Spanish Filipino (Spanish: hispanofilipino / español filipino / español insular / criollo; Filipino/Tagalog: Kastílâ / Espanyól / Español; Cebuano: Katsílà / Español; Hiligaynon: Katsílà / Español) are an ethnic and a multilingualistic group native to the Philippines. They consist of Spaniards (White Peninsulares or Criollos), Filipino mestizos, Spanish-speaking Filipinos, hispanicized Filipinos, and hispanic people from South America who are citizens of the Philippines or are descendants of the original European settlers who inter-married with native Filipinos during the Spanish colonial period. Many of their communities trace their ancestry to the early settlers from Spain and Latin America, and depending on the specific province in the Philippines, they formed as much as 19% in the capital city of Manila at formerly named Tondo province, [1]: 539  and about 1.38% of the Ilocos region,[2]: 31  2.17% of Cebu[2]: 113  or 16.72% of Bataan[1]: 539  and other parts of the country.

Spanish Filipinos
A native Filipina of mixed Spanish ancestry, wearing the traditional Maria Clara gown of the Philippines and the long hair tradition of Filipino women during the colonial era.
Total population
5% of the population during the 1700s.[1][2] Spanish, Criollo and Latino: 4,852
Mestizo: 2.1% mixed native with White ancestry from all European and American ethnicities in the (2020 census).[3]
Regions with significant populations
Philippines, Spain, United States and Latin America
Spanish, Filipino-Tagalog, other Philippine languages, English and Chavacano
Christianity - Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups
Other Filipinos and Spanish people
Spanish diaspora
Flag of the Hispanic people
Regions with significant populations
Metro Manila, Zamboanga City, Cebu City, Vigan, Iloilo City, Bauang
Spanish (Philippine), Filipino-Tagalog, other Philippine languages, English and Chavacano
Roman Catholic

Spaniards, Latin Americans and Spanish-speaking Filipinos are referred to by native Filipinos as "Kastila", a word for "Castilian". Native Filipinos in historical terms are referred to by the Spaniards as "gente morena" (brown people) or "Indio" (a word for "Indian" or native people). While those Filipinos who look or have mixed physical appearances from indigenous and white, are descendants from European or American settlers, or those of mixed ancestry from present-day interracial marriages from White people, are called "Tisoy", a Filipino slang word for "Mestizo" (a Spanish word for "mixed", or a person of mixed indigenous and white ancestry). This Hybrid-mixed ethnic group forms a small-minority of 5% of the population of the country during the 1700s.[1][2]

Prominent Filipino businessman, Jaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala, a Filipino of mixed Spanish ancestry.
Prominent Filipina celebrity - singer and film actress, Pilita Corrales, a Filipina of mixed Spanish ancestry.

Spanish Filipinos are found in all social class from upper to lower class, from high profiled individuals to ordinary people. However most of the successful individuals are present in commerce and business sectors in the Philippines and a few sources estimate companies which comprise a significant portion of the Philippine economy like International Container Terminal Services Inc., Manila Water, Integrated Micro-Electronics, Inc., Ayala Land, Ynchausti y Compañia, Ayala Corporation, Aboitiz & Company, Union Bank of the Philippines, ANSCOR, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Globe Telecom, Solaire Resort & Casino, and Central Azucarera de La Carlota, to name but a few are owned by Spanish Filipinos.[4][5][6][7][8]

Terminology edit

Though the definition of the term Hispanic may vary, it generally refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad. It is commonly applied to countries once part of the Spanish Empire, particularly the countries of Latin America, Equatorial Guinea, and Spanish Sahara. The Spanish culture and Spanish language are the main traditions.[9][10]

The Philippines is no longer a Spanish-speaking country, the Tydings–McDuffie Act having laid the groundwork in 1934 for public education to be conducted in English.[11] However, Filipinos retain many Hispanic influences because of three centuries of Spanish colonization, including being part of New Spain and later Spain itself.[12]

Between 1565 and 1898, Hispanics from Latin America and Spain sailed to and from the Philippine Islands. This contributed to the assimilation of Hispanics into everyday society. According to an 1818 study by the renowned German ethnologist Fëdor Jagor entitled "The Former Philippines thru Foreign Eyes", not less than one third of the inhabitants of the island of Luzon were descendants of Spaniards, mixed with varying degrees of South American, Chinese, and Indian ancestry and the vast majority of military personnel then had Latin American origins.[13]

Filipino identity edit

Filipinos share the same cultural heritage with their Spanish and Latino family in Europe and South America, including celebrating the same traditions and having their names and surnames, because of the historical legacy inherited from their colonial parent. This legacy goes back to the early periods of colonization in 1521, when the first native Filipinos in Cebu were baptized and given European names and surnames by Christian priests sailing under the Magellan expedition.

In 1849, the Spanish government established a national census to give all native Filipino citizens in the islands, with Spanish names and surnames, and Christian baptismal. The government distributed a book of Spanish names titled "Nombres Españoles" and surnames called "Catálogo alfabético de apellidos", to the native population to be used as a form of identification and civility.

History edit

Spanish Philippines is the history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898. It begins with the arrival in 1521 of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for Spain, which heralded the period when the Philippines was an overseas province of Spain, and ends with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in 1898.

The Spanish conquest in 1565 led by the conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi, prompted the colonization of the Philippine Islands that lasted for 333 years. The Philippines was a former territory New Spain until the grant of independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct government from Spain of the Philippines from that year. Early Spanish settlers were mostly explorers, soldiers, government officials, religious missionaries, and among others, who were born in Spain and Mexico called Peninsulares (Spanish migrants living in the colony) or Criollo (Spaniards of pure White blood), who settled in the islands with their families to govern the colony, and the majority of the indigenous population. Some of these individuals married or inter-bred with the indigenous Filipino (Austronesian: native Malay) population while most married only other Spaniards. Their succeeding generation called Insulares (Spaniards or Hispanics born from the islands), became town local officers, and were granted with haciendas (plantation estates) by the Spanish government. In some provinces like, Vigan, Iloilo, Cebu, Pampanga, and Zamboanga, The Spanish government encouraged foreign merchants to trade with the indigenous population, but they were not given certain privileges such as ownership of land. From this contact, social intercourse between foreign merchants, and indigenous people resulted in a new ethnic group. These group were called Mestizos (mixed-race individuals), who were born from intermarriages of the Spaniards and merchants with the indigenous Filipino (Austronesian/Malay/Malayo-Polynesian) natives. Some of their descendants, emerged later as an influential part of the ruling class, such as the Principalía (Nobility) class.

The Spanish implemented incentives to deliberately entangle the various races together in order to stop rebellion:[14][15][16] - It is needful to encourage public instruction in all ways possible, permit newspapers subject to a liberal censure, to establish in Manila a college of medicine, surgery, and pharmacy: in order to break down the barriers that divide the races, and amalgamate them all into one. For that purpose, the Spaniards of the country, the Chinese mestizos, and the Filipinos shall be admitted with perfect equality as cadets of the military corps; the personal-service tax shall be abolished, or an equal and general tax shall be imposed, to which all the Spaniards shall be subject. This last plan appears to me more advisable, as the poll-tax is already established, and it is not opportune to make a trial of new taxes when it is a question of allowing the country to be governed by itself. Since the annual tribute is unequal, the average shall be taken and shall be fixed, consequently, at fifteen or sixteen reals per whole tribute, or perhaps one peso fuerte annually from each adult tributary person. This regulation will produce an increase in the revenue of 200,000 or 300,000 pesos fuertes, and this sum shall be set aside to give the impulse for the amalgamation of the races, favoring crossed marriages by means of dowries granted to the single women in the following manner. To a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Filipino shall be given 100 pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, 100 pesos; to a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Spaniard, 1,000 pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, 2,000 pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Spaniard, 2,000 pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Filipino chief, 3,000 or 4,000 pesos. Some mestizo and Filipino alcaldes-mayor of the provinces shall be appointed. It shall be ordered that when a Filipino chief goes to the house of a Spaniard, he shall seat himself as the latter's equal. In a word, by these and other means, the idea that they and the Castilians are two kinds of distinct races shall be erased from the minds of the natives, and the families shall become related by marriage in such manner that when free of the Castilian dominion should any exalted Filipinos try to expel or enslave our race, they would find it so interlaced with their own that their plan would be practically impossible.[17]

Mexicans, Native Americans and some Black-Africans were also brought to the Philippines to work on plantation settlements, as slave workers or settlers working in the colony. Between 1565 and 1815, both Filipinos and people from Latin America and Spain sailed to, and from the Philippines in the Manila galleon trade to Acapulco, assisting Spain in its trade on the colony.

Spanish East Indies edit

Hispanic native Filipinos in Cabildo Street, Intramuros, Manila in 1890.

The Spanish East Indies (Indias orientales españolas) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippine Islands, Guam and the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands (Palau and the Federated States of Micronesia), and for some time parts of Formosa (Taiwan) and the Moluccas (Indonesia). Cebu was the first seat of government, later transferred to Manila. From 1565 to 1821, these territories, together with the Spanish West Indies, were administered through the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City.

Captaincy General of the Philippines edit

The Captaincy General of the Philippines (Spanish: Capitanía General de las Filipinas; Filipino: Kapitanyang Heneral ng Pilipinas) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies which included the modern country of the Philippines and various Pacific Island possessions, such as the Caroline Islands and Guam. It was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements.

For centuries all the political and economic aspects of the Captaincy were administered in Mexico by the Viceroyalty of New Spain, while the administrative issues had to be consulted with the Spanish Crown or the Council of the Indies through the Royal Audience of Manila. However, in 1821, after Mexico became an independent nation, all control was transferred to Madrid.

Population edit

Statistics edit

In the late 1700s to early 1800s, Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga, an Agustinian Friar, in his Two Volume Book: "Estadismo de las islas Filipinas"[1][2] compiled a census of the Spanish-Philippines based on the tribute counts (Which represented an average family of seven to ten children[18] and two parents, per tribute)[19] and came upon the following statistics:

Data reported for the 1800 as divided by ethnicity and province[1][2]
Province Native Tributes Spanish Mestizo Tributes All Tributes[a]
Tondo[1]: 539  14,437-1/2 3,528 27,897-7
Cavite[1]: 539  5,724-1/2 859 9,132-4
Laguna[1]: 539  14,392-1/2 336 19,448-6
Batangas[1]: 539  15,014 451 21,579-7
Mindoro[1]: 539  3,165 3-1/2 4,000-8
Bulacan[1]: 539  16,586-1/2 2,007 25,760-5
Pampanga[1]: 539  16,604-1/2 2,641 27,358-1
Bataan[1]: 539  3,082 619 5,433
Zambales[1]: 539  1,136 73 4,389
Ilocos[2]: 31  44,852-1/2 631 68,856
Pangasinan[2]: 31  19,836 719-1/2 25,366
Cagayan[2]: 31  9,888 0 11,244-6
Camarines[2]: 54  19,686-1/2 154-1/2 24,994
Albay[2]: 54  12,339 146 16,093
Tayabas[2]: 54  7,396 12 9,228
Cebu[2]: 113  28,112-1/2 625 28,863
Samar[2]: 113  3,042 103 4,060
Leyte[2]: 113  7,678 37-1/2 10,011
Caraga[2]: 113  3,497 0 4,977
Misamis[2]: 113  1,278 0 1,674
Negros Island[2]: 113  5,741 0 7,176
Iloilo[2]: 113  29,723 166 37,760
Capiz[2]: 113  11,459 89 14,867
Antique[2]: 113  9,228 0 11,620
Calamianes[2]: 113  2,289 0 3,161
TOTAL 299,049 13,201 424,992-16

The Spanish-Filipino population as a proportion of the provinces widely varied; with as high as 19% of the population of Tondo province [1]: 539  (The most populous province and former name of Manila), to Pampanga 13.7%,[1]: 539  Cavite at 13%,[1]: 539  Laguna 2.28%,[1]: 539  Batangas 3%,[1]: 539  Bulacan 10.79%,[1]: 539  Bataan 16.72%,[1]: 539  Ilocos 1.38%,[2]: 31  Pangasinan 3.49%,[2]: 31  Albay 1.16%,[2]: 54  Cebu 2.17%,[2]: 113  Samar 3.27%,[2]: 113  Iloilo 1%,[2]: 113  Capiz 1%,[2]: 113  Bicol 20%,[20] and Zamboanga 40%.[20] Overall the whole Philippines, even including the provinces with no Spanish settlement, as summed up, the average percentage of Spanish Filipino tributes amount to 5% of the total population.[1][2]

Historical terms edit

These are historical terms used to identify the different types of names given to the people living on the islands.

They are:

  • "Peninsular" - A pure White Spaniard born in Spain but is also a settler and a citizen, living on the islands.
  • "Criollo" - A White Filipino of pure Spanish ancestry, born on and a citizen of the islands.
  • "Mestizo" - A native Filipino person of mixed Spanish ancestry.
  • "Indio" - A native Filipino person, or an individual belonging to a tribal group, native to the islands.
  • "Islas Filipinas" - The name of the islands.
  • "Felipinas" - The name given to the islands in 1543 by explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos in honor of Prince Felipe II, who later became King of Spain in 1556. This name initially referred to just the islands of Leyte and Samar. It was later on expanded to include the entire archipelago. [21]

Identifying a Present-day Filipino edit

This category is about a term used to identify the different types of ordinary Filipino citizens living on the islands, in today's present-day society.

They are:

  • "White Filipino" - People of White European, White American, White Latin American, White Middle Eastern and other White ethnic backgrounds living on the islands.
  • "Hispanic Filipino" - People of mixed native Filipino and Spanish or Latino ancestry, or a Spanish-speaking Filipino, Hispanicized Filipino, Peninsular, Criollo, or a person of Latin American descent living on the islands.
  • "Mestizo Filipino" - A Filipino person of mixed White ancestry.
  • "Native Filipino" - People of un-mixed or a Filipino person of pure ancestry from the islands.
  • "Oriental Filipino" - People from another Asian background living on the islands, or a Filipino mixed with other oriental backgrounds, or a person of South Asian descent living in the islands.
  • "Black Filipino" - People of Black African, African American and Black Latin American backgrounds, living on the islands, or a Filipino person of mixed Black ancestry.
  • "Polynesian Filipino" - People of Polynesian backgrounds living on the islands, or a Filipino person of mixed Polynesian ancestry.
  • "US/Native American Filipino" - A person of White American-native descent, living on the islands.

Religion edit

The majority of Filipinos are Christians, most belong to the Roman Catholic religion.

Language and legacy edit

"La Mestiza Española" (The mixed Spanish), a literature and art works by Justiniano Asuncion.

The original official languages of the Philippines were Spanish, English and Tagalog, as listed in the original constitution. Philippine Spanish was an official language of the country and is the only Spanish-speaking sovereign nation in Asia. Philippine Spanish was the main spoken language of the country from the beginning of colonial rule in the late 1500s until the first half of the 20th century. It held official status for nearly half a millennium before being redesignated as an optional language in 1987. The Philippine government abandoned the Spanish language for some unknown political reasons. Influenced by Philippine government corruption and political agendas during the People Power Revolution in 1986, the government Constitution of the Philippines was changed entirely in 1987.

Tagalog and English remained as the official languages of the country as they had been in previous constitutions. In 1987, the Tagalog language which was called Filipino was promoted as the main language, a language that was chosen by the former Philippine president Manuel L. Quezon in 1935, who himself was of mixed Spanish ancestry.

To this day, Spanish still remains and continues to be spoken by educated Filipinos and Spanish Filipinos in Universities and in Hispanic communities. The Philippines is a member of the Latin Union where the language is used for education in the Instituto Cervantes, in the capital city of Manila. [22] In 2010, the former Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, re-instated the language as a compulsory subject to be taught in schools and universities. [23] One of the reasons of change was that she wanted the Philippines to return to its traditional way of life, be bilingual, competitive, wealthy and respected, who can compete in the world economy. The other, was for global employment demands, such as in the call center and business process outsourcing industries where demands for fluent Spanish speakers were needed.

Most Spanish-speaking Filipinos also use English in the public sphere and may also speak Tagalog and other Philippine languages. In addition, Chavacano (a criollo language based largely on Spanish vocabulary) is spoken in the southern Philippines, and forms one of the majority languages of Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay, Basilan and is mostly concentrated in Zamboanga City. It is also spoken in some parts of the northern Philippines.

Philippine Spanish edit

Philippine Spanish (Spanish: Español Filipino, Castellano Filipino) is a Spanish dialect and variant of the Spanish language spoken in the Philippines. Philippine Spanish is very similar to Mexican Spanish due to the contribution of grammar and vocabulary spoken by Mexican settlers in the country, during the Galleon trade. A constitution ratified in 1987 designated Filipino and English as official languages.[24] Also, under this Constitution, Spanish, together with Arabic, was designated an optional and voluntary language.[25]

Spanish is now spoken mostly by Hispanic Filipinos and educated Filipinos; most Spanish Filipinos speak Spanish as a second or third language as they shifted to English and Tagalog and/or other regional languages.

Chavacano edit

Chavacano or Chabacano [tʃaβaˈkano] is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines. The word Chabacano is derived from Spanish, meaning "poor taste", "vulgar", for the Chavacano language, developed in Cavite City, Ternate, Zamboanga and Ermita. It is also derived from the word "chavano", coined by the Zamboangueño people.

Six different dialects have developed: Zamboangueño in Zamboanga City, Davaoeño Zamboangueño / Castellano Abakay in Davao City, Ternateño in Ternate, Cavite, Caviteño in Cavite City, Cotabateño in Cotabato City and Ermiteño in Ermita.

Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole in Asia. It has survived for more than 400 years, making it one of the oldest creole languages in the world. Among Philippine languages, it is the only one not an Austronesian language, but like Malayo-Polynesian languages, it uses reduplication.

Philippine Cultural heritage edit

Filipinos share the same cultural heritage as to those people from Latin America and Spain, including a shared history, tradition, names, arts and literature, music, food, religion and language.

Arts, music, literature, architecture, cinema and fashion edit

Art, music, literature, architecture, cinema and fashion reflects a range of historical, traditional, indigenous, political, classical and contemporary compositions.

Cover of the Doctrina Christiana featuring Saint Dominic with the book's full title. Woodcut, c. 1590.
Pages of the Doctrina Christiana, an early Christian book in Spanish and Tagalog. The book contained Latin and Baybayin suyat scripts (1593).

"Literatura Filipina en Español" edit

Philippine literature in Spanish (Spanish: Literatura Filipina en Español) is a body of literature made by Filipino writers in the Spanish language. Today, this corpus is the third largest in the whole corpus of Philippine literature (Philippine literature in Filipino being the first, followed by Philippine literature in English). It is slightly larger than Philippine literature in vernacular languages. However, because of the very few additions to it in the past 30 years, it is expected that the latter will soon overtake its rank.

A list of some famous Philippine literature in Spanish follows:

"Doctrina Christiana" edit

The "Doctrina Christiana" was an early book of Roman Catholic Catechism, written in 1593 by Fray Juan de Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest books printed in the Philippines.[26]

The original front cover of Noli Me Tangere.

"Noli Me Tángere" edit

"Noli Me Tángere" (Latin for "Touch me not") is a Political fictional novel written by José Rizal, one of the national heroes of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government.

Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Filipino or English. Together with its sequel, "El Filibusterismo", the reading of "Noli" is obligatory for high school students throughout the country.

"El Filibusterismo" edit

"El Filibusterismo" (lit. Spanish for "The filibustering"[27]), also known by its English alternative title "The Reign of Greed" [28] is the second novel written by Philippine national hero José Rizal. It is the sequel to the political "Noli me tangere" and, like the first book, was written in Spanish. It was first published in 1891 in Ghent.

The novel's dark political theme departs dramatically from the previous novel's hopeful and romantic atmosphere, signifying the character Ibarra's resort to solving his country's issues through violent means, after his previous attempt at reforming the country's system have made no effect and seemed impossible with the attitudes of the Spaniards towards the Filipinos. The novel, along with its predecessor, was banned in some parts of the Philippines as a result of their portrayals of the Spanish government's abuse and corruption. These novels, along with Rizal's involvement in organizations that aim to address and reform the Spanish system and its issues, led to Rizal's exile to Dapitan and eventual execution. Both the novel and its predecessor, along with Rizal's last poem, are now considered Rizal's literary masterpieces.

"Mi último adiós" edit

"Mi último adiós" (English; "My last farewell") is a poem originally written in Spanish by Philippine national hero José Rizal on the eve of his execution by firing squad on December 30, 1896. The piece was one of the last notes he wrote before his death; another that he had written was found in his shoe but because the text was illegible, its contents today remain a mystery.

Cuisine edit

Filipino cuisine is traditionally of Spanish origin mixed with Asian cuisines, with a touch of American influence.

Sport and recreation edit

Soccer (football) is a popular sport among Hispanic Filipinos. Basketball, Tennis, Volleyball and Beach volleyball are also enjoyed.

Notable Spanish Filipinos edit

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Including others such as Latin-Americans and Chinese-Mestizos, pure Chinese paid tribute but were not Philippine citizens as they were transients who returned to China, and Spaniards were exempt

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "ESTADISMO DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS TOMO PRIMERO By Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga (Original Spanish)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on March 9, 2016. Retrieved February 3, 2024.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ESTADISMO DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS TOMO SEGUNDO By Joaquín Martínez de Zúñiga (Original Spanish)
  3. ^ "Ethnicity in the Philippines (2020 Census of Population and Housing)". Table 5. Archived from the original on July 20, 2023. Retrieved December 25, 2023.
  4. ^ "The Basques's contribution to the Philippines". Archived from the original on January 22, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  5. ^ "Ayala Group". Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  6. ^ "Aboitiz and Company - About Us". Archived from the original on August 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  7. ^ "ICTSI - BOD - Enrique K. Razon Jr". Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  8. ^ "ANSCOR - History". Archived from the original on August 17, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2016.
  9. ^ "Archived: 49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 18, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2016. 'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race...
  10. ^ "SOP 80 05 3A: Overview of the 8(A) Business Development Program" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. April 11, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2016. SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal.
  11. ^ "THE PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE ACT (TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE ACT) 1934" (PDF). San Diego State University : Department of Political Science. March 24, 1934. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 27, 2022. Retrieved January 24, 2023. Provision shall be made for the establishment and maintenance of an adequate system of public schools, primarily conducted in the English language.
  12. ^ "The Hispanic Identity of Filipinos: A Short History". Seton Hall University. Archived from the original on September 21, 2022. Retrieved September 21, 2022.
  13. ^ Jagor, Fedor; et al. (2007). "Part VI People and Prospects of the Philippines". The Former Philippines Through Foreign Eyes. Echo Library. ISBN 978-1-4068-1542-9. Archived from the original on February 18, 2023. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  14. ^ Historical Conservation Society. The Society. 1963. p. 191.
  15. ^ Sinibaldo De Mas (1963). Informe secreto de Sinibaldo de Más. Historical Conservation Society. p. 191.
  16. ^ Shubert S. C. Liao (1964). Chinese participation in Philippine culture and economy. Bookman. p. 30.
  17. ^ Emma Helen Blair (1915). The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898: Relating to China and the Chinese. A.H. Clark Company. pp. 85–87.
  18. ^ "How big were families in the 1700s?" By Keri Rutherford
  19. ^ Newson, Linda A. (April 16, 2009). Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-6197-1. Archived from the original on March 8, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2024.
  20. ^ a b Maximilian Larena (January 21, 2021). "Supplementary Information for Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50,000 years (Appendix, Page 35)" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. p. 35. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
  21. ^ Sagmit, E. (1998). "14. The Republic of the Philippines". Geography in the Changing World. Rex Book Store. ISBN 978-971-23-2451-2.
  22. ^ The National Archives (archived from the original on September 27, 2007), Houses the Spanish Collection, which consists of around 13 million manuscripts from the Spanish colonial period.
  23. ^ "Spanish is once again a compulsory subject in the Philippines". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
  24. ^ Article XIV, Section 3 of the 1935 Philippine Constitution Archived June 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine provided, "[...] Until otherwise provided by law, English and Spanish shall continue as official languages." The 1943 Philippine Constitution Archived June 14, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in effect during occupation by Japanese forces, and later repudiated) did not specify official languages. Article XV, Section 3(3) of the 1973 Philippine constitution Archived June 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ratified on January 17, 1973 specified, "Until otherwise provided by law, English and Pilipino shall be the official languages. Presidential Decree No. 155 Archived October 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine dated March 15, 1973 ordered, "[...] that the Spanish language shall continue to be recognized as an official language in the Philippines while important documents in government files are in the Spanish language and not translated into either English or Pilipino language." Article XIV Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution Archived January 26, 2022, at the Wayback Machine specified, "For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English."
  25. ^ Article XIV, Sec 7: For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
  26. ^ Lessing J. Rosenwald (1593). "Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection". Library of Congress. World Digital Library. Archived from the original on February 3, 2024. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
  27. ^ The Subersive or Subversion, as in the Locsín English translation, are also possible translations.
  28. ^ The Reign of Greed by José Rizal. Archived from the original on September 25, 2022. Retrieved April 24, 2008.