklan and Southern Leyte, which were split into two districts, Laguna, where Calamba was separated from the second district and South Cotabato, where General Santos City was separated from the first district.
As there are now 245 districts; therefore, there are 61 party-list seats (at least 20% of the total), an increase from 58. The 18th Congress shall then have 306 representatives.
Retiring and term-limited incumbentsEdit
These representatives are term-limited, and are thus not allowed to run in 2019:
These representatives are not term limited, but will not run:
- Vicente Alcala (PDP-Laban, Quezon-2nd)
- Running for Governor
- Arlene Arcillas (PDP-Laban, Laguna-1st)
- Running for Mayor of Santa Rosa, Laguna
- Lito Atienza (Buhay Hayaan Yumabong, party-list)
- Jennifer Austria-Barzaga (NUP, Cavite 4th)
- Running for Mayor of Dasmariñas
- Ferjenel Biron (National Unity Party, Iloilo-4th)
- Brion announced in May 2018 that he will run for Governor of Iloilo.
- Juan Pablo Bondoc (PDP-Laban, Pampanga–4th)
- Pia Cayetano, (Nacionalista, Taguig–2nd)
- Running for Senator
- Vincent Crisologo (PDP-Laban, Quezon City–1st)
- Running for Mayor of Quezon City
- Anna Katrina Enverga-dela Paz (NPC, Quezon-1st)
- Running for reelection, later withdrew
- Gwendolyn Garcia (PDP-Laban, Cebu–3rd)
- Running for Governor
- Alexandra Gonzales (PDP-Laban, Mandaluyong City)
- Running for reelection, later withdrew
- Datu Zajid Mangudadatu (PDP-Laban, Maguindanao-2nd)
- Running for Senator
- Danilo Suarez (Lakas, Quezon-3rd)
- Running for Governor
- Chiqui Roa-Puno (NUP, Antipolo-1st)
- Not running for reelection
- Monsour del Rosario (PDP-Laban, Makati-1st)
- Running for Vice Mayor
- Gustavo Tambunting (PDP-Laban, Parañaque–2nd)
- Running for reelection, later withdrew
These congressmen left office before their terms expired, and were not replaced. As the 17th Congress has not called for special elections, these seats remain vacant until the sine die adjournment. For party-list representatives, the next person on the list would assume office. In both instances this happened, the next person on the list replaced the person who resigned.
- Tupay Loong (NUP, Sulu-1st)
- Died on June 30, 2016, before taking his oath of office.
- Mark Villar (Nacionalista, Las Piñas)
- Jum Jainudin Akbar (Liberal, Basilan)
- Died on November 11, 2016.
- Maximo Dalog (Liberal, Mountain Province)
- Died on June 3, 2017.
- Henedina Abad (Liberal, Batanes)
- Died on October 8, 2017.
These are the marginal seats that had a winning margin of 5% or less, in ascending order.
Held by PDP–LabanEdit
Held by other partiesEdit
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|PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power)||12,564,335||31.28%||29.38%||127||94||82||26.80%||12|
|Nacionalista (Nationalist Party)||6,554,911||16.32%||6.90%||69||37||42||13.73%||5|
|NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition)||5,644,007||14.05%||2.99%||61||33||36||11.76%||3|
|NUP (National Unity Party)||3,852,909||9.59%||0.08%||42||28||25||8.17%||3|
|Liberal (Liberal Party)||2,321,759||5.78%||35.94%||26||18||18||5.88%|
|Lakas (People Power–Christian Muslim Democrats)||1,928,716||4.80%||3.26%||29||5||11||3.59%||6|
|PFP (Federal Party of the Philippines)||964,929||2.40%||2.40%||32||2||5||1.63%||3|
|HNP (Faction of Change)||651,502||1.62%||1.62%||6||3||3||0.98%|
|Aksyon (Democratic Action)||398,616||0.99%||0.39%||6||0||1||0.33%||1|
|PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses)||396,614||0.99%||0.78%||9||1||1||0.33%|
|Bukidnon Paglaum (Hope for Bukidnon)||335,628||0.84%||0.49%||3||2||2||0.65%|
|PDDS (Noble Blood Association of Federalists)||262,509||0.65%||0.65%||31||0||0||0.00%|
|LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos)||252,806||0.63%||0.33%||3||3||2||0.65%||1|
|UNA (United Nationalist Alliance)||207,244||0.52%||6.10%||7||0||0||0.00%|
|HTL (Party of the People of the City)||197,024||0.49%||0.35%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|PPP (Palawan's Party of Change)||185,810||0.46%||0.46%||2||0||2||0.65%||2|
|Bileg (Ilocano Power)||158,523||0.39%||0.39%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|PRP (People's Reform Party)||138,014||0.34%||0.34%||2||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Unang Sigaw (First Cry of Nueva Ecija)||120,674||0.30%||0.30%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|KDP (Union of Democratic Filipinos)||116,453||0.29%||0.29%||4||0||0||0.00%|
|Asenso Abrenio (Progress for Abrenians)||115,865||0.29%||0.29%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Kambilan (Shield and Fellowship of Kapampangans)||107,078||0.27%||0.27%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|Padayon Pilipino (Onward Filipinos)||98,450||0.25%||0.09%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|Asenso Manileño (Progress for Manilans)||84,656||0.21%||0.29%||2||0||2||0.65%||2|
|Kusog Bicolandia (Force of Bicol)||82,832||0.21%||0.21%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines)||81,741||0.20%||0.17%||1||0||1||0.33%||1|
|Navoteño (Navotas Party)||80,265||0.20%||0.20%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress)||65,836||0.16%||0.03%||1||1||1||0.33%|
|PDSP (Philippine Social Democratic Party)||56,223||0.14%||0.14%||3||0||0||0.00%|
|Bagumbayan-VNP (New Nation-Volunteers for a New Philippines)||33,731||0.08%||0.08%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|KBL (New Society Movement)||33,594||0.08%||0.45%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|AZAP (Forward Zamboanga Party)||28,605||0.07%||0.07%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|WPP (Labor Party Philippines)||9,718||0.02%||0.00%||2||0||0||0.00%|
|DPP (Democratic Party of the Philippines)||1,110||0.00%||0.00%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|HSS (Surigao Sur Party)||816||0.00%||0.00%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party)||701||0.00%||0.01%||1||0||0||0.00%|
|Registered voters (without overseas voters)||61,843,771||100%||11.48%|
A. ^ Totals exclude the two legislative districts of Southern Leyte and the two legislative districts of South Cotabato. Elections for these seats will be held within six months of the 2019 general election, after they were reapportioned after the filing of candidacies was made.
|Source: Commission on Elections|
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