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Polish złoty

  (Redirected from Zloty)

The zloty (pronounced [ˈzwɔtɨ] (About this sound listen);[2] sign: ; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland. The modern złoty is subdivided into 100 groszy (singular: grosz; alternative plural form: grosze). The recognized English form of the word is zloty, plural zloty or zlotys.[3] The currency sign, zł, is composed of the Polish lower-case letters z and ł (Unicode: U+007A z LATIN SMALL LETTER z & U+0142 ł LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH STROKE).

Polish złoty
Polski złoty  (Polish)
200zl r.jpg Polish 5-Zloty coin (1994).gif
200-złotych banknote obverse (1994 series) 5-złotych coin obverse
ISO 4217
Code PLN
Denominations
Subunit
 ​1100 Grosz
Plural There are many ways to construct plurals in Polish. See the notes below.
The language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Symbol
 Grosz gr
Banknotes 10zł, 20zł, 50zł, 100zł, 200zł, 500zł
Coins 1gr, 2gr, 5gr, 10gr, 20gr, 50gr, 1zł, 2zł, 5zł
Demographics
User(s) Poland
Issuance
Central bank National Bank of Poland
 Website www.nbp.pl
Mint Mennica Polska
 Website www.mennica.com.pl
Valuation
Inflation −0.5%
 Source [1] (July 2016)

As a result of inflation in the early 1990s, the currency underwent redenomination. Thus, on January 1, 1995, 10,000 old złotych (PLZ) became one new złoty (PLN). Since then, the currency has been relatively stable, with an exchange rate fluctuating between 3 and 4 złoty for a United States dollar.

Contents

Before the złotyEdit

The predecessors of the złoty were the Polish mark (grzywna) and a kopa. Grzywna was a currency that was equivalent to approximately 210 g of silver, in the 11th century. It was used until sometime in the 14th century, when it gave way to the Kraków grzywna (approximately 198 g of silver). At the same time, first as the complement to grzywna, and then as the main currency, came a grosz and a kopa. Poland made grosz as the imitation of the Prague groschen; the idea of kopa came from the Czechs as well. A grzywna was worth 48 groszy; a kopa cost 60 groszy.[4][5][6]

First ZłotyEdit

Kingdom of Poland and Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthEdit

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth first issued złoty banknotes on 8 June 1794 under the authority of Tadeusz Kościuszko. The 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 złotych are depicted above. The latter two are very rare.

The złoty (golden) is a traditional Polish currency unit dating back to the late Middle Ages. Initially, in the 14th and 15th centuries, the name was used for all kinds of foreign gold coins used in Poland, most notably Venetian and Hungarian ducats, (however, in Ukraine, Volyn and Galicia, the name for them were the золотий - golden).[7] One złoty at the very beginning of their introduction cost 12–14 groszy; however, grosz had less and less silver as time passed. In 1496 the Sejm approved the creation of a national currency, the złoty, and its value was set at 30 groszy, a coin minted since 1347 and modelled on the Prague groschen, and a ducat (florin), whose value was ​1 12 złoty.[8] The 1:30 proportion stayed (​12 of a kopa), but the grosz became cheaper and cheaper, because the proportion of silver in the coin alloy diminished over time. In the beginning of the 16th century, 1 złoty was worth 32 groszy; by the middle of the same century it was 50 groszy;[9] by the reign of Sigismund III Vasa 1 złoty was worth 90 groszy, while a ducat was worth 180 groszy.

The name złoty (sometimes referred to as the florin) was used for a number of different coins, including the 30-groszy coin called the polski złoty, the czerwony złoty (red złoty) and the złoty reński (the Rhine guilder), which were in circulation at the time. However, the value of the Polish złoty dropped over time relative to these foreign coins, and it became a silver coin, with the foreign ducats eventually circulating at approximately 5 złotych.

The matters were complicated by the extremely intricate system of coins, with denominations as low as ​ 13 groszy and as high as 12,960 groszy fit into one coin. There were no usual decimal denominations we use today: the system used 4, 6, 8, 9 and 18 groszy, which are now most uncommon. Moreover, there was no central mint, and, apart from Warsaw mint, there were the Gdańsk, Elbląg and Kurland (Riga) separate mints which did not produce the same denomination coins with the same materials. For example, the szeląg had 1.3g of copper while minted in either Kraków or Warsaw, but the local Gdańsk and Elbląg mints made it using only 0.63g of copper. This facilitated forgeries and wreaked havoc in the Polish monetary system

Following the monetary reform carried out by King Stanisław II Augustus which aimed to simplify the system, the złoty became Poland's official currency and the exchange rate of 1 złoty to 30 groszy was confirmed. The king established the system which was based on the Cologne mark (233.855 g of pure silver). Each mark was divided into 10 Conventionsthaler of the Holy Roman Empire, and 1 thaler was worth 8 złotych (consequently, 1 złoty was worth 4 grosze. The system was in place until 1787. Two devaluations of the currency occurred in the years before the final partition of Poland.

After the third partition of Poland, the name złoty existed only in Austrian and Russian lands. Prussia had introduced the mark instead.

Coins of Poland after the monetary reform of 1526–1528 and up to 1795
Name Value (in groszy) Introduced by Minted in Material Weight (in grams) Photos or graphics Notes
denar 118–​110 grosza Bolesław I the Brave 11th century – 1653 After 1527: copper 0.33 g (Sigismund III Vasa's coin);

0.53 g(John II Casimir)

 
Gdańsk Denar, 1573
Smallest coin in use
ternar 16 grosza Władysław II Jagiełło 14th century – 1407 (1414); 1526–1529; 1545–1548; 1623 1526 coins: silver(18%) alloy;

1623 coins: silver(7.8%) alloy;

0.57 g
szeląg 13 grosza Stefan Batory 1579–1627; 1659–1666; 1749–1792 Silver alloy (15.929%); copper from 1658 1.13 g (Stefan Batory szeląg);

1.3 g (boratynka)

0.62 g(local coins, such as the Gdańsk grosz)

 
Sigismund III Vasa szeląg
The John Casimir szeląg is also called boratynka
półgrosz 12 grosza Władysław II Jagiełło 1398 – early 17th century; 1766–1795 In 1393–1414 (in Lwów): silver alloy (up to 56.2%); then 43.7%.

In Kraków: either heavier with 50% silver or lighter with 37.5% silver.

From 1766 copper.

Kraków: 1.58 g (50% silver) or 0.96 g (37.5% silver);

Stanisław II Augustus: 1.95 g

 
Półgrosz obverse, 1548
 
Półgrosz reverse, 1548
grosz srebrny 1 grosz srebrny = ​7 12 groszy miednych Stanisław II Augustus 1764–1795 36.7% silver alloy 1.99 g ?
grosz

(grosz miedziany from Stanisław II Augustus' reign)

1 grosz Casimir III the Great 1367–1849; 1918–present Casimir III Great: brass coins; later copper 1.3(Kurland grosz) or 3.4 grams("Kingdom" grosz);

3.89 g(Stanisław II Augustus)

 
Grosz, 1536
 
Grosz of Sigismund III Vasa, 1626
 
Latin: «GROSI CRACOVIENSESS» («Kraków grosz»); Casimir III the Great
 
Latin: "DEI GRATIA REX POLONIE", "KAZIMIRUS PRIMUS" ("By the grace of God, King of Poland", "Casimir I")
The base of the currency
półtorak 1 12 grosza Sigismund III Vasa 1614-1660; in the John II Casimir Vasa and Augustus III reigns Silver (46.9%) alloy 1.09 g(Augustus III)
 
Półtorak. Different designs of 17th century
Created as an intermediate between grosz and trojak
dwojak 2 grosze Sigismund II Augustus Around the 1520s; sporadically later; more minted at John II Casimir Vasa's reign; 1766–84; 1923–1939; 1954– Sigismund I the Old: silver

Sigismund II Augustus: silver

Stanisław II: 58.7% silver alloy

1.8 g (Sigismund I the Old)

ca. 3.5 g (Sigismund II Augustus);

3.4 g(Stanisław II Augustus)

trojak 3 grosze Sigismund I the Old 1528–1849 Silver, most copper from Stanisław II Augustus' reign;

some Gdańsk coins are copper

2.16 g("Kingdom" trojak)

1.53 g(Gdańsk trojak); 11.69 g(Stanisław Augustus)

1.52 g(silver Gdańsk and Toruń trojak)

 
Trojak of Stefan Batory, 1580
Also called "dutka", "babka", "dydek" in Lithuania
czworak 4 grosze Sigismund II Augustus 1565–1568; 1614; 1766–95 Silver;

55% silver alloy(Stanisław II Augustus)

4.29 g;

5.51 g(Stanisław II Augustus)

szóstak 6 groszy Sigismund I the Old 1528–1795 Silver 2.34 g(Toruń szóstak)

2.94 g(Gdańsk and Elbląg szóstak);

3.7 g(Kurland szóstak)

4.32 g("Kingdom" szóstak); in 1794-95 1.52 g

 
Szóstak
2 złote [Stanisław II and Augustus III] 8 groszy Augustus III 1753-1795 62.67% silver alloy 9.35 g(Stanisław II)

7.31 g(Augustus III)

półurcie 9 groszy ? ? ? ?
10 copper Kingdom groszy 10 groszy Stanisław II Augustus 1787-95 37.3% silver alloy 2.49 g, then 4.48 g
ort 18 groszy Sigismund III Vasa 1608–1766 Silver Augustus III reign:

5.84 g("Kingdom")

6.1 g or 7.7 g (Gdańsk)

 
Obverse, Sigismund III Vasa; Gdańsk mint, 1618
 
Reverse with the Gdańsk coat of arms, 1618
Coins of 1618 were minted by Stanisław Berman
półkopek 30 groszy;

Stanisław II Augustus' złoty - 4 grosze

Sigismund II Augustus 1564–1841 Silver alloy (49.955%) 6.726 g(John III Sobieski)

5.84 g("Kingdom") or 6.1 g(Gdańsk) tymf;

złotówka gdańska: 9.85 g

 
Złoty of 1663
From 1663 on also called tymf
kopa 60 groszy = 2 złote ? ? Silver ?
półtalar 15–120 groszy (de facto 15–290, more expensive as time passed) Sigismund II Augustus 1567–1794 Silver ca. 12.5 g;

14.62 g(Augustus III reign);

14.03 g, later 13.07 g(Stanisław II Augustus)

 
Półtalar of Gdańsk, 1577
 23 of talar only commemorative Augustus III 1738; 1747 Silver
talar 30–240 groszy (de facto 30–580, more expensive as time passed) Sigismund I the Old 1533; 1580–1795 Silver;

83.3% silver alloy(from 1766)

ca. 24.3–29.3 g
 
Stefan Batory talar, 1578
2 talars 480 groszy(de facto 1160 groszy) Augustus III 1740 Silver 58 g
dukat (florin) 45–1,080 groszy Władysław Łokietek Early 14th century–1831 Gold;

98.6% gold alloy(1766–95)

3.46-3.5 g in the second half of 18th century
 
The first red złoty of Władysław I the Elbow-high was issued in the 1320s.
 
40 ducats of Sigismund III Vasa; Latin: "Poloniæ et Suegiæ rex"(The King of Poland and Sweden)
 
The last red złoty, the "insurgent ducat" of 1831
2 ducats Augustus III 1753-4 Gold 7 g
6 ducats Augustus III 1742 Gold 21 g
portugał 10 ducats Sigismund II Augustus 1562–1652 Gold 35 g(Augustus III)
 
Riga portugał of Stefan Batory
 
15 ducats, Sigismund III Vasa (Portugał), 1617
12 ducats Augustus III 1740 Gold 29.17 g
półaugustdor 2 12 talars = 600 groszy (de jure); 1,450 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 3.32 g
augustdor 5 talars = 1,200 groszy (de jure); 2,900 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 3.32 g
double augustdor 10 talars = 2400 talars (de jure); 5800 groszy (de facto) Augustus III of Poland 1752–1756 Gold 13.3 g
półstanislasdor 27 złotych Stanisław II Augustus 1764–1795 Gold 6.17 g
stanislasdor 54 złotych Stanisław II Augustus 1794–1795 Gold (83%) 12.35 g

The Kościuszko Insurrection and Russian part of Poland until 1807Edit

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth also issued banknotes of smaller denominations, under the authority of Tadeusz Kościuszko. There are 5, 10 gr (1zł=30gr), 1 and 4 zł

On 8 June 1794 the decision of the Polish Supreme Council offered to make the new banknotes as well as the coins. 13 August 1794 was the date when the złoty banknotes were released to public. At the day there was more than 6.65 million złotych given out by the rebels. There were banknotes with the denomination of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 złotych (dated as of 8 June 1794), as well as 5 and 10 groszy, and 1 and 4 złoty coins (later banknotes, dated as of 13 August of the same year. Table)

However, it did not last for long: on 8 November, Warsaw was already held by Russia. Russians discarded all the banknotes and declared them invalid. Russian coins and banknotes replaced the Kościuszko banknotes, but the division on złote and grosze stayed. This can be explained by the fact the Polish monetary system, even in the deep crisis, was better than the Russian stable one, as Poland used the silver standard for coins. That is why Mikhail Speransky offered to come to silver monometalism ("count on the silver ruble") in his work План финансов (Financial Plans, 1810) in Russia. He argued that: "... at the same time ... forbid any other account in Livonia and Poland, and this is the only way to unify the financial system of these provinces in the Russian system, and as well they will stop, at least, the damage that pulls back our finances for so long."

Duchy of WarsawEdit

The złoty remained in circulation after the Partitions of Poland and the Duchy of Warsaw issued coins denominated in grosz, złoty and talar (plurals talary and talarów), worth 6 złoty. Talar banknotes were also issued. In 1813, while Zamość was under siege, Zamość authorities issued 6 grosze and 2 złote coins.

Congress PolandEdit

 
Models of Polish coins under the reign of Alexander I

On 19 November O.S. (1 December N.S.) 1815, the law regarding the monetary system of Congress Poland (in Russia) was passed, according to which the złoty stayed, but there was a fixed ratio of the ruble to the złoty: 1 złoty was worth 15 silver groszy, while 1 grosz was worth ​12 silver kopeck. From 1816, the złoty started being issued by the Warsaw mint, denominated in grosze and złote in the Polish language, as well as the portrait of Alexander I and/or the Russian Empire's coat of arms:

  • 1 and 3 grosze made from copper;(1815–49);
  • 5 and 10 groszy out of billon;(1816–55);
  • 1, 2, 5 and 10 złotych out of silver;(1816–55);
  • 25 (the so-called złoty pojedyńczy, single złoty) and 50 (złoty podwójny; double złoty) złotych out of gold (1817–34).

At the same time kopecks were permitted to be circulated in Congress Poland. In fact foreign coins circulated (of the Austrian Empire and Prussia), and the Polish złoty itself was effectively a foreign currency. The coins were as well used in the western part of the Russian Empire, legally from 1827 (decision of the State Council).

In 1828 the Polish mint was allowed to print banknotes of denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1,000 złotych, on the condition of their guaranteed exchange for coins at the will of Saint Petersburg. That meant that there should have been silver coins that had the value of ​17 of banknotes in circulation.

November UprisingEdit

 
5 złotych from the November Uprising of 1830-1831

At the time of the November Uprising, the rebels released their own "rebellion money" – the golden ducats and silver coins of the denomination of 2 and 5 złotych, with the revolutionary coat of arms, and the copper 3 and 10 groszy. The 1-złoty coin was as well released as a trial coin. The Polish bank, under the control of the rebels, having few precious metal resources in the reserves, released the 1 złoty banknote. They released the 5, 50 and 100 zł banknotes as well, all yellow. By August 1831 735 thousand złotych were released as banknotes. After the defeat of the uprising the decisions from 21 November (3 December) and 18 (30) December cancelled all the uprising monetary politics. All the coins were to be replaced by Russian coins, but it took a long time till the currency was circulating – only in 1838 was the usage of rebel money banned.

The last years of the first złoty of Congress PolandEdit

At the same time the question arose about the future of the Polish złoty, as well as drastically limiting Polish banking autonomy. Russian finance minister Georg von Cancrin suggested to "value everything in rubles, not florins [złoty]".

There was a problem, however. The monetary system in the Russian Empire was still severely unbalanced. Banknotes, for example, cost much less to produce than their denomination. For that reason, the decision was taken to show both currencies on coins, which was a rather mild punishment for the November Uprising. From 1832 on the Petersburg and Warsaw mints decided to start minting new double-denominated coins. The exchange rate was 1 złoty to 15 kopecks.

Coins of Congress Poland nominated in złoty and rubles
Images(obverse/reverse) Denomination zł/gr Denomination ruble/kopeck Material Years of minting in Petersburg mint Years of minting in Warsaw mint
10 groszy 5 kopecks silver 1842 (trial coins)
20 groszy 10 kopecks silver 1842 (trial coins)
40 groszy 20 kopecks silver 1842–48; 1850
50 groszy 25 kopecks silver 1842–48; 1850
   1 złoty 15 kopecks silver 1832-41 1834–41
  2 złote 30 kopecks silver 1834–41
  5 złotych 34 rubles (75 kopecks) silver 1833–41 1834–41
10 złotych 1 12 ruble silver 1833–41 1835–41
20 złotych 3 rubles gold 1834–41 1835–40

In 1841 the main currency of Congress Poland became the Russian ruble.

From 1842, the Warsaw mint already issued regular-type Russian coins along with some coins denominated in both groszy and kopecks. At that time the złoty-to-ruble ratio changed again: 1 ruble was now worth only 2 złote.

The Warsaw mint still issued three coin types: double currency coins (up to 1850), złote and grosze (up to 1865), and the Russian Empire standard coins till 1865. From 1865 the Warsaw mint stopped making coins, and on 1 January 1868 the Warsaw mint was abolished.

The banknotes were changed much faster, as no Polish banknote was in circulation (at least officially). The Polish Bank started issuing Russian banknotes, denominated only in rubles and valid only in Congress Poland. At the same time the national credit banknotes, made in St. Petersburg, could be used everywhere in the Empire as usual Russian banknotes, as well in Poland.

The Free City of Kraków złotyEdit

 
1 złoty, released in Kraków in 1835

Between 1835 and 1846, the Free City of Kraków also used a currency, the Kraków złoty, with the coins actually being made in Vienna. There were 5 and 10 groszy coins and 1 złoty coins. They were all the same: the obverse had the coat of arms and the writing: WOLNE MIASTO KRAKÓW ("Free City of Krakow"), the reverse had the nominal and the year of production.

Poland without the złotyEdit

 
10 Polish marks, 1917

From 1850, the only currency issued for use in Congress Poland was the ruble consisting of Russian currency and notes of the Bank Polski. The monetary system of Congress Poland was unified with that of the Russian Empire following the failed January Uprising in 1863. However, the gold coins remained in use until the early 20th century, much like other gold coins of the era, most notably gold rubles (dubbed świnka, or "piggy") and sovereigns. Following the occupation of Congress Poland by Germany during World War I in 1917, the ruble was replaced by the marka (plurals marki and marek), a currency initially equivalent to the German Papiermark.

Polish currency in 1918–24Edit

New Poland started releasing new currency – Polish marks, after the defeat of the German Empire and Austro-Hungary. The first banknotes had either Tadeusz Kościuszko (5, 10, 100, 1000 marks) or Queen Jadwiga (10 and 500 marks). 1 and 20 marks also circulated, but they showed nobody on the banknotes.

The Polish marka was extremely unstable because of the constant wars with its neighbours. Attempts to reduce the expenditures of Polish budget were vain – all the money gained went to conduct war with the USSR. To complicate the matters, those attempts did not please the elite, which ruled the country. The government's actions were not popular at all, so the taxes did not rise significantly, in order to avoid popular resentment. Even worse, the territories that made up Poland were rightly coined "the country of three parts", as each part of Poland developed differently during the 123 years after Stanisław II Augustus' abdication, with post-Prussian territories the best developed, and Austrian Galicia and Russian Kresy the worst.

The last attempt to save the Polish marka was made in 1921, when Jerzy Michalski made out his own plan to raise taxes and reduce expenditure. The Sejm accepted it, albeit with many amendments. Realisation of that plan did not succeed, and it had only short-term influence.

This disrupted the whole economy of Poland, and galloping inflation began. The ​12 marek and 5,000 marek banknotes became worthless in two years. As hyperinflation progressed, Poland came to print 1, 5 and 10 million mark banknotes. However, they were quickly almost valueless. 10 million marks cost only US$1,073 in January 1924. Immediate action was needed. Władysław Grabski was invited to stop the pending hyperinflation. As a result, the second Polish złoty was created.

Second złotyEdit

Grabski monetary reformEdit

The złoty was reintroduced as Poland's currency by Grabski in 1924, following the hyperinflation and monetary chaos of the years following World War I. It replaced the marka at a rate of 1 złoty = 1,800,000 marek and was subdivided into 100 groszy, instead of 30 groszy, as it had been earlier. 1 złoty was worth 0.2903 grams of gold, and 1 US dollar cost 5.18 złotych. New coins had to be introduced, but were not immediately minted or in circulation. The temporary solution of the problem was ingenious. 500,000 marek banknote were cut in two, and on each side there were overstamps that showed they were 1 grosz "coins". Similarly 10,000,000 marek notes were divided and overprinted to make two "coins" each worth 5 groszy. This was an emergency measure to provide the population with a form of the new currency.

Transition to złotyEdit

When the second złoty was created, it was pegged to the US dollar. The Sejm was weak in its financial control. Yet political parties demanded the government spend more money than had been projected in the budget.

The budget deficit ballooned and out-of-control inflation ensued. The government struggled to cut expenditures, and as a result often came into conflict with the Sejm. However, the government could not allow hyperinflation to reoccur. To achieve that, the government authorised issue of securities, which went along with the temporary "bilety zdawkowe" coins and złoty banknotes printed in 1919.

Polish Banknotes, series 1919
Picture Denomination Size Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of print Date of withdrawal
  1 złoty 93×63 Yellow Tadeusz Kościuszko, denomination in words, date of print Coat of arms, denomination in number 28 February 1919 31 January 1940
  2 złote 115×80 Blue Denomination in number
  5 złotych 125×80 Bright yellow,

orange

Józef Poniatowski, denomination in words, date of print Denomination in words, coat of arms 28 February 1919

15 July 1924

10 złotych 150×88 Yellow Tadeusz Kościuszko, denomination in words, date of print Some agricultural products[dubious ] As portrait 28 February 1919 (not released in public)
  Pink 28 February 1919, 15 July 1924
20 złotych 160×97 White, red around the coat of arms and watermark Denomination in numbers, coat of arms
  50 złotych 165×102 Brown, yellow around denomination in words 28 February 1919
  100 złotych 172×103 Blue
  500 złotych 180×110 Violet and olive
  1000 złotych 183×111 Brown 28 February 1919 (extremely rare, not released in public)
  5000 złotych 190×113 Different shades of green 28 February 1919 (not released in public)
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Polish bilety zdawkowe, 1924-1925, by Wacław Borowski
Picture Denomination Size Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Amount

printed/

overprinted

Date of withdrawal
  1 grosz 156×80 Gray, red overprint Image of 1 grosz coin, Notation from the Polish Bank 28 April 1924 49,171,000 31 January 1925
  5 groszy 199×92 Gray, red overprint Image of 5 groszy coin, 11,361,000
  10 groszy 68×46 Blue Image of 10 groszy coin;

Sigismund's Column, in front of the Royal Castle in Warsaw

27,144,000
  20 groszy 79×49 Brown Image of 20 groszy coin; Nicolaus Copernicus Monument, Warsaw 19,872,000
  50 groszy 85×53 Red Image of 50 groszy coin; Józef Poniatowski Monument, Warsaw 18,839,000
  2 złote 113×80 Olive Denomination, date of print; image of the 2 zł commemorative coin (woman with a bunch of cereals) Denomination; notation from the Polish Bank 1 May 1925 50 mln 31 March 1928

(lapsed 30 June 1930)

  5 złotych 130×80 Olive and yellow Denomination, date of print; image of the 5 zł commemorative Constitution coin Notation from the Polish bank, coat of arms 59,709,000 3 June 1929(lapsed 30 June 1930)
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

By the end of 1925 the Polish government was unable to redeem the released securities. The Polish economy was on the brink of collapse.

 
86. Regiment of Infantry's 1 złoty coin from Mołodeczno

Despite the crisis, Grabski refused to accept foreign help, because he was concerned Poland would become dependent on the League of Nations. The Polish PM thought that after the złoty stabilised, foreign financiers would be persuaded to give credits and make investments on more favourable conditions than were recently on offer. However, deep-rooted lack of confidence in the Polish economy had made these expectations unrealisable. Grabski's government was forced to sell some of the country's property on unfavourable conditions, without any significant effects. Eventually, the złoty depreciated some 50% from its 1923 value and Grabski resigned as Prime Minister. However, renewed hyperinflation was averted.

Coins of II Rzeczpospolita (edge smooth in all coins)
Pictures Denomination Diameter(mm) Thickness(mm) Mass(g) Composition Obverse Reverse Introduced Issued Withdrawn
1 grosz 14.7 1.01 1.5 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923; 1925 1927

1928 1930-1939

1939
2 grosze 17.6 0.96 2 brass Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923 1939
2 grosze 17.6 0.98 2 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1925 1927 1928

1930-1939

1939
  5 groszy 20 1.12 3 brass Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1923 1939
5 groszy 20 1.14 3 bronze Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a simple plant ornament 1923 1925 1928 1930

1931 1934-1939

1939
   10 groszy 17.6 0.92 2 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  20 groszy 20 1.07 3 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  50 groszy 23 1.35 5 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with a complicated bush ornament 1923 1923 1939
  1 złoty 25 1.6 7 nickel Polish coat of arms' eagle, inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting denomination with an ornament 1929 1929 1939
Banknotes of II Rzeczpospolita, series 1925-1939
Pictures Denomination Dimension(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of introduction Date of printing Date of withdrawal Author
1 złoty 108×60 brown Bolesław I the Brave, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" and "Government note" inscriptions, date and place of issue Denomination As portrait 1 October 1938 20 May 1940 Leonard

Sowiński

2 złote 102×63 Gray-yellow Denomination, portrait of a Doubravka of Bohemia, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, Polish coat of arms Value(2 zł) 26 February 1936 Zdzisław Eichler
  5 złotych 127×83 Olive, yellow edges Portrait of a man[who?], denomination, place and date of issue A miner in the tunnel, denomination - 1 May 1925 1 May 1925, 25 October 1926 Wacław Borowski
144×78 Blue Denomination, portrait of a woman[who?], the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, coat of arms, "Bank of Poland" inscription Sigismund I the Old 2 January 1930 2.01.1930 or 26.02.1936 Ryszard Kleczewski
 
10 złotych 160×80 Light brown Denomination, pictures of saints, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A woman with a model ship in her hands, a worker and a female peasant with a bunch of wheat Bolesław I the Brave, 10 ZŁ 20 July 1926 20 July 1926, 20 July 1929 Zdzisław Eichler
  158×80 Green Denomination, a picture of a woman[who?], the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A road in the field that passes between the trees As portrait Never introduced 2 January 1928 ?
  20 złotych 170×94 Obverse: brown, turquoise edges of picture; reverse: violet A female peasant with a bunch of wheat and a male with a spade, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 1 March 1926 1 March 1926, 20 June 1931 Zygmunt Kamiński
  163×86 Violet Portrait of a young girl, denomination, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Morskie Oko lake As portrait Never introduced 2 January 1928 ?
  170×94 Obverse: brown, light blue edges of picture; reverse: blue Fortuna with a bunch of wheat and Hermes with a spade, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 1 September 1929 Zygmunt Kamiński
  163×86 Blue obverse, light green reverse Portrait of Emilia Plater, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A female peasant with a bunch of wheat and two boys, one of which holding a ship, other a hammer, coat of arms and denomination Casimir III the Great, 20 ZŁ 20 June 1931 Ryszard Kleczewski
   Grey and blue Emilia Plater, a woman with two daughters on the left with flowers, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Wawel Castle, Kraków, a figure of an architect and a poet (symbolize knowledge) As portrait and denomination 11 November 1936 Wacław Borowski
  50 złotych 188×99 green, blue and brown Fortuna with a bunch of wheat and Hermes with a rod of Asclepius, denomination, "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Bank of Poland buildings: the one at the left is the former bank building on the Plac Bankowy; the newer one on the Bielańska street. Stefan Batory, 50 złotych 28 August 1925 28 August 1925, 1 September 1929, Zygmunt Kamiński
  169×92 green Jan Henryk Dąbrowski portrait, coat of arms, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A peasant with a bunch of wheat, two women holding a ship, a boy with an airplane and a worker with a hammer As portrait and denomination Never introduced 11 November 1936 Wacław Borowski
100 złotych 175×98 Brown Józef Poniatowski's portrait, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A picture of an oak representing the history of Poland Queen Jadwiga, 100 ZŁ 2 June 1932 2 June 1932, 9 November 1934 Józef Mehoffer
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Poland's economy weakened further to the point it was evident that the system could no longer function. The crisis climaxed in November 1925 leading to the Sanacja coup d'état.

Piłsudski's reformsEdit

In May 1926 a coup d'état was effected. It resulted in Józef Piłsudski becoming the authoritarian leader of Poland. Almost immediately the budget was stabilised. Tax incomes rose significantly, credits were received from the USA, and the Bank of Poland's policy came more strongly under the government's control. These developments prevented the Polish economy's further deterioration.

As had happened earlier in the case of both Austria and Hungary, a special monitoring commission arrived in Poland to analyse the economic situation. The commission was headed by Edwin W. Kemmerer, an American economist and "money doctor".

The złoty started to stabilise in 1926 (thanks chiefly to significant exports of coal), and was re-set on the dollar-złoty rate 50% higher than in 1924. Up to 1933 złoty was freely exchanged into gold and foreign currencies. Based on these developments, the government made the decision to adopt the gold standard for its currency.

In 1924–1925 the banks experienced large capital outflows, but by 1926 people were investing actively in the banks. The economic progress built on increased demand for and exports of coal slowed down because of an over-valued złoty during 1927. As a result, imports became relatively cheaper as compared to exports, resulting in a negative Balance of Trade. Again, Poland plunged into crisis. Economic growth was weak from 1926 to 1929. The main reason for that was the decline of industry, which was influenced by declining demand for Polish items. The crisis deepened with the Great Crisis of 1929–1932 and lasted until the mid-30s.

Polish złoty in 1930sEdit

Poland entered another economic crisis, causing the government again to attempt reduction of its budget deficit by cutting public expenditure other than for military purposes. Despite cutting spending by a third, the deficit persisted. Tax income that should have been used to lead the country out of crisis was instead financing the debt burden. Money required to stimulate the economy was devoted by the government to creditors and foreign banks. Further spending cuts necessitated Poland importing less and exporting more. Import tariffs were increased again for foreign products, while subsidies were given to exporters.

In 1935 Piłusdski died, and the power passed to the generals. They were very disturbed by the crisis. Poland was still an agrarian country with 61% of the population involved in 1931. To reform the economy, the government was thinking about further intervention. As a result, between 1935 and 1939, Poland nationalised its major industries, initiating the changes the communists completed after 1945. Volumes of produced goods output from state-owned factories exceeded expectations. The result was instant - the economy stabilised, and fears of further złoty devaluation reduced while rapid growth was seen. However, World War II abruptly terminated all prosperity. With the Russian invasion from the east the government had to flee the country. Already in emigration, the government released new banknotes of the denomination of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 złotych which were dated by 15 or 20 August 1939 and were mostly cyan, blue or blue-green (with the exception of 1, 2, 10 and 100 złotych). These were printed in the USA but never released.

Banknotes of the Polish government-in-exile, printed in 1939. Never introduced
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Watermark Date of print Designer
1 złoty 72×45 Bright red Denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination None 15 August 1939 Włodzimierz Vacek
  2 złote 82×51 Bright green Denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination, ornament[which?]
  5 złotych 97×60 Blue to cyan Denomination, portrait of a woman in the traditional costume, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Denomination
  10 złotych 141×67 Red Denomination, a picture of a woman with a necklace, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Płock Cathedral As portrait Edouard Meronti
  20 złotych 153×75 Grey to blue Denomination, a picture of a female Silesian with a cross, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue A power plant, behind the typically rural landscape, with haystacks Edmund Dulac
  Obverse: different shades of blue, reverse: grey Denomination, a picture of a girl in the traditional costume, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Saintmost Trinity Church in Leszczyny(now in Palowice) - 20 August 1939 ?
  50 złotych 163×80 cyan A mountain peasant(góral), mountain flowers motive, denomination, Morskie Oko lake, coat of arms As portrait and denomination 15 August 1939 Clément Serveau
  50 złotych A female peasant with a sickle and a bunch of cereals Dunajec River Gorge - 20 August 1939 ?
  100 złotych 171×86 Brown A portrait of a Mazury peasant, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Landscape nearby the Tyniec, near Kraków Portrait of a female on 50 zł(20.08.1939) 15 August 1939 Clément Serveau
  500 złotych 182×89 Grey A portrait of a fisherman with a pipe, denomination, the "Bank of Poland" inscription, date and place of issue Port in Gdynia Edouard Meronti
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Commemorative coins of Second Polish Republic

Cities on top mean that some number of coins was minted in a specific city. Mass in grams, diameter in mm. 1 - From Latin: "Long live the rule of Republic". 2 - a) Coins from 1928(7.5 mln) have an error on milling: "SUPRMA..." b)Most of coins from 1932 were withdrawn and melted.

Denomi-nation Date of release Metal Mass Diameter In circulation Edge Obverse Reverse Paris London Warsaw Birming-ham Phila-delfia Obverse picture Reverse picture
1 złoty 1924-5 Silver(75% alloy) 5 23 1924-1939 rifled A portrait of a woman with bunches of cereal.[10] Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 16 mln 24 mln
2 złote 1924-5 Silver(75% alloy) 10 27 1924-1939 rifled A portrait of a woman with bunches of cereal.[10] Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 8.2 mln

(1924)

1.2 mln

(1924)

8 mln (1924);

5.2 mln

(1925)

   
2 złote 1932-4 Silver(75% alloy) 4,4 22 1932-1939 rifled Portrait of Polonia - a woman signifying Poland.[11] Often mistaken for "a woman in a wreath", "Queen Jadwiga" or "Wanda" Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 25.2 mln    
2 złote 1934

1936

Silver(75% alloy) 4,4 22 1932-1939 rifled Portrait of Józef Piłsudski.[10] Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 10.5 mln    
2 złote 1936 Silver(75% alloy) 4,4 22 1936-1939 rifled A picture of "Dar Pomorza" yacht, to commemorate 15 years of Gdynia port foundation.[12] Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 3,918,000    
5 złotych2 1928,

1930-2

Silver(75% alloy) 18 33 1928-1939 SALUS REIPUBLICAE SUPREMA LEX1 From Nika(Win) series.[13] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 28.7 mln    
5 złotych 1930 Silver(75% alloy) 18 33 1928-1939 SALUS REIPUBLICAE SUPREMA LEX1 Consacred to the 1830 November Uprising.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 1,000,200    
5 złotych 1928,

1930-2

Silver(75% alloy) 11 28 1932-1939 rifled Portrait of Polonia - a woman signifying Poland.[11] Often mistaken for "a woman in a wreath", "Queen Jadwiga" or "Wanda" Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 3 mln 12,250,000    
5 złotych 1934 Silver(75% alloy) 11 28 1934-39 rifled Portrait of Józef Piłsudski[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; "orzeł strzelecki"; year of minting 300,000    
5 złotych 1934-6,

1938

Silver(75% alloy) 11 28 1934-1939 rifled Portrait of Józef Piłsudski.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 9,599,400    
5 złotych 1936 Silver(75% alloy) 11 28 1936-1939 rifled A picture of "Dar Pomorza" yacht, to commemorate 15 years of Gdynia port foundation.[12] Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 1 mln    
5 złotych 1925 See right 21.1 37 1925-1939 rifled Two sitting men, holding a Book (Constitution) Polish Coat of Arms, inscriptions: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting 100 in pinchbeck, 60 in brass, 2 in gold,

100 in 10% silver alloy

 
10 złotych 1925 Gold 3,23 19 1925-39 rifled Portrait of Bolesław I the Brave.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 50,350    
10 złotych 1933 Silver(75% alloy) 22 34 1933-39 rifled Portrait of Romuald Traugutt Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 200,000    
10 złotych 1932-3 Silver(75% alloy) 22 34 1932-1939 rifled Portrait of Polonia - a woman signifying Poland.[11] Often mistaken for "woman in a wreath", "Queen Jadwiga" or "Wanda" Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 6 mln 5.9 mln    
10 złotych 1933 Silver(75% alloy) 22 34 1933-1939 rifled Portrait of John III Sobieski.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 300,000    
10 złotych 1934 Silver(75% alloy) 22 34 1934-1939 rifled Portrait of Józef Piłsudski.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; "orzeł strzelecki"; year of minting 300,000  
10 złotych 1934-9 Silver(75% alloy) 22 34 1934-1939 rifled Portrait of Józef Piłsudski.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 17,142,000    
10 złotych 1934 Silver(75% alloy); exist in iron and pinchbeck 22 34 1934-1939 rifled Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska, year of minting; 100 in each metal
10 złotych 1925 Bronze or silver 20,5 3,4(bronze)

4,2(silver)

1925-39 rifled Two heads of women Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 100 in bronze, 50 in silver
20 złotych 1925 Gold; exist in copper and nickel 6,451 21 1925-39 rifled Portrait of Bolesław I the Brave.[10] Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting    
20 złotych 1925 Bronze; silver 6.5(bronze)

5.6(silver)

21 1925-1939 ? "RP" design Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting, denomination 100 bronze; 50 aluminium
20 złotych 1925 Bronze, copper or silver; gold 4.5(copper)

5.85(bronze)

4.32(silver)

21 1925-1939 ? Portrait of Polonia - a woman signifying Poland.[11] Often mistaken for "woman in a wreath", "Queen Jadwiga" or "Wanda" Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 105(bronze)

12(silver)

10(copper)

5(gold)

50 złotych 1925 Copper(exist as well in lead and aluminium) 10,9 25 1925-39 ? A kneeling knight Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms, inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting 105
100 złotych 1925 Bronze or silver Bronze: 3.5; Silver: 4.15 25 1925-39 ? Nicolaus Copernicus; denomination Denomination, Polish Coat of Arms(squared), inscription: Rzeczpospolita Polska; year of minting

General GovernmentEdit

When German invaders established the General Government, they withdrew the 100 złotych banknotes from 1932 and 1934 and 500 złotych banknotes from 1919. The banknotes had to be accounted on the deposits of the people who gave them to the bank.

 
1 złoty bilet zdawkowy, issued in Będzin at the beginning of Nazi occupation

The 100 złotych banknotes were overstamped in red with: "Generalgouvernement / für die besetzen polnischen Gebiete" (The General Government / for the occupied Polish territories). It was massively counterfeited.

A little later the bank division of the Główny Zarząd Kas Kredytowych Rzeszy Niemieckiej was organized. It started to print the Reichsmarks, but later, on December 15, 1939, a decision came to create the new Bank Emisyjny (Emissary Bank) in Kraków, as the Bank Polski officials fled to Paris. It started working on 8 April 1940.

In May 1940, old banknotes of 1924–1939 were overstamped by the new entity. Money exchange was limited per individual; the limits varied according to the status of the person. The fixed exchange rate 1 Reichsmark = 2 złote was established. A new issue of notes appeared in 1940-41. The General Government also issued coins (1, 5, 10 and 20 groszy in zinc, 50 groszy in nickel-plated iron or iron), using similar designs to earlier types but with cheaper metals (mainly zinc-copper alloy). 1, 5, 10 and 20 groszy coins were dated 1923 and 50 groszy were dated 1938.

Banknotes were also issued, called unofficially "młynarki" (from the name of President Feliks Młynarski) or "krakowiaki" (from the place of release), in the denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 500 złotych. 1000 złotych did not come into public circualtion at all, and only reconstructions survive (although shown below). The total amount of them was approximately 10,183 million złotych. Additional 20 millions were manufactured by the conspiratory typography of the Union of Armed Struggle. From summer 1943 the Home Army received the złote produced in Great Britain.

Banknotes of the Bank Emisyjny, by Leonard Sowiński
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Averse Reverse Date of print Date of withdrawal
 |  | 1 złoty 99×65 Dark green-gray Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription 1 March 1940, 1 August 1941 10 January 1945
    2 złote 110×68 Olive Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date, a peasant picture Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription
 | |  5 złotych 150×82 Dark green Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date, peasant on white margin, Doubravka of Bohemia Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription
 |  | 10 złotych 170×85 Brown Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date, the saints' pictures, head of a woman The Chopin Monument in Warsaw 1 March 1940
 | |  20 złotych 173×91 Dark Grey Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date; design similar to 20 złotych of 1936 (peasant's picture added in the margin) See 20 złotych of 1936
 | |  50 złotych 180×100 Dark green Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date; peasant, a statue and portrait of Emilia Plater Sukiennice, Kraków 1 March 1940, 1 August 1941
 |  | 100 złotych 190×106 Brown Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date; peasant Bank of Poland building in Warsaw 1 March 1940
 |  | 100 złotych 187×98 Grey through brown to red Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date Lwów panorama 1 August 1941
 |  | 500 złotych(also called "góral") 181×100 Olive Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date; góral Denomination and the Morskie Oko lake in Tatra Mountains 1 March 1940
    1000 złotych

(reconstruction)

196×103 Brown Denomination, "Bank Emisyjny w Polsce" inscription, date; the head of "krakowiak"(not all banknotes) Wawel Castle, Kraków 1 August 1941(not released, only clichés left
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Socialist Poland (1945-1950)Edit

The advance of the Red Army meant the transition to socialism, Poland being no exception.

The first monetary reform of post-war Poland was conducted in 1944, when the initial series of banknotes of socialist Poland was released. This was essential for the recreation of the country, so the Polish Committee of National Liberation signed an act on 24 August 1944 introducing the banknotes. The older General Government banknotes were exchanged at par with the new ones. There were limits, however – 500 złotych only for an individual and 2000 złotych for the private enterprises and small manufacturers. The rest came onto the blocked bank accounts.

The banknotes had a very simple design, with no people or buildings featured. They carried the name of the as yet unformed Narodowy Bank Polski (the National Bank of Poland). Printing was completed at the Goznak mint in Moscow. All the new banknotes of the series I (except for the 50 groszy, and 1000 złotych, which were only released later) had a faulty inscription, containing a russianism.

On 15 January 1945 the National Bank of Poland was finally created. Its first monetary action was the printing of 1000 złotych banknote in the newly built Polska Wytwórnia Papierów Wartościowych in Łódź. The first Communist series' banknotes were easy to counterfeit, so additional replacement banknotes were printed in 1946–48. As 500 złotych banknote was very easy to counterfeit, it was fully withdrawn in 1946.

The new (II and III) series were created from the graphic designs of Ryszard Kleczewski and Wacław Borowski.

Banknotes of Poland, issue 1944–1945 (Series I, also known as "Lublin series")
Obverse Reverse Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of issue Date of release Amount

printed

Date of withdrawal
50 groszy 81×52 Bright pink Denomination

"The National Bank of Poland"

inscription, date, coat of arms

Denomination 1944 28 February 1945 6,706,000

(3,503,000 zł)

8 November 1950
  1 złoty 136×66 Green Denomination,

"The National

Bank of Poland" inscription

18 September 1944 47,726,000 (47,726,000 zł)
    2 złote 137×67 Red 18,725,000

(37,450,000 zł)

    5 złotych 142×71 Brown 81,183,000

(405,915,000 zł)

    10 złotych 160×80 Blue 27 August 1944 22,005,000

(220,050,000 zł)

    20 złotych 170×83 Teal 114,687,000

(2,293,740,000 zł)

    50 złotych 180×93 Blue-violet 26,342,000

(1,317,100,000 zł)

    100 złotych 188×100 Pink 71,237,000

(7,123,700,000 zł)

    500 złotych 193×102 Olive 19,787,000

(9,893,500,000 zł)

17 December 1946
    1000 złotych

(by Ryszard

Kleczewski)

182×97 Brown 1945 1 September 1945 ca. 19,000,000

(19,000,000,000 zł)

8 November 1950
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1946 (Series II)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
    1 złoty 98×54 Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date Denomination 15 May 1946 2 December 1946 8 November 1950
  2 złote 104×57 Green 15 March 1947
  5 złotych 122×66 Grey-blue 5 February 1948
10 złotych 128×70 Brown, red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription 18 August 1947
20 złotych 158×84 Blue to red Two planes; denomination 1 July 1948
50 złotych 164×87 Brown, violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a steam boat and a sail boat Boats on the sea, anchors; denomination 22 September 1947
  100 złotych 170×91 Red, brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female peasant with a bunch of cereals, a male peasant with a bunch of wheat and a sickle A peasant on a tractor in the field 2 December 1946
    500 złotych 176×94 Green to blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a sailor with an anchor and a model of ship; a fisherman The Old City in Gdańsk 15 January 1946 15 July 1946
    1000 złotych 182×97 Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; miners Łódź factories panorama ?
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Banknotes of Poland, issue 1947 (Series III)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
20 złotych 158×84 Dark green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms A globe, a book, a machinery detail, a hammer and ralis, symbolising education and industrial work 15 July 1947 16 June 1949 8 November 1950
100 złotych 170×91 Brown-red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female peasant Horses in a field 21 February 1949
500 złotych 176×94 Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a female sailor with an anchor Gdynia port 1 July 1947 20 January 1949
1000 złotych 182×97 Olive, brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms; a miner with a hammer A picture of a factory 1 December 1948
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The IV series banknotes had a longer life. Mainly due to their underdeveloped security features, the first three series were taken out of circulation in line with legislation signed on 28 October 1950, covering the introduction of the new Polish złoty (PLZ). Older banknotes had to be exchanged within 8 days for the new series IV, which had been designed, printed and distributed in great secrecy.

About in the same time, new coins were introduced, which circulated for more than four decades.

Third złotyEdit

Banknotes of Poland, issue 1948 (Socialist series IV; author of 2-500 zł - Wacław Borowski; 1000 zł - Julian Pałka)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print Date of release Date of withdrawal
2 złote 120×58 Pale green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown) Buildings 1 July 1948 30 October 1950 30 September 1960
5 złotych 142×67 Brown A peasant on a tractor in a field 31 December 1959
10 złotych 148×70 Olive-brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a peasant Peasants at harvesting cereals 31 December 1965
20 złotych 160×76 Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a woman Cloth Hall, Kraków 30 June 1977
50 złotych 164×78 Green to olive Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a fisherman Gdynia port 30 June 1978
100 złotych 172×82 Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a miner A picture of a factory 30 June 1977
500 złotych 178×85 Black-brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); portrait of a miner A picture of coal mining 31 December 1977
1000 złotych 150×74 Bright yellow, red, brown and grey Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms (without the crown); Mikołaj Kopernik Nicolaus Copernicus's heliocentric model of the Solar System 29 October 1965 1 June 1966 31 December 1978
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

In 1950, a new złoty (PLZ) was introduced, replacing all notes issued up to 1948 at a rate of one hundred to one, while all bank assets were redenominated in the ratio 100:3. The new banknotes were dated 1948, while the new coins 1949. Initially, by law with effect from 1950 1 złoty (zł) was made equal to 0.222168g of pure gold (Dziennik Ustaw 50, 459).

As in all the Warsaw Bloc countries, Poland started nationalising major industrial and manufacturing businesses. The necessary legislative act was signed in 1946. However, smaller enterprises remained in private hands, in contrast to the USSR. Despite this concession, the whole economy was under firm state control. In the agricultural sector, farmers (still the major generation source of Polish income) received additional lands from the government. These properties were the result of confiscations from the church, wealthy families as well from farmers who would no abide by the changed policies.

In the late 1940s, Polish currency became unstable. This was largely due to initial opposition to the new government and made an already difficult economic situation no better. Eventually things changed and the złoty became stronger in 1948-9.

Beginning in 1950, the state started implementing the collectivisation policy on a mass scale. Some farmers were grouped into newly created PGRs (State Agricultural Farms). Others supplied produce to the state for distribution and had to comply with obligatory centralised food deliveries (first of cereals, in 1951; and from 1952 on, of meat, potatoes and milk). Unable to compete with the collective farms, privately owned and individually-run farms went bankrupt, as the state bought at extremely low prices, much lower than market value.

Agriculture might have been ruined in a few years if not for the death of President and latterly Secretary General of the Central Committee of the PUWP Bolesław Bierut under mysterious circumstances in 1956. The new government under Władysław Gomułka began relaxing the earlier years' hardcore Stalinist policies. State Farms were reformed, enforged obligatory deliveries reduced and state buying prices were raised. On the whole the structure was little different from that of 1949: industry was state-owned, while agriculture was mostly in private hands.

Serious reforms were proposed in the early 1970s by Edward Gierek, which aimed to improve the situation for normal people. Unfortunately, the government had inadequate funds to initiate these reforms. This explains Poland's growing financial indebtedness to the USSR and other Warsaw Bloc countries, promoting the view that "the investments will upgrade the Poland's potential, which will be aimed at export, so that the country will pay the interest and at the same time maintain a high industrial production". In fact, although the intention was to create employment, it never happened. Poland's debt burden grew too large, forming the main cause of further financial crisis. After a period of prosperity in 1971-8, Poland entered into a very deep recession, which worsened over time as Poland was unable to meet debt interest obligations. The crisis was to last until 1994. The first indications of the crisis was obvious by the mid-70s, when there began a period of rampant inflation. Złoty devaluation continued. In 1980 Gierek's government was accused of corruption. He was removed from the Presidency in 1980.

Financial crisis of 1980sEdit

The first big strikes started in Gdańsk and GOP (Upper Silesian Industrial Area). These restricted industrial production which by then had become the main economic sector. The situation was worsened by the previous period of prosperity in the early and mid 70s, which had promoted increased demand and consumption. The government was forced either to lower salaries and wages or to make workers redundant. This accelerated the crisis. Moreover, the demand was more diminished, as the government provided food rationing. The martial law of 1981–83 deepened the crisis.

By the early 80s inflation in Poland becoming out of control – over 100% per annum in 1982. It was reduced in the mid-80s to about 15% per annum, but again started in late-80s. Economic conditions did not allow any salary and pension increases because of the huge debt burden, which doubled in the 1980s. By 1981 it was admitted that the situation was beyond management. In an effort to escape such situation, Poland started massively printing banknotes, without any covering from bank resources. Banknotes denominated at 5,000 złotych were introduced in 1982, 10,000 złotych in 1988, 20,000 and 50,000 złotych in 1989, and 100,000, 200,000 and 500,000 złotych in 1990. Grosz coins were rendered worthless and coins were mostly made out of aluminium (with the exception of the commemorative ones).

Given the circumstances, the only solution appeared to be the liberisation of the economy. In 1988 Mieczysław Rakowski was forced to accept the possibility of transition of the state enterprises into private hands. In fact, as stated earlier, smaller enterprises were private, and 18% of GDP was made by private sector, additional 10% – by the cooperatives. These were not, however, the Perestroika cooperatives, but ones with limited experience in the market economy. These were ready to transfer to a market economy. The Communist authorities had to admit they had no grip on the economy, which was another reason to introduce changes.

Leszek Balcerowicz was behind the idea of shifting the economic basis from state-based to free-trade. To achieve this, the following were introduced:

  • Liberalisation of prices. This caused very high inflation in Poland (585.5% per annum in 1990 alone);
  • The state gave free access to all areas of economic enterprise (January 1989 - January 1990);
  • Fresh budget cuts on the state-owned enterprises and lowering the tempo of inflation to more normal levels
  • New financing and credit policies as well as the attraction of direct investments;
  • Measures to increase the convertibility of the national currency in all operations;
  • Liquidation of foreign trade controls (1990).

The worst years of the crisis began in 1988, when the level of inflation rose higher than 60% per annum. Inflation peaked in 1990, characterised as hyperinflation, as the monthly rate was higher than 50%. However, by December 1991 it decreased below 60% per annum, and by 1993 it firmly established below 40%, which was an acceptable inflation rate for the economy. As a result, the złoty regained the confidence of foreign investors. The remaining issue was the redenomination of the depreciated złoty.

Polish złoty coins (PLZ)Edit

Coins of People's Republic of Poland (legal tender 1949-1994, stopped issuing by 1990)

Diameter(Ø) shown in mm, mass in grams. 1 - Minted both in Budapest and Warsaw in numbers of 300,100,600 coins.

Pictures Denomination Ø Mass Metal Edge Obverse Reverse Issued in Budapest Issued in Warsaw Issued in Basel Issued in Kremnica Issued in Leningrad Introduced Issued Withdrawn With inscription "... Ludowa"?
1 grosz 14.7 0.5 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 400,000,000 116,000 1954 1949 1 January 1995 No
2 grosze1 16 0.57 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 1954 1949 1 January 1995 No
5 groszy 20 3 bronze smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 300,000,000 1950 1949 1956 No
5 groszy 20 1 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 200,000,000 1960 1949 1 January 1995 No
5 groszy 16 0.6 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, leaf ornament 310,364,378 1958 1958-63; 1965; 1967-8; 1970-2 1 January 1995 Yes
10 groszy 17.6 2 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 200,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
10 groszy 17.6 0,7 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 31,046,685 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
10 groszy 17.6 0,7 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1,179,713,719 100,000,000 1961 1961-3; 1965–81; 1983; 1985 1 January 1995 Yes
10 groszy 20 3 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 133,383,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
20 groszy 20 1 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 197,491,750 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
20 groszy 20 1 aluminium smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 879,964,867 50,000,000 1957 1957; 1961-3; 1965–73; 1975-8; 1980-1; 1983; 1985 1 January 1995 Yes
50 groszy 23 5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 109,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 59,392,950 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 376,793,589 66,800,000 1957 1957; 1965; 1967-8; 1970–78; 1982–85 1 January 1995 Yes
50 groszy 23 1.6 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 49,052,000 1986 1986-7 1 January 1995 Yes
1 złoty 25 7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 87,053,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
1 złoty 25 2.12 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 43,000,000 1950 1949 1 January 1995 No
1 złoty 25 2.12 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1,110,555,639 60,000,106 1957 1957, 1965–78, 1980–88 1 January 1995 Yes
1 złoty 16 0.57 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 27 2.7 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 189,955,432 1958 1958-60; 1970–74 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 21 3 brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 633,950,957 137,600,000 1975 1975-1988 1 January 1995 Yes
2 złote 18 0.7 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch and cereal ornament 132,217,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
5 złotych 29 3.45 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, fisher 126,439,614 1958 1958-60; 1971; 1973-4 1 January 1995 Yes
5 złotych 24 5 brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 315,831,723 135,000,000 1975 1975-88 1 January 1995 Yes
5 złotych 20 0.88 aluminium rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 68,501,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Nicolaus Copernicus 15,558,855 1959 1959; 1965 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Nicolaus Copernicus 20,129,000 1967 1967-9 1 January 1995 Yes
Analogical to the one lower 10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Tadeusz Kościuszko 44,808,153 1959 1959-60; 1966 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Tadeusz Kościuszko 45,111,000 1969 1969-73 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, Bolesław Prus 136,314,606 1975 1975-8;

1981-4

1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination,

Adam Mickiewicz

>55,000,000 1975 1975-7 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 25 7.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 224,209,255 1984 1984-8 1 January 1995 Yes
10 złotych 22 4.27 manganese brass rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 187,692,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; a skyscraper and cereals 20,000,000 37,000,000 1973 1973-4; 1976 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination; Marceli Nowotko 56,152,000 30,000,000 1974 1974-7; 1983 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 26.5 8.7 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 103,383,710 1984 1984-8 1 January 1995 Yes
20 złotych 24 5.65 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination 200,686,000 1989 1989-90 1 January 1995 Yes

In 1949, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 groszy and 1 złoty coins were issued. The first two denominations were minted only in 1949, the rest also later.

In 1952, Poland's official name was changed from "Republic of Poland" to "People's Republic of Poland". Coins minted in 1949 featured the former name. The 5 groszy brass coin was withdrawn in 1956. The rest circulated until 1994.

The 2, 5 and 10 złotych banknotes were withdrawn in the 1960s to be exchanged for coins.

The coins from 1 grosz to 2 złote were quite simple designs but the 5, 10 and 20 złotych coins featured people (5 złotych had a fisherman, 10 złotych had Copernicus, Mickiewicz with Prus on its obverse, and 20 złotych, most notably, Marceli Nowotko), until the 1980s. As the Polish złoty became cheaper over time, older coins were rendered worthless (however, they stayed in circulation), and the simple new coins were released only in złote denominations. All the PRP and 1990 issued coins were withdrawn in 1994, as a result of the monetary reform conducted at that time.

Coins of the Republic of Poland (1990-1994)
Pictures Denomination Diameter Mass Metal Edge Obverse Reverse Number minted Introduced Issued Withdrawn
50 złotych 26 6.8 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 28,707,000 1990 1990 1 January 1995
100 złotych 28.6 7.68 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting Denomination, branch ornament 37,341,000 1990 1990 1 January 1995
Commemorative coins(1945-1990), lapsed on 1 January 1995 (all coins had edges rifled)
Pictures Value Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Metal Obverse Reverse Number minted Issued
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir III the Great, "Six hundred years of Jagiellonian University"(in Polish). Inscriptions concave 2,610,100 1964
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir III the Great, "Six hundred years of Jagiellonian University"(in Polish). Inscriptions convex 2,611,539 1964
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "Seven centuries of Warsaw" in Polish; figure of Nike 3,492,000 1965
10 złotych 31 12.9 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa" "Seven centuries of Warsaw" in Polish; Sigismund's Column; denomination 2 mln 1965
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa" "Seven centuries of Warsaw" in Polish; Sigismund's Column; denomination 102,000 1966
100 złotych 35 20 silver(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; coat of arms of the voivoderships of the Rzeczpospolita Mieszko I and Doubravka of Bohemia; denomination; "Tysiąclecie państwa polskiego"(thousand years of Poland) 198,000 1966
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination General Karol Świerczewski 2,000,000 1967
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa" Marie Curie; denomination 2,000,000 1967
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; "orzeł strzelecki" "XXV years of People's Army of Poland"(in Polish); head of a soldier, denomination 2,000,000 1968
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa" "Dwudziesta piąta rocznica PRL"(Twenty-five years of PPR); cereals, years of communist rule 2,000,000 1969
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms(with another one on the shield inside the bigger one), year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "Byliśmy - Jesteśmy - Będziemy"("We were, we are, we will be"), date(1945-1970); some coat of arms; a pillar with "PRL" written and its coat of arms 2,000,000 1970
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms(in a shield), year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination FAO; wheat and fish on a coin 2,000,000 1971
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "50 years of the III Silesian Uprising"; Virtuti Militari cross 2,000,000 1971
10 złotych 28 9.5 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination, borders of Poland. Writings go along the borders. "50 years of Gdynia port" 2,000,000 1972
50 złotych 30 12.75 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Fryderyk Chopin 49,999(1972)

10,375(1974)

1972

1974

100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mikołaj Kopernik 51,048(1973)

50,000(1974)

1973

1974

20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "XXV years of Comecon" 2,000,000 1974
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Marie Curie 50,000 1974
200 złotych 31 14.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "XXX lat PRL"(30 years of the PPR) 13,068,041 1974
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "International Year of Women"; a face of a woman 2,000,000 1975
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Royal Castle in Warsaw 50,177 1975
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Helena Modrzejewska 60,158 1975
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Ignacy Jan Paderewski 60,184 1975
200 złotych 31 14.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination "XXX rocznica zwycięstwa nad faszyzmem"(30 years of the victory over fascism); heads of two soldiers 1,835,600 1975
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Tadeusz Kościuszko 100,148 1976
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Kazimierz Pułaski 100,334 1976
500 złotych 32 29.95 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Tadeusz Kościuszko 2,318 1976
200 złotych 31 14.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XXI Olympic Games 10,100 1976
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination European bison(wisent) 30,050 1977
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Henryk Sienkiewicz 20,000 1977
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław Reymont 20,150 1977
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Wawel Castle, Kraków 30,000 1977
500 złotych 32 29.95 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Kazimierz Pułaski 2,315 1976
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Fryderyk Chopin 4,000 1976
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Maria Konopnicka 2,009,800 1978
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mirosław Hermaszewski(the first Polish man in space); name of spaceship he flew on(Interkosmos-73) 2,008,900 1978
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Moose 30,000 1978
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Adam Mickiewicz 30,000 1978
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Janusz Korczak 30,000 1978
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Beaver 30,000 1978
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Henryk Wieniawski 30,000 1979
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Ludwik Zamenhof 30,000 1979
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Lynx 20,000 1979
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Tatra chamois 20,000 1979
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mieszko I 12,150 1979
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination The International Year of a Child; children dancing in a circle 2,006,700 1979
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mieszko I 2,640,400 1979
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mieszko I 3,000 1979
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Mikołaj Kopernik 5,000 1979
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Maria Skłodowska-Curie 5,000 1979
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XXII Olympic Games; a runner and the symbol of Olympic Games 2,011,700 1980
20 złotych 29 10.15 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 50 years of "Dar Pomorza" yacht and itself 2,069,200 1980
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław I the Brave 2,564,200 1980
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir I the Restorer 2,503,800 1980
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XXII Olympic Games; a runner and the symbol of Olympic Games 10,000 1980
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Jan Kochanowski 10,000 1980
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Western capercaille 18,000 1980
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XIII Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, with the Olympic fire 32,040 1980
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XIII Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, without the Olympic fire 28,040 1980
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław I the Brave 12,000 1980
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir I the Restorer 12,000 1980
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław I the Brave 2,500 1980
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XIII Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, without the Olympic fire; with the symbols of the Olympic games 5,250 1980
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir I the Restorer 2,500 1980
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław II the Generous 2,538,400 1981
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław I Herman 2,500,000 1981
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination General Władysław Sikorski 2,504,500 1981
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination World Food Day(written in Polish and English); cereal; 16 Oct(in English, too) 2,523,800 1981
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination General Władysław Sikorski 12,000 1981
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Horse 12,000 1981
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław II the Generous 12,000 1981
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław I Herman 12,000 1981
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław I Herman 3,113 1981
2,000 złotych 21 8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław II the Generous 3,000 1981
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław III Wrymouth 2,616,100 1982
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination White stork 12,000 1982
100 złotych 30 14.15 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 12,450(1982)

6(1984)

208(1986)

1982

1983

1986

200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1982 FIFA World Cup; goalkeeper in front of the goal 21,000 1982
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bolesław III Wrymouth 12,000 1982
200 złotych 40 28.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 6,650(1982)

6(1984)

107(1986)

1982

1983

1986

1,000 złotych 31 14.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 1,604,900(1982)

748,160(1983)

1982

1983

1,000 złotych 18 3.4 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 900 1982
1,000 złotych 40 34.5 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 700 1982
2,000 złotych 23 6.8 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 1,750 1982
10,000 złotych 40 34.5 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 900 1982
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 300 years of the Battle of Vienna; portrait of John III Sobieski 2,576,000 1983
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Ignacy Łukasiewicz 611,700 1983
50 złotych 30.5 11.7 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 150 years of the Great Theatre, and the Great Theatre itself 615,000 1983
100 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Bear 8,000 1983
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John III Sobieski 11,000 1983
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Wincenty Witos 1,530,100 1984
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 40 years of the Polish People's Republic, map of Poland 2,594,500 1984
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XXIII Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles 16,000 1984
200 złotych 33 17.6 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XIV Winter Olympics in Sarajewo 15,000 1984
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(62.5% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Swan 10,000 1984
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Przemysław II[dubious ] 2,924,300 1985
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Przemysław II 8,000 1985
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Squirrel 8,000 1985
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 40 years of UN 10,000 1985
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław Łokietek(the Elbow-High) 2,539,700 1986
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1986 FIFA World Cup; a football in the goal 15,500 1986
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław Łokietek(the Elbow-High) 8,000 1986
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Owl 12,000 1986
10,000 złotych 40 28.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 8 1986
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir III the Great 8,000 1987
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination XV Winter Olympics in Calgary; a hockey goalkeeper 8,000 1987
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul 15,000 1987
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination UEFA Euro 1988, a player with a football 12,000 1987
10,000 złotych 35 19.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design different from all previous) 923,820 1987
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Casimir III the Great 2,479,200 1987
1,000 złotych 18 3.1 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 201 1987
2,000 złotych 22 7.7 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 201 1987
5,000 złotych 27 15.5 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 201 1987
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 201 1987
200,000 złotych 70 373.2 gold(90% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II 101 1987
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Queen Jadwiga 2,469,000 1988
100 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 70 years of the Greater Poland Uprising(1918-9); two men with rifles 2,513,000 1988
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Queen Jadwiga 8,000 1988
500 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1990 FIFA World Cup 15,000 1988
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure silver Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 5,000 1988
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure silver Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II with a cross 5,000 1988
50,000 złotych 35 19.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Józef Piłsudski - 70 years of independence 20,000 1988
1,000 złotych 18 3.1 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 1,000 1988
2,000 złotych 22 7.7 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 1,000 1988
5,000 złotych 27 15.5 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 1,000 1988
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 6,000 1988
200,000 złotych 70 373.2 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II - 10 years of pontificate 300 1988
500 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 50 years of the World War II; soldiers in the battlefield with rifles 10,135,000 1989
500 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław II Jagiełło 2,544,000 1989
5,000 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Save the historical sights of Toruń 20,000 1989
5,000 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Toruń buildings; Mikołaj Kopernik 20,000 1989
5,000 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination A Polish soldier on the fronts of the WWII - Westerplatte 25,000 1989
5,000 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław II Jagiełło - portrait en face 8,000 1989
5,000 złotych 32 16.5 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination Władysław II Jagiełło - bust 2,500 1989
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure silver Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II with a cross 5,000 1989
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure silver Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(coin in squares) 5,000 1989
20,000 złotych 35 19.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1990 FIFA World Cup - a ball 25,000 1989
20,000 złotych 35 19.3 silver(75% alloy) Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination 1990 FIFA World Cup - a football player 25,000 1989
1,000 złotych 18 3.1 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design with grills) 1,000 1989
2,000 złotych 22 7.7 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design with grills) 1,000 1989
5,000 złotych 27 15.5 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design with grills) 1,000 1989
10,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design with grills) 2,000 1989
200,000 złotych 70 373.2 pure gold Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa"; denomination John Paul II(design with grills) 200 1989
Commemorative coins (1990-1994) of the PLZ

1 - Means: Number with Tadeusz Kościuszko/Number with Józef Piłsudski/Number with Fryderyk Chopin.

Pictures Value Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Metal Edge Obverse Reverse Number minted Issued
10,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination "Solidarność"; 3 crosses, anchor, some city[which?] 15,164,010 1990
200,000 złotych 65 155.5 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Józef Piłsudski 10,000 1990
200,000 złotych 65 155.5 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Chopin Monument in Warsaw 10,000 1990
200,000 złotych 65 155.5 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Tadeusz Kościuszko on a horse 10,000 1990
200,000 złotych 35 19.3 75% silver alloy rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Stefan Rowecki "Grot" 25,000 1990
200,000 złotych 35 19.3 75% silver alloy rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Tadeusz Komorowski "Bór" 25,000 1990
100,000 złotych 39 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Common: "Solidarność"; 3 crosses, anchor, some city[which?]

Type A: "ZŁ" far from "1" in denomination, with letter "L" under the year 1990

Type B: "ZŁ" close to "1" in denomination, without letter "L" under the year 1990

Type C: "ZŁ" close to "1" in denomination, with letter "L" under the year 1990

Type D: other style of letter "S" in SOLIDARNOŚĆ

Totally 500,000 1990
100,000 złotych 32 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination As type B; flag reversed 20,000 1990
100,000 złotych 39 31.1 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Józef Piłsudski 10,000 1990
100,000 złotych 39 31.1 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Chopin Monument in Warsaw 10,000 1990
100,000 złotych 39 31.1 pure silver rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Tadeusz Kościuszko on a horse 10,000 1990
20,000;

50,000;

100,000

200,000

złotych

18(20,000)

22(50,000)

27(100,000)

32(200,000)

3.1(20,000)

2.7(50,000)

15.5(100,000)

31.1(200,000)

pure gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination "Solidarność"; 3 crosses, anchor, some city[which?] 20,000: 1,004

200,000: 3,001

rest: 1,001 each type

1990
200,000;

500,000;

1,000,000 złotych

32(200,000)

39(500,000)

65(1,000,000)

31.1(200,000)

62.6(500,000)

373.2(1,000,000)

pure gold rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Tadeusz Kościuszko

Józef Piłsudski

Frederyk Chopin(design as in silver coins)

200,000 złotych:

13/13/101

500,000 złotych:

12/16/16

1,000,000 złotych:

1/1/1

1990
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - Narvik 12,000 1991
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - Major Henryk Dobrzański "Hubal" 12,000 1991
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - the Battle of Britain 12,000 1991
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - Tobruk 12,000 1991
200,000 złotych 40 31.1 92.5% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1992 Summer Olympics - a heavyweight athlete 20,000 1991
200,000 złotych 40 31.1 92.5% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1992 Summer Olympics - a sailing boat 20,000 1991
200,000 złotych 35 19.3 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination General Michał Tokarzewski-Karaszewicz 25,000 1991
200,000 złotych 35 19.3 92.5% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 70 ears of the International Poznań Fairs, some building[which?]; logo 20,000 1991
200,000 złotych 40 31.1 92.5% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1992 Winter Olympics - a slalomist 20,000 1991
200,000 złotych 35 19.3 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination General Leopold Okulicki 25,000 1991
200,000 złotych 40 38.9 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years of the 3rd May Constitution, "Ustawa Rządowa" 100,000 1991
10,000 złotych 29.5 9.47 ferronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200th Anniversary of the 3rd May Constitution 2,604,601 1991
20,000 złotych 32.1 9.45 bimetallic; ring:

manganese brass; centre - cupronickel

mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 225th Anniversary of the Warsaw Mint 100,000 1991
200,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Seville Expo '92 45,000 1992
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Wojciech Korfanty, his signature; 70 years of unity of the Upper Silesia with Poland 30,000 1992
10,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Władysław III Warneńczyk 2,500,000 1992
50,000 złotych Shape: regular octagon,

side - 16 mm

11.3 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years of the Virtuti Militari Order 125,000 1992
200,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 500 years of the discovery of the New World; Christopher Columbus and a ship 20,000 1992
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Stanisław Staszic 20,000 1992
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - convoys; ships on the coin 15,000 1992
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Władysław III Warneńczyk en face 15,000 1992
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Władysław III Warneńczyk bust 5,000 1992
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Łańcut castle 500,000 1993
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Swallow 520,000 1993
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk 1,500,000 1993
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1994 Winter Olympics; biathlonist 988,000 1993
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - resistance against occupants 10,000 1993
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk en face 15,000 1993
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk bust 5,000 1993
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 750 years of the town rights of Szczecin 20,000 1993
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1994 Winter Olympics - ice skaters 20,000 1993
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The UNESCO World Heritage Site - Zamość - plan of Zamość 20,000 1993
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 50 years of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 30,000 1993
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Łańcut castle 20,000 1993
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Swallows 20,000 1993
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 75 years of the "Związek Inwalidów Wojennych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej" 76,000 1994
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund I the Old 1,500,000 1994
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination "Opening of the new building of the State Mint", the building itself 252,000 1994
20,000 złotych 29.5 10.8 cupronickel rifled Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years of Kościuszko Insurrection 100,000 1994
1,000 złotych 38.61 28.28 92.5% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1994 FIFA World Cup; a football stadium 10,480 1994
100,000 złotych 32 16.5 90% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 50 years of Warsaw Uprising, soldier 150,000 1994
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 75 years of the Związek Inwalidów Wojennych 15,000 1994
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination The Polish soldier on the fronts of the World War II - Monte Cassino; soldiers storming the mountain 15,000 1994
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund I the Old en face 15,000 1994
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund I the Old bust 5,000 1994
200,000 złotych 32 16.5 75% silver alloy smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years of the Kościuszko Uprising 15,000 1994
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years from the birth of St. Maximilian Kolbe 15,000 1994
300,000 złotych 40 31.1 pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 50 years of Warsaw Uprising, soldiers with rifles and ruins 30,000 1994
300,000 złotych 40 31.1

shape heptagonal

pure silver smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 70 years of the Bank of Poland rebirth 20,880 1994

Polish złoty banknotes (PLZ)Edit

Normal złotyEdit

The banknotes issued in 1948 were already stable version. They were taken out of circulation in 1978 completely.

From 1974 the new banknotes featuring "Great Polish people", and comprising the fifth series, were issued. Previous series were withdrawn from circulation. However, the replacement banknotes rapidly lost their real value. New larger denominations were necessary and printed.

In 1982, the 10 and 20 złotych banknotes were released instead of billon.

The last banknote released in Polish People's Republic was 200,000 złotych note, issued on 1 December 1989, which, because of its inadequate security features, was withdrawn from circulation. Starting on 27 December 1989 new banknotes were issued in the name of "Rzeczpospolita Polska", i.e. omitting the word "Ludowa" (People's), and from the coat of arms were altered to show the eagle wearing a crown restoring the situation that existed before World War II.

Banknotes of this series were redenominated at the rate of 10,000 PLZ to 1 PLN (new złoty). All the existing PLZ denominations were legal tender and exchangeable into the PLN until the date of each value's withdrawal. After 31 December 2010, no PLZ banknote could be exchanged into PLN.

From 50,000 PLZ on, there were two versions released: older ones (dated differently) and the newer ones (all dated 16 November 1993). The older banknotes had less efficient security features than the new ones. Newer printings had the denomination printed in red which shone under ultraviolet light instead of the previous grey-blue (which did not).

Banknotes of Poland, issues starting from 1974 (Communist series V, The Great Polish people), made by Andrzej Heidrich
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Dates of print Date of introduction Date of withdrawal Date of lapse
10 złotych 139×63 Blue to green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Józef Bem Denomination 1 June 1982 11 June 1982 31 December 1994 31 December 2010
20 złotych Mainly red to blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Romuald Traugutt Denomination 1 June 1982 11 June 1982
50 złotych Green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Karol Świerczewski Order of the Cross of Grunwald 9 May 1975; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 25 November 1975
100 złotych Red Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Ludwik Waryński "Proletaryat" 15 January 1975; 17 May 1976; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 1 July 1975 31 December 1996
200 złotych Violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Jarosław Dąbrowski Communards' Wall; "Za waszą wolność i naszą"(For our liberty and yours). 25 May 1976;

1 June 1979; 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988

26 July 1976
500 złotych Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Tadeusz Kościuszko The insurrection flag 16 December 1974; 15 June 1976; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 1 January 1975
1,000 złotych Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Mikołaj Kopernik Nicolaus Copernicus's heliocentric model of the Solar System 2 July 1975; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 1 September 1975
2,000 złotych Dark brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave with a sword 1 May 1977; 1 June 1979; 1 June 1982 27 July 1977
5,000 złotych Green Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Fryderyk Chopin Polonaise in notes(author: Fryderyk Chopin) 1 June 1982; 1 June 1986; 1 December 1988 11 June 1982
10,000 złotych Green and violet Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Stanisław Wyspiański Kraków(Planty) 1 February 1987; 1 December 1988 4 February 1987
20,000 złotych Orange Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Marie Curie Ewa reactor 1 February 1989 26 February 1989
50,000 złotych Brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(without the crown); Stanisław Staszic Staszic Palace in Warsaw 1 December 1989 11 December 1989 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
100,000 złotych Blue Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Stanisław Moniuszko The Grand Theatre in Warsaw 15 February 1990 26 February 1990 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
200,000 złotych Brown Denomination, date, coat of arms(without the crown) Warsaw, coat of arms of Warsaw, the "National Bank of Poland" inscription 1 December 1989 7 December 1989 17 May 1991
500,000 złotych Cyan and brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Henryk Sienkiewicz "The Trilogy", flags 15 April 1990 1 August 1990 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 24 January 1994 31 December 1996
1,000,000 złotych Light brown Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Władysław Reymont A rural landscape 15 February 1991 22 April 1991 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 24 January 1994 31 December 1996
2,000,000 złotych Multi-coloured Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Ignacy Jan Paderewski Coat of arms as of 1919 14 August 1992 10 November 1992 15 October 1994
16 November 1993 11 April 1994 31 December 1996
5,000,000 złotych Gray and yellow Denomination, "The National Bank of Poland" inscription, date, coat of arms(with the crown); Józef Piłsudski Józef Piłsudski's orders 12 May 1995 24 April 2006(only as collection banknote) Never withdrawn Never lapsed
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Złoty dewizowyEdit

 
A traveller cheque, one of the types of "złoty dewizowy"

Between 1950 and 1990, a unit known as the złoty dewizowy (which may be roughly translated as the "foreign exchange złoty") was used as an artificial currency for calculation purposes only. It existed because at the time the złoty was not convertible (like most Warsaw Bloc currencies) and its official rate of exchange was set by the government. Additionally several exchange rates existed depending on the purpose of the transaction and who was exchanging; for example, złoty could be exchanged for, say, US dollars at one of several official exchange rates depending on what was to be bought with the hard currency and the entity that was buying. In reverse, it worked when an individual or a business had western currency earnings and wanted (or needed) to convert them into złoty. The exchange rate did not depend on the amount being converted. Visitors from countries outside of the Soviet Bloc were offered a particularly poor exchange rate. Concurrently, the private black-market exchange rate contrasted sharply with the official government exchange rate until the end of communist rule in 1989, when official rates were tied to market rates.

There were special banknotes, denominated in cents and dollars (as the US dollar), which were legal tender only for goods imported to Poland. They were issued by two authorities only: Pekao S.A. (from 1 cent to $100) and Baltona (from 1979 for 1 cent to $20).

From January 1, 1990, Polish złoty became a fully convertible currency, with market-set (rather state-determined) rates against foreign currencies.

Fourth złotyEdit

Normal coins and banknotesEdit

On 17 July 1990 Władysław Baka (the then head of the National Bank of Poland) (NBP) stated that development work upon złoty denomination would start soon. At the same time PLN coins were minted (bearing dates 1990-1994) and released into circulation in 1995. This influenced the further process of money exchange in 1995, as exchanging low-value banknotes became considerably easier.

The banknotes posed a bigger problem. In 1990, a new series of banknotes from 1 to 500 zł was created by Waldemar Andrzejewski, was proposed, but failed acceptance testing due weak counterfeiting protection features. The designs featured buildings and structures from Greater Poland cities and proofs produced. Additionally 1,000 zł (Kalisz) and 2,000 zł (Biskupin) banknotes were proposed (but not essayed) to facilitate an exchange rate of 1 new zloty to 1000 old zlotys).

Banknotes of Poland, issue 1990, not in circulation (Cities and sights of Poland)
Pictures Denomination Size(mm) Colour Obverse Reverse Date of print
1 złoty 138×63 blue Gdynia Shipyard "Dar Pomorza" yacht 1 March 1990
2 złote dark red to brown A mining tower in Katowice The Silesian Uprising monument, by Gustaw Zemła
5 złotych dark green City hall in Zamość The Grunwald Cross Medal
10 złotych dark red Royal Castle in Warsaw Mermaid of Warsaw
20 złotych yellow Żuraw Gate in Gdańsk (seen from the Motława) Neptune's statue on the Neptune's fountain
50 złotych violet Town hall in Wrocław Picture of the 16th century seal of the city magistrate in Wrocław
100 złotych orange Town hall in Poznań Picture of the old seal of the city magistrate in Poznań
200 złotych light blue Wawel Castle Picture of the Piastsdynastyeal
500 złotych teal Gniezno Cathedral Picture of the seal of Gniezno in Piast dynasty times
1,000 złotych multicoloured -

mainly yellow

Kalisz Picture of the seal of Kalisz city authorities
2,000 złotych brown Biskupin archaeological site - fortress Dishes from the site
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

At the same time, to conduct redenomination, the inflation had to be stable and below 10% per annum. Balcerowicz plan helped very much to achieve that in four years' time. On 11 May 1994 the Economical Committee of the Council of Ministers accepted the denominalization project from the NBP. The act allowing the project to come into force was ratified on 7 July 1994 (Dziennik Ustaw Nr 84, 386).

At the same time, new banknotes were printed (dated 25 March 1994), which are still legal tender today. These feature the most prominent Polish monarchs. Their author is Andrzej Heidrich.

Banknotes of Poland, issue 1994, "Sovereigns of Poland" (first version)[14]
Obverse picture Reverse picture Value Dimensions Colour Watermark Obverse Reverse printing issue annul
    10 zł 120 × 60 mm Green and brown As portrait Mieszko I Silver denar coin during the reign of Mieszko I 25 March 1994 1 January 1995 current
    20 zł 126 × 63 mm Pink, violet and blue Bolesław I the Brave Silver denar coin during the reign of Bolesław I the Brave; St. Nicholas Church in Cieszyn
  50 zł 132 × 66 mm Mainly blue Casimir III the Great White Eagle from the royal seal of Casimir III the Great and the regalia of Poland: sceptre and globus cruciger;

Kraków drawing from a medieval book

  100 zł 138 × 69 mm Mainly green Władysław II Jagiełło Shield bearing a White Eagle from the tombstone of Władysław II Jagiełło, coat of the Teutonic Knights and the Grunwald Swords; Malbork castle on the left 1 June 1995
  200 zł 144 × 72 mm Mainly yellow Sigismund I the Old Eagle intertwined with the letter S in a hexagon, from the Sigismund's Chapel in Kraków
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

These designs were revealed to the public on the 21 November 1994. The following day TVP, (Polish television), began publicising the designs on TV in a campaign that lasted until 1 January 1995 when the redenomination took place. 10,000 PLZ became 1 PLN. Unlike previous redenominations there were no restrictions on where the money was or who owned it.

The new Polish złoty (PLN) was released it co-existed with the PLZ, for two years. All prices had to be indicated in both PLZ and PLN. The priority was to take the low-denomination PLZ to convert them to coinage. After 31 December 1996, PLZ was no longer legal tender. Between then and 31 December 2010, any PLZ banknotes and could only be exchanged into PLN by the NBP, its affiliates, or any bank. The sum for exchange had to be the multiple of 100 PLZ, which were worth 0.01 PLN. As of 31 December 2009, NBP estimate that some 1,748,000,000,000 PLZ (178,400,000 PLN) had not yet been exchanged.

There was one thing that did not change: the official name of the currency. Although the ISO 4217 was altered the relevant legislation made the point that the official name of the currency is still the złoty. New Polish złoty is an unofficial way to address the Polish currency (Dziennik Ustaw nr 50, 459, with later changes).

Coins of the Republic of Poland
Obverse pictures Reverse pictures Denomination Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Issued Producer
1 grosz 15.5 1.64 manganese brass rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1995

1997-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
1 grosz 15.5 1.64 steel galvanized by brass rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
2 grosze 17.5 2.13 manganese brass smooth denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1997-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
2 grosze 17.5 2 steel galvanized by brass smooth denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
5 groszy 19.5 2.59 manganese brass milled: 4 rows, each has 12 dents denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1998-2005

2007-14

Mennica Warszawska
19.5 2.59 steel galvanized by brass milled: 4 rows, each has 12 dents denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting (design different from the one of earlier issues) 2013-6 The Royal Mint
10 groszy 16.5 2.51 cupronickel milled: 4 rows, each has 10 dents denomination with a bush ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-3

1998-2005

2007-15

Mennica Warszawska
20 groszy 18.5 3.22 cupronickel rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1996-2016

Mennica Warszawska
50 groszy 20.5 3.94 cupronickel rifled denomination with a leaf ornament Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-2

1995

2006

2008-15

Mennica Warszawska
1 złoty 23 7 cupronickel milled: 2 rows, each has 16 dents denomination with a leaf ornament, in a circle Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1990-5

2008-10

2012-5

Mennica Warszawska
2 złote 21.5

the centre diameter: 12

5.21 Centre: cupronickel;

Ring: aluminium bronze

smooth denomination Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1994-5

2005-10

2014-5

Mennica Warszawska
5 złotych 24

the centre diameter: 16

6.54 Ring: cupronickel;

Centre: aluminium bronze

irregularly rifled denomination Polish coat of arms', inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska" and the year of minting 1994

1996

2008-10

2015

Mennica Warszawska

Issue details of zloty and grosz coins are shown in the table below:[15]

Issue of Polish coins (Note. Coins from 1990-1994 are valid. They were released on 1 January 1995)
Year\coin 5 zł 2 zł 1 zł 50 gr 20 gr 10 gr 5 gr 2 gr 1 gr Total amount Worth
1990 20,240,000 29,152,000 25,100,000 43,055,000 70,240,000 34,400,000 29,140,000 251,327,000 48,632,900 PLN
1991 60,080,000 99,120,000 75,400,000 123,164,300 171,040,000 97,410,000 79,000,000 705,214,300 148,326,630 PLN
1992 102,240,000 116,000,000 106,100,001 210,000,005 103,784,000 157,000,003 362,000,000 1,157,124,009 214,409,200.76 PLN
1993 20,904,000 84,240,008 20,280,101 80,780,000 206,204,109 31,149,805.85 PLN
1994 112,896,033 79,644,000 69,956,000 262,496,033 793,724,165 PLN
1995 122,880,020 99,740,122 101,600,113 102,280,109 426,500,364 377,323,019.59 PLN
1996 52,940,003 29,745,000 82,685,003 270,649,015 PLN
1997 59,755,000 92,400,002 103,080,002 255,235,004 14,829,800.06 PLN
1998 52,500,000 62,695,000 93,472,002 154,840,050 257,640,003 621,147,055 27,116,301.13 PLN
1999 25,985,000 47,040,000 99,024,000 187,900,000 203,970,000 563,919,000 20,649,900 PLN
2000 52,135,000 104,060,000 75,600,000 94,500,000 210,100,000 536,395,000 28,604,000 PLN
2001 41,980,001 62,820,000 67,368,000 84,000,000 210,000,020 466,168,021 21,826,400.40 PLN
2002 10,500,000 10,500,000 67,200,000 83,910,000 240,000,000 412,110,000 10,588,200 PLN
2003 20,400,000 31,500,000 48,000,000 80,000,000 250,000,000 429,900,000 13,730,000 PLN
2004 40,000,025 70,500,000 62,500,000 100,000,000 300,000,000 573,000,025 23,175,005 PLN
2005 5,000,000 37,000,025 94,000,000 113,000,000 163,003,250 375,000,000 787,003,275 39,460,070 PLN
2006 5,000,000 35,000,000 40,000,000 80,000,000 35,500,000 PLN
2007 20,000,000 68,000,000 100,000,000 116,000,000 160,000,000 330,000,000 794,000,000 75,900,000 PLN
2008 5,000,000 15,000,000 5,000,000 13,000,000 91,000,000 103,000,000 107,000,000 172,000,000 316,000,000 827,000,000 106,950,000 PLN
2009 59,000,000 62,000,000 34,000,000 57,000,000 133,000,000 146,000,000 160,000,000 222,000,000 338,000,000 1,211,000,000 538,520,000 PLN
2010 30,000,000 15,000,000 3,000,000 12,000,000 45,000,000 62,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000 150,000,000 537,000,000 213,100,000 PLN
2011 10,000,000 15,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000 150,000,000 270,000,000 615,000,000 26,200,200 PLN
2012 10,000,000 12,000,000 38,000,000 136,000,000 60,000,000 100,000,000 365,000,000 721,000,000 45,850,000 PLN
2013 21,000,000 30,000,000 36,000,000 142,000,000 88,000,000 150,000,000 323,000,000 790,000,000 68,030,000 PLN
2014 28,000,000 35,250,000 28,400,000 46,000,000 88,000,000 96,004,500 137,084,750 420,924,900 879,664,150 135,201,169 PLN
2015 38,040,000 34,350,000 39,000,000 44,010,000 78,030,000 112,050,000 115,050,000 129,870,000 388,560,000 978,960,000 358,951,500 PLN
Total 297,876,036 386,874,020 520,410,122 587,282,113 1,166,630,052 1,912,624,313 1,923,562,003 2,670,318,055 5,704,475,034 15,170,052,718 -
Worth 1,489,380,180 zł 773,748,040 zł 520,410,122 zł 293,641,056.50 zł 233,326,010.40 zł 191,262,431.30 zł 96,178,100.15 zł 53,406,361.10 zł 57,044,750.34 zł - 3,708,396,951.79 zł

In 2012 new banknotes were printed, with added security features. They do not differ greatly from the first version (except for the 200zł note), but may be distinguished by the colour of the field with the watermark on the obverse. In the original banknotes, these correspond to the note's main colour, while they are white on the newer ones. Starting from 50 złotych, the new security features differ from those on the older banknotes. Newer banknotes also have some randomly arranged dots, which are part of the EURion constellation.

A 500 złotych banknote will be also produced in this series, currently scheduled for introduction in February 2017.[16]

Banknotes of Poland, issue 2012-2015, "Sovereigns of Poland"(second version, modernized)
Obverse picture Reverse picture Colour Value Dimensions Watermark Obverse Reverse printing issue annul
Green and brown 10 zł 120 × 60 mm As portrait Mieszko I Silver denar coin during the reign of Mieszko I 5 January 2012 7 April 2014 current
Pink, violet and blue 20 zł 126 × 63 mm Bolesław I the Brave Silver denar coin during the reign of Bolesław I Chrobry; St. Nicholas Church in Cieszyn
Mainly blue 50 zł 132 × 66 mm Casimir III the Great White Eagle from the royal seal of Casimir III the Great and the regalia of Poland: sceptre and globus cruciger;

Kraków drawing from a medieval book

Mainly green 100 zł 138 × 69 mm Władysław II Jagiełło Shield bearing a White Eagle from the tombstone of Władysław II Jagiełło, coat of the Teutonic Knights and the Grunwald Swords; Malbork castle on the left
Mainly yellow 200 zł 144 × 72 mm Sigismund I the Old Eagle intertwined with the letter S in a hexagon, from the Sigismund's Chapel on Wawel 30 March 2015 February 2016
Multicoloured 500 zł[17] 150 × 75 mm John III Sobieski Wilanow Palace, coat of arms from the reign of John III Sobieski 16 February 2016 10 February 2017
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Commemorative coins and banknotesEdit

Poland has released commemorative banknotes since 2006. As of June 2016, eight have been issued.

Commemorative banknotes of Poland[18]
Obverse Reverse Value Dimensions

(mm)

Main Color Obverse Reverse Watermark Emission Issue date
10 zł 138×69 Pink, orange Polish coat of arms, Belweder Palace, Commander Józef Piłsudski White eagle, Monument of the Heroic Deed of Polish Legions in Kielce. Józef Piłsudski, electrotype denomination 80,000 November 3, 2008
20 zł 138×69 Orange, yellow, brown Polish coat of arms, Chalet in Krzemieniec, Juliusz Słowacki Cranes, an excerpt of the poem Sedation, Statue of Sigismund III Vasa at Castle Square in Warsaw. Juliusz Słowacki, electrotype denomination 80,000 September 23, 2009
20 zł 138×69 Light blue, Light brown, black Frédéric Chopin, the mansion in Żelazowa Wola where the composer was born, reproduction of the first edition of Mazurka in B-flat major, Opus 7 No 1, Chopin's autograph. Facsimile of a fragment of Étude in f-minor, Opus 10, No 9; landscape in Central Poland with Masovian willows. Chopin 120,000 February 26, 2010
20 zł 138×69 Brown and green Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Sorbona w Paryżu (Sorbonne school building in Paris), Coat of arms, Ra (atomic symbol for radium) in SPARK patch in concentric circles. Curie quotation ("I have detected the radium, but not created it; the glory does not belong to me, but it is the property of the whole mankind."), Instytut Radowy w Warszawie (Radium Institute building in Warsaw); Nobel Prize medal for chemistry. Marie Skłodowska Curie and electrotype denomination 60,000 December 12, 2011
20 zł 147×67 Green, brown, yellow and blue Belvedere Palace hologram; coat of arms with crowned eagle; Commander Józef Klemens Piłsudski wearing military uniform. Eagle badge of the Polish Legions; Grand Cross (with Star) of the Order of Virtuti Militari; badge of the First Brigade of the Polish Legions; Belvedere Palace hologram. None 50,000 August 5, 2014
20 zł 138×69 Brown, green, gold and violet 1415 as registration device; open book; coat of arms with crowned eagle; Jan Długosz Wieniawa coat of arms; Wawel cathedral in Kraków; stained glass window Shield with crowned eagle 30,000 August 24, 2015
20 zł 144×77 Blue and red Coat of arms with crowned eagle; Dobrawa (Doubravka of Bohemia) and King Miezko I; ornate cross; floor plan of church as registration device Floor plan of church; Gniezno Cathedral; royal chalice of Trzemeszno Unknown with electrotype 20 35,000 April 12, 2016
50 zł 144×72 Blue, yellow Pope John Paul II, Polish coat of arms Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, a quotation from Letter to Poles, Jasna Góra Monastery and church Papal arms of John Paul II 2,000,000 October 16, 2006
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

There are also very many commemorative coins (listed below). These are legal tender in all payments, but such use is not recommended by the National Bank of Poland (NBP).

Commemorative coins of the Republic of Poland
Pictures Value Diameter(mm) Mass(g) Composition Edge Obverse Reverse(designer's name) Amount Year of minting
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination A cemetery with a lot of crosses; Katyń - Miednoje - Charków(places of execution of Polish soldiers); (Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Catfish(Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 75 years of the Battle of Warsaw(1920); (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 300,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Łazienki Palace; (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 287,300 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of the modern Olympic Games(Robert Kotowicz) 350,000 1995
2 złote 29.5 10.8 cupronickel mixed Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1996 Summer Olympics - wrestlers(Robert Kotowicz) 350,000 1995
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund II Augustus (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 200,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Erinaceus europaeus (Roussanka Nowakowska) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Castle in Lidzbark Warmiński(Andrzej Nowakowski) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Henryk Sienkiewicz (Robert Kotowicz) 300,000 1996
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Stephen Báthory (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Lucanus cervus (Andrzej Nowakowski) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Pieskowa Skała castle(Roussanka Nowakowska) 315,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years from the birth of Paweł Edmund Strzelecki; Australia and its endemite animals(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1997
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 1998 Winter Olympics - snowboarder(Robert Kotowicz) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Sigismund III Vasa (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Bufo calamita (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of polonium and radium discovery; Marie and Pierre Curie (Robert Kotowicz) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Kórnik Castle(Ewa Olszewska-Borys) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 80 years of independence(Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 400,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 200 years from the birth of Adam Mickiewicz (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 420,000 1998
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 100 years of Ernest Malinowski's death, inscription: "The creator of the Ferrocarril Central Andino"(Robert Kotowicz) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold smooth Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 150 years of Julisz Słowacki's death(Robert Kotowicz) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Wolf(Canis lupus)(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination 150 years of Fryderyk Chopin's death(Roussanka Nowakowska) 420,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Poland's admission to NATO; soldiers going out of a helicopter; a globe (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Jan Łaski - the Church reformer(Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Radzyń Podlaski Castle (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 450,000 1999
2 złote 27 8.15 Nordic gold NARODOWY BANK POLSKI ★ Coat of arms, year of minting; inscription: "Rzeczpospolita Polska"; denomination Władysław IV Vasa (Ewa-Tyc Karpińska) 500,000 1999

Future of złotyEdit

One of the conditions of Poland's joining the European Union in May 2004 obliges the country eventually to adopt the euro, though not at any specific date and only after Poland meets the necessary stability criteria. Serious discussions regarding joining the Eurozone have ensued.[19][20][21] However, article 227[22] of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland will need to be amended first,[23] so it seems unlikely that Poland will adopt the euro before 2019.[24] Public opinion research by CBOS from March 2011 shows that 60% of Poles are against changing their currency. Only 32% of Poles want to adopt the euro, compared to 41% in April 2010.[25]

Exchange ratesEdit

Year USD EUR DEM GBP CHF JPY
1990 9500,00 12070,50 5864,19 16862,50 6884,05 65,45
1991 10584,26 13088,29 6378,62 18652,81 7379,05 78,7235
1992 13630,12 17662,35 8761,51 24009,90 9742,76 107,7766
1993 18164,84 21204,91 10975,20 27274,86 12308,00 164,16
1994 22726,95 26913,49 14049,60 34772,23 16670,93 224,16
Re-denomination(10000:1)
1995 2,4244 3,1358 1,6928 3,8257 2,0545 0,0258
1996 2,6965 3,3774 1,7920 4,2154 2,1826 0,0248
1997 3,2808 3,7055 1,8918 5,3751 2,2627 0,0272
1998 3,4937 3,9231 1,9888 5,7907 2,4149 0,0268
1999 3,9675 4,2270 2,1612 6,4197 2,6413 0,0350
2000 4,3464 4,0110 2,0508 6,5787 2,5747 0,0403
2001 4,0939 3,6685 end 1,9558 5,8971 2,4298 0,0337
2002 4,0795 3,8557 6,1293 2,6288 0,0329
2003 3,8889 4,3978 6,3570 2,8911 0,0339
2004 3,6540 4,5340 6,6904 2,9370 0,0337
2005 3,2348 4,0254 5,8833 2,5999 0,0294
2006 3,1025 3,8951 5,7116 2,4761 0,0266
2007 2,7667 3,7829 5,5310 2,3035 0,0235
2008 2,3708 3,4908 4,2200 2,2291 0,0234
2009 3,1175 4,3276 4,8563 2,8665 0,0333
2010 3,0179 3,9939 4,6587 2,8983 0,0345
2011 2,9636 4,1190 4,7463 3,3474 0,0373
2012 3,2581 4,1852 5,1605 3,4724 0,0409
2013 3,1608 4,1975 4,9437 3,4100 0,0324
2014 3,0315 4,1631 5,0167 3,3816 0,028778
2015 3,5725 4,3078 5,5296 3,5833 0,029671
2016 3,9011 4,2615 5,7862 3,9394 0,032411
Current PLN exchange rates
From Google Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From Yahoo! Finance: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From XE: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From OANDA: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD
From fxtop.com: AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD

Name and plural formsEdit

The name złoty is pronounced like zwoti [ˈzwɔtɨ]. There are two plural forms: złote (zwoteh [ˈzwɔtɛ]) and złotych (zwotikh [ˈzwɔtɨx]). The correct usage of the plural forms is as follows:

  • 1 złoty/grosz [ˈzwɔtɨ] / [ˈɡɾɔʂ]
  • 2…4; 22…24; 32…34 (…), 102…104, 122…124, 132…134, (…) złote/grosze [ˈzwɔtɛ] / [ˈɡɾɔʂɛ]
  • 0, 5…21; 25…31; 35…41 (…); 95…101; 105…121; 125…131; (…) złotych/groszy [ˈzwɔtɨx] / [ˈɡɾɔʂɨ]

The rules are the same for larger numbers, e.g. 1,000,000 złotych; 1,000,002 złote; 1,000,011 złotych; 1,000,024 złote. Fractions should be rendered with word złotego [zwɔˈtɛɡɔ] and grosza [ˈɡɾɔʂa], e.g. 0,1 złotego; 2,5 złotego, etc. It is customary in Poland to use space (non-breaking) for digit grouping (“thousands separator”) and comma for separating fractions from whole numbers; cf. decimal mark.

Here one can find general rules for declension of cardinal (among others) numerals in Polish: classes one, few, many and other for “złoty” are złoty, złote, złotych, złotego respectively and for “grosz” are grosz, grosze, groszy, grosza respectively.

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski - Internetowy Serwis Informacyjny". 
  2. ^ The nominative plural, used for numbers ending in 2, 3 and 4 (except those in 12, 13 and 14), is złote [ˈzwɔtɛ]; the genitive plural, used for all other numbers, is złotych [ˈzwɔtɨx]
  3. ^ American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3rd ed., p. 2078.
  4. ^ НС 1980, «Копа».
  5. ^ НС 1980, «Гривна польская (марка)».
  6. ^ НС 1980, «Грош краковский (польский)».
  7. ^ СН 1993, «Золотой».
  8. ^ Рябцевич В. Н. (1995). "Глава VII. Денежное обращение Беларуси в конце XV — 2-й трети XVII века". Нумизматика Беларуси в конце 2-й трети XVII — середине 90-х гг. XVIII в. Мн.: Полымя. pp. 173, 687. ISBN 5-345-00737-3. 
  9. ^ НС 1980, «Злотый».
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "монеты 1-й Польской Республики 1923-1939 гг.(Coins of II Rzeczpospolita)". site coins.lave.ru. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d https://cenum.pl/katalog/Polska/II_RP/Obiegowe:10_zlotych/
  12. ^ a b "5 злотых 1936 г. яхта "Дар Поморья"". сайт ww2.ru. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  13. ^ "5 злотых серии Ника". сайт coins.su/forum. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski". 
  15. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski". 
  16. ^ "Poland new 500-zloty note (B864) confirmed". Banknote News. February 10, 2017. 
  17. ^ Grupa Wirtualna Polska. "500 zł jednak powstanie. Jest deklaracja NBP". biztok.pl. 
  18. ^ "Narodowy Bank Polski - Internet Information Service". 
  19. ^ "Poland may hold euro referendum in 2010-Deputy PM". Forbes. September 18, 2008. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  20. ^ "Poland may push back euro rollout to 2012". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on May 18, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Poland may push back euro rollout to 2012". BizPoland. Retrieved September 19, 2008. 
  22. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of Poland of 2nd April 1997, as published in Dziennik Ustaw (Journal of Laws) No. 78, item 483". Parliament of the Republic of Poland. Retrieved September 25, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Polish charter must change before ERM-2". fxstreet.com. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2008. 
  24. ^ Sobczyk, Marcin (May 18, 2011). "Poland Backtracks on Euro Adoption". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 25, 2011. 
  25. ^ "CBOS za przyjęciem euro 32 proc. Polaków, przeciw 60 proc". bankier.pl. March 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 

External linksEdit