History of the Philippines (1565–1898)

The history of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898, also known as the Spanish Philippines or the Spanish colonial period, was the period during which the Philippines were ruled as the Captaincy General of the Philippines within the Spanish East Indies, initially under New Spain until Mexican independence in 1821, which gave Madrid direct control over the area. Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan during his Spanish expedition to circumnavigate the globe, the Spaniards successfully annexed and colonized the islands during the reign of Philip II of Spain, whose name remained attached to the country. The Spanish colonial period ended with the Philippine Revolution in 1898, which marked the beginning of the American colonial era of Philippine history.

Spanish colonializationEdit

BackgroundEdit

The Spaniards had been exploring the Philippines since the early 16th century. Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator in charge of a Spanish expedition to circumnavigate the globe, was killed by warriors of datu Lapulapu at the Battle of Mactan. In 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos arrived at the islands of Leyte and Samar and named them Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain, at the time Prince of Asturias.[1] Philip became King of Spain on January 16, 1556, when his father, Charles I of Spain (who also reigned as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), abdicated the Spanish throne. Philip was in Brussels at the time and his return to Spain was delayed until 1559 because of European politics and wars in northern Europe. Shortly after his return to Spain, Philip ordered an expedition mounted to the Spice Islands, stating that its purpose was "to discover the islands of the west".[2] In reality its task was to conquer the Philippines for Spain.[3] At the time of the first Spanish missions, the population of Luzon and the Visayas is estimated to lay somewhere between 1 and 1.5 million, with overall density being low.[4]

Conquest under Philip IIEdit

 
Pages of the Doctrina Christiana, an early Christian book in Spanish and Tagalog. The book contained Latin and baybayin suyat scripts. (1593)

King Philip II of Spain, whose name has remained attached to the islands, ordered and oversaw the conquest and colonization of the Philippines. On November 19 or 20, 1564 a Spanish expedition of a mere 500 men led by Miguel López de Legazpi departed Barra de Navidad, New Spain, arriving off Cebu on February 13, 1565, conquering it despite Cebuano opposition.[5]:77[6][7]:20–23 Spanish policy towards the colonization of the Philippines was that it should be a peaceful conversion rather than a military conquest, a product of internal Spanish debates following the violence of their conquest of the New World, and of Philip II's personal convictions. The reality on the ground was different, as hardship for the colonizing soldiers contributed to looting and enslavement, despite the entreaties of representatives of the church who accompanied them. In 1568, the crown permitted the establishment of the encomienda system that it was abolishing in the New World, effectively legalizing a more oppressive conquest. Although slavery had been abolished in the Spanish Empire, it was allowed to continue in some forms the Philippines due to its already present use on the islands.[8]

Due to conflict with the Portuguese, who blockaded Cebu in 1568, and persistent supply shortages,[9] in 1569 Legazpi transferred to Panay and founded a second settlement on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570 Legazpi sent his grandson, Juan de Salcedo, who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates who had been plundering Panay villages. Salcedo also destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang, respectively south and northwest of Mindoro.[5]:79

In 1570, Martín de Goiti, having been dispatched by Legazpi to Luzon, conquered the Kingdom of Maynila. Legazpi followed with a larger fleet including both Spanish forces and some Visayan allies,[5]:79–80 taking a month to bring these forces to bear due to slow speed of local ships.[10] This large force caused the surrender of neighboring Tondo. An attempt by some local leaders to defeat the Spanish was repelled. Legazpi renamed Manila Nueva Castilla, and declared it the capital of the Philippines,[5]:80 and thus of the entire Spanish East Indies,[11] which also encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific.[12][13] Legazpi became the country's first governor-general.

In 1573, Japan expanded its trade in northern Luzon.[14][failed verification] In 1580, the Japanese lord Tay Fusa established the independent Wokou Tay Fusa state in non-colonial Cagayan.[15] When the Spanish arrived in the area, they subjugated the new kingdom, resulting in 1582 Cagayan battles.[16] With time, Cebu's importance fell as power shifted north to Luzon.[citation needed]In the late 16th century the population of Manila grew even as the population of Spanish settlements in the Visayas decreased.[17]

Spanish settlersEdit

The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of divide and conquer.[18] Under Spanish rule, disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where Catholic missionaries were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to Christianity.[19][20] Under Spanish rule, Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity.[21] They also founded schools, a university, hospitals, and churches.[22] To defend their settlements, the Spaniards constructed and manned a network of military fortresses across the archipelago.[23] Slavery was also abolished. As a result of these policies the Philippine population increased exponentially.[24][25]

Spanish rule brought most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration.[26][27] From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based Viceroyalty of New Spain, later administered from Madrid following the Mexican War of Independence.[28] Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain,[29] and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region.[30][31] The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown,[29] which averaged 250,000 pesos[32] and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.[33] Financial constraints meant the 200-year-old fortifications in Manila did not see significant change after being first built by the early Spanish colonizers.[34]

Some Japanese ships visited the Philippines in the 1570s in order to export Japanese silver and import Philippine gold. Later, increasing imports of silver from New World sources resulted in Japanese exports to the Philippines shifting from silver to consumer goods. In the 1570s, the Spanish traders were troubled to some extent by Japanese pirates, but peaceful trading relations were established between the Philippines and Japan by 1590.[35] Japan's kampaku (regent), Toyotomi Hideyoshi, demanded unsuccessfully on several occasions that the Philippines submit to Japan's suzerainty.[36]

On February 8, 1597, King Philip II, near the end of his 42-year reign, issued a Royal Cedula instructing Francisco de Tello de Guzmán, then Governor-General of the Philippines to fulfill the laws of tributes and to provide for restitution of ill-gotten taxes taken from indigenous Filipinos. The decree was published in Manila on August 5, 1598. King Philip died on September 13, just forty days after the publication of the decree, but his death was not known in the Philippines until middle of 1599, by which time a referendum by which indigenous Filipinos would acknowledge Spanish rule was underway. With the completion of the Philippine referendum of 1599, Spain could be said to have established legitimate sovereignty over the Philippines.[37]

The European population in the archipelago steadily grew although native Filipinos remained the majority. During the initial period of colonialization, Manila was settled by 1200 Spanish families.[38] In Cebu City, at the Visayas, the settlement received a total of 2,100 soldier-settlers from New Spain (Mexico).[39] Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population.[40][41][42] Immigration blurred the racial caste system[43][44][45] Spain maintained in towns and cities.[46] At the immediate south of Manila, Mexicans were present at Ermita[47] and at Cavite[48] where they were stationed as sentries. In addition, men conscripted from Peru, were also sent to settle Zamboanga City in Mindanao, to wage war upon Muslim defenders[49] There were also communities of Spanish-Mestizos that developed in Iloilo,[50] Negros[51] and Vigan.[52] Interactions between indigenous Filipinos and immigrant Spaniards plus Latin-Americans eventually caused the formation of a new language, Chavacano, a creole of Mexican Spanish.They depended on the Galleon Trade for a living. In the later years of the 18th century, Governor-General Basco introduced economic reforms that gave the colony its first significant internal source income from the production of tobacco and other agricultural exports. In this later period, agriculture was finally opened to the European population, which before was reserved only for indigenous Filipinos.

Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.[53] Manila galleons were constructed in Bicol and Cavite.[54][55] The Philippine economy depended on this trade, which was inaugurated in 1565 between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico. Trade between Spain and the Philippines was via the Pacific Ocean to Mexico (Manila to Acapulco), and then across the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean to Spain (Veracruz to Cádiz). Manila became a major center of trade in Asia between the 17th and 18th centuries. All sorts of products from China, Japan, Brunei, the Moluccas and even India were sent to Manila to be sold for silver 8-Real coins which came aboard the galleons from Acapulco. These goods, including silk, porcelain, spices, lacquerware and textile products were then sent to Acapulco and from there to other parts of New Spain, Peru and Europe.

During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts,[56] as well as defending against external military challenges.[29][57] The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista.[58] War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.[59] Moros from western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago also raided the coastal Christian areas of Luzon and the Visayas. Settlers had to fight off the Chinese pirates (who lay siege to Manila, the most famous of which was Limahong in 1573).

Spanish governmentEdit

Spanish Colonial Bureaucracy [60]
Level of government Headed by Description
Spanish Empire Monarch of Spain Civil and Spiritual Authority (through Royal Patronage)
Council of Indies
  • Composed of 6 to 10 appointed royal councilors
  • Governed all the Spanish colonies in the King's name, and had legislative power
  • Served as the court of appeals for the colonies
Viceroyalty of New Spain (abolished after Mexico gained independence in 1821) Viceroy of New Spain Governed New Spain on the King's behalf
Central Government in Manila Captain General
  • Initially exercised executive (as Governor), legislative, judicial (as President of the Audiencia), military (as Captain General), and ecclesiastical (as Vice Patron) powers
  • By 1821 or 1875, the office became Governor General
  • Appointed by the King with the advice of the council and probably the Viceroy prior to 1821
  • Balanced by the Audiencia
Archbishop of Manila
  • Had full spiritual authority over the army and navy as military Vicar General of the islands
  • Advised the Captain General, especially in matters concerning the governance and provisioning of the Church in the Philippines
  • Ecclesiastical governor of the islands’ suffragan dioceses, headed by bishops.
  • Appointed dignitaries or the staff of a diocese, if the captain general failed to do so
Real Audiencia de Manila
  • Functioned as the Supreme Court and advised the Captain General
  • Initially composed of four judges (oidores), an attorney-general (fiscal), and a constable, with attached advocates for the accused, a defender of the naturales (“natives”), and other minor officials; the number of oidores and fiscales would be increased after
  • Took charge of government upon the death of the governor (mayor) up to the arrival of his successor
Local government
Provincia/Alcaldía Mayor Bishops of Suffragan Dioceses
Alcalde Mayor (for Provinces)
  • Exercised executive and judiciary powers in the province
  • Collected tribute
  • Until the mid-19th century, he had the privilege to engage in trade (indulto de comercio), which occasioned many abuses against the local population
  • No provision was made restricting the alcalde mayor to engage in trade
Corregidor (for Districts)
  • If a provincia was large, the alcalde mayor had a corregidor to administer over corregimientos (provincial district)
  • Exercised executive and judiciary power
Junta Provincial (1893–1898)
  • Provincial council which assisted the alcalde mayor
  • Composed of a public prosecutor, finance administrator, treasurer, vicars forane, provincial doctor, and four principles of the capital elected by the capitanes municipales of the province
Pueblo/Municipio Gobernadorcillo
  • Administered over a pueblo, assisted by other pueblo officials
  • Position was initially restricted to the local married men of the elite (principalia)
  • By 1768, the position became elective. Any person elected acquired elite status, diluting the political power given by the Spanish to the hereditary datus the old Principalía class.
Capitan Municipal (1893–1898)
  • Equivalent of the pre-Maura Law gobernadorcillo
  • Head of the tribunal municipal
  • Elected by the residents of the municipio
Tribunal Municipal (1893–1898) Municipal council composed of the municipal captain, the chief lieutenant, the lieutenant of police, the lieutenant of fields and the lieutenant of livestock, all of which were elected by the residents of the municipio
Barangay Cabeza de Barangay
  • Administered over a barangay of 40 to 50 families
  • Collected tribute in the barangay
  • Position was originally hereditary among the local elites of the pre-colonial period
  • Position was made elective in 1786; the gobernadorcillo and other cabezas chose a name and presented it to the Governor General for appointment to the position in a specific barangay.
  • After three years of service, a cabeza was qualified for election to the office of the gobernadorcillo.

Political systemEdit

 
Fort San Pedro was first of many fortresses to protect the islands from invaders such as pirates and other colonizers.

The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. The first task was the reduction, or relocation of indigenous Filipinos into settlements. The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomienda system, which resembled the feudal system in medieval Europe. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants. In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from potential invasions of outside powers such as the Dutch, British and Chinese. The encomienda system was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial governor).[61] The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located. Residential areas lay around the plaza. During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza.

National governmentEdit

 
Chinese settlers in the Philippines

On the national level or social class, the King of Spain, via his Council of the Indies (Consejo de las Indias), governed through his representative in the Philippines, the Governor-General of the Philippines (Gobernador y Capitán General). With the seat of power in Intramuros, Manila, the Governor-General was given several duties: head of the supreme court, the Royal Audiencia of Manila; Commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and the economic planner of the country.[citation needed] All executive power of the local government stemmed from him and as regal patron, he had the authority to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. His yearly salary was 40,000 pesos. The Governor-General was commonly a peninsular Spaniard, a Spaniard born in Spain, to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown or tiara.

Provincial governmentEdit

On the local level, heading the pacified provinces (alcaldías), was the provincial governor (alcalde mayor). The unpacified military zones (corregimiento), such as Mariveles and Mindoro, were headed by the corregidores. City governments (ayuntamientos), were also headed by an alcalde mayor. Alcaldes mayores and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province, and even vice-regal patron. Their annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1600 after 1847. This could be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. The alcalde mayor was usually an Insular (Spaniard born in the Philippines). In the 19th century, the Peninsulares began to displace the Insulares, which resulted in the political unrests of 1872, notably the 1872 Cavite mutiny and the Gomburza executions.

Municipal governmentEdit

The pueblo or town was headed by the Gobernadorcillo or little governor. Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron), recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription (quinto), postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. He intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands, justice, finance and the municipal police. His annual salary, however, was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, proficient in oral or written Spanish and has been a cabeza de barangay of 4 years can be a gobernadorcillo.

Any member of the Principalía, who speaks or who has knowledge of the Spanish language and has been a Cabeza de Barangay of 4 years can be a Gobernadorcillo. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo, a chinese mestizo,[62] and who was the Gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). The officials of the pueblo were proficient. taken from the Principalía, the noble class of pre-colonial origin. Their names are survived by prominent families in contemporary Philippine society such as Duremdes, Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan, Liwanag, Mallillin, Pangilinan, Panganiban, Balderas, Zabarte and Agbayani, Apalisok, Aguinaldo to name a few.[citation needed]

Barrio governmentEdit

 
Old view of a street in Cebu

Every barangay was further divided into "barrios", and the barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabeza de barangay). He was responsible for peace and order, recruited men for communal public works, and collecting the barrio's taxes. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor.

In addition, this is where the sentiment heard as, "Mi Barrio", first came from.

The Residencia and the VisitaEdit

To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient Castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines: the Residencia, dating back to the 5th century, and the Visita, which differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within the official's term, without any previous notice. Visitas could be specific or general.

Maura lawEdit

The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19, 1893. Named after its author, Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time, the law reorganized town governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish.

EconomyEdit

 
A sketch of a Manila galleon used during the Manila-Acapulco trade
 
Malacañang Palace was the seat of the colonial government of the Philippines.
 
Puerta de Santa Lucia gate is one of the gates of the walled city (Intramuros), Manila.

Manila-Acapulco galleon tradeEdit

The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain, which was used to purchase Asian goods such as silk from China, spices from the Moluccas, lacquerware from Japan and Philippine cotton textiles.[63] These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. Thus, the Philippines earned its income through the trade of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon. To Spain, the galleon trade was the link that bound the Philippines to her.[64]

While the trade did bring some results which were beneficial to the Philippines, most effects were disadvantageous.[65] However, the trade did result in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as tomatoes, avocado, guava, papaya, pineapple, and horses.[65] These gave the colony its first real income. The trade lasted for over two hundred years, and ceased in 1815 just before the secession of American colonies from Spain.[66]

Royal Society of Friends of the CountryEdit

José de Basco y Vargas, following a royal order to form a society of intellectuals who can produce new, useful ideas, formally established the Spanish Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Country, after the model of the Royal Basque Society. Composed of leading men in local and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture and established an academy of design. It was also credited to the carabao ban of 1782, the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first paper mill in the Philippines in 1825. It was introduced in 1780, vanished temporarily in 1787–1819, 1820–1822 and 1875–1822, and ceased to exist in the middle of the 1890s.

Royal Company of the PhilippinesEdit

On March 10, 1785, King Charles III of Spain confirmed the establishment of the Royal Philippine Company with a 25-year charter.[67] After revocated the Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas that had a monopoly on Venezuelan trade, the Basque-based company was granted a monopoly on the importation of Chinese and Indian goods into the Philippines, as well as the shipping of the goods directly to Spain via the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch and British both bitterly opposed it because they saw the company as a direct attack on their trade in Asia. It also faced the hostility of the traders of the Galleon trade (see above) who saw it as competition. This gradually resulted in the death of both institutions: The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815.[68]

The first vessel of the Royal Philippine Company to set sail was the "Nuestra Señora de los Placeres" commanded by the captain Juan Antonio Zabaleta.[69]

TaxationEdit

 
Spanish coin minted in Manila 1829, during the reign of Ferdinand VII of Spain

Also there was the bandalâ (from the Tagalog word mandalâ, a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed), an annual forced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. By 1884, the tribute was replaced by the cedula personal, wherein everyone over 18 were required to pay for personal identification.[70] The local gobernadorcillos were responsible for collection of the tribute. Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt.[71]

Aside from paying a tribute, all male Filipinos as well as Chinese immigrants from 16 to 60 years old were obliged to render forced labor called “polo”. This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later reduced to 15 days. It took various forms such as the building and repairing of roads and bridges, construction of public buildings and churches, cutting timber in the forest, working in shipyards and serving as soldiers in military expeditions. People who rendered the forced labor was called “polistas”. He could be exempted by paying the “falla” which is a sum of money. The polista were according to law, to be given a daily rice ration during their working days which they often did not receive.[72]

Dutch attacksEdit

 
The two merchant galleons, the Encarnacion and Rosario, which were hastily converted to warships to meet the superior Dutch armada of 18 vessels during the battles of La Naval de Manila in 1646 (artist's conception)
 
Maria Clara gown, the Philippine national dress, was made during the colonial era by Filipinos.

There were three naval actions fought between Dutch corsairs and Spanish forces in 1610, 1617 and 1624. Known as the First, Second and Third Battles of Playa Honda. The second battle is the most famous and celebrated of the three, with nearly even forces (10 ships vs 10 ships), resulting in the Dutch losing their flagship and retreating. Only the third battle of 1624 resulted in a Dutch naval victory.

In 1646, a series of five naval actions known as the Battles of La Naval de Manila was fought between the forces of Spain and the Dutch Republic, as part of the Eighty Years' War. Although the Spanish forces consisted of just two Manila galleons and a galley with crews composed mainly of Filipino volunteers, against three separate Dutch squadrons, totaling eighteen ships, the Dutch squadrons were severely defeated in all fronts by the Spanish-Filipino forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their plans for an invasion of the Philippines.

On June 6, 1647, Dutch vessels were sighted near Mariveles Island. In spite of the preparations, the Spanish had only one galleon (the San Diego) and two galleys ready to engage the enemy. The Dutch had twelve major vessels.

On June 12, the armada attacked the Spanish port of Cavite. The battle lasted eight hours, and the Spanish believed they had done much damage to the enemy flagship and the other vessels. The Spanish ships were not badly damaged and casualties were low. However, nearly every roof in the Spanish settlement was damaged by cannon fire, which particularly concentrated on the cathedral. On June 19, the armada was split, with six ships sailing for the shipyard of Mindoro and the other six remaining in Manila Bay. The Dutch next attacked Pampanga, where they captured the fortified monastery, taking prisoners and executing almost 200 Filipino defenders. The governor ordered solemn funeral rites for the dead and payments to their widows and orphans.[73][74][75]

There was an expedition the following year that arrived in Jolo in July. The Dutch had formed an alliance with an anti-Spanish king, Salicala. The Spanish garrison on the island was small, but survived a Dutch bombardment. The Dutch finally withdrew, and the Spanish made peace with the Joloans, and then also withdrew.[73][74][75]

There was also an unsuccessful attack on Zamboanga in 1648. That year the Dutch promised the natives of Mindanao that they would return in 1649 with aid in support of a revolt against the Spanish. Several revolts did break out, the most serious being in the village of Lindáo. There most of the Spaniards were killed, and the survivors were forced to flee in a small river boat to Butuán. However, Dutch aid did not materialize or have objects to provide them. The authorities from Manila issued a general pardon, and many of the Filipinos in the mountains surrendered. However, some of those were hung or they were enslaved.[73][74][75]

The demands of these wars has been regarded as a potential cause of population decline.[76]

British occupation of ManilaEdit

 
Postern of Our Lady of Solitude, through which Governor General Simón de Anda y Salazar escaped with most government papers and about half the treasury

In August 1759, Charles III ascended the Spanish throne. At the time, Great Britain and France were at war, in what was later called the Seven Years' War.

British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764, however they were unable to extend their conquest outside of Manila as the Filipinos stayed loyal to the remaining Spanish community outside Manila.[7]:81–83 Spanish colonial forces kept the British confined to Manila. Catholic Archbishop Rojo, who had been captured by the British, executed a document of surrender on October 30, 1762, giving the British confidence in eventual victory.[77][78]

The surrender by Archbishop Rojo was rejected as illegal by Don Simón de Anda y Salazar, who claimed the title of Governor-General under the statutes of the Council of Indies. He led Spanish-Filipino forces that kept the British confined to Manila and sabotaged or crushed British-fomented revolts, such as the revolt by Diego Silang. Anda intercepted and redirected the Manila galleon trade to prevent further captures by the British. The failure of the British to consolidate their position led to troop desertions and a breakdown of command unity which left the British forces paralysed and in an increasingly precarious position.[79]

The Seven Years' War was ended by the Peace of Paris signed on February 10, 1763. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Manila was under British occupation and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently, no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown.[80]

Resistance against Spanish ruleEdit

 
Town of Jaro, Iloilo, Philippines

Spanish colonial rule of the Philippines was constantly threatened by indigenous rebellions and invasions from the Dutch, Chinese, Japanese and British. The previously dominant groups resisted Spanish rule, refusing to pay Spanish taxes and rejecting Spanish excesses. All were defeated by the Spanish and their Filipino allies by 1597. In many areas, the Spanish left indigenous groups to administer their own affairs but under Spanish overlordship.

From its inception, the Captaincy General of the Philippines was governed from Mexico City as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. However, following Mexican independence in 1821, the Philippines and other Spanish Pacific islands were ruled directly from Madrid. The loss of supply routes and trading posts via Mexico presented logistical issues to the Spanish government, isolating the Philippines and rendering them more difficult to govern efficiently.

Early resistanceEdit

The Resistance against Spain did not immediately cease upon the conquest of the Austronesian cities. After Rajah Patis of Cebu, some indigenous Filipino nobles resisted Spanish rule. Throughout their rule, the Spanish government had faced numerous revolts across the country, most of which they had successfully quelled while others were won through agreements with the leaders of the revolts themselves.

The Spanish–Moro conflict lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of Mindanao and Jolo,[81] and the Moro Muslims in the Sultanate of Sulu formally recognized Spanish sovereignty.[82][83]

During the British occupation of Manila (1762–1764), Diego Silang was appointed by them as governor of Ilocos and after his assassination by fellow Filipinos, his wife Gabriela continued to lead the Ilocanos in the fight against Spanish rule. Resistance against Spanish rule was regional in character, based on ethnolinguistic groups.[84]

Hispanization did not spread to the mountainous center of northern Luzon, nor to the inland communities of Mindanao.

The opening of the Philippines to world tradeEdit

 
Old photo of Manila's streets with Bahay na bato edifices and kalesa, Filipino style of architecture and transportation developed during the Spanish era

In Europe, the Industrial Revolution spread from the United Kingdom to Spain during the period known as the Victorian era. The industrialization of Europe created great demands for raw materials from the colonies, bringing with it investment and wealth. Governor-General Basco had opened the Philippines to this trade. Previously, the Philippines was seen as a trading post for international trade but in the nineteenth century it was developed both as a source of raw materials and as a market for manufactured goods.

In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society.[85][86] The decline of the Manila Galleon trade contributed to shifts in the domestic economy. Communal land became privatized to meet international demand for agricultural products, which led to the formal opening of the ports of Manila, Iloilo, and Cebu to international trade.[87]

Rise of Filipino nationalismEdit

 
Tagalog Filipino mestizo, early 1800s. Original caption: Métis indiens-espagnols (Spanish-indian Mestizos). From Aventures d'un Gentilhomme Breton aux iles Philippines by Paul de la Gironiere, published in 1855.
 
The opening of Philippine trade to the world gave rise to business and imposing edifices that made Manila the 'Paris of Asia'. La Insular Cigar Factory is one of the most popular.

The development of the Philippines as a source of raw materials and as a market for European manufactures created much local wealth. Many Filipinos prospered. Everyday Filipinos also benefited from the new economy with the rapid increase in demand for labor and availability of business opportunities. Some Europeans immigrated to the Philippines to join the wealth wagon, among them Jacobo Zobel, patriarch of today's Zobel de Ayala family and prominent figure in the rise of Filipino nationalism. Their scions studied in the best universities of Europe where they learned the ideals of liberty from the French and American Revolutions. The new economy gave rise to a new middle class in the Philippines, usually not ethnic Filipinos.

In the mid-19th century, the Suez Canal was opened which made the Philippines easier to reach from Spain. The small increase of Peninsulares from the Iberian Peninsula threatened the secularization of the Philippine churches. In state affairs, the Criollos, known locally as Insulares (lit. "islanders"). were displaced from government positions by the Peninsulares, whom the Insulares regarded as foreigners.

The Latin American wars of independence and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term Filipino shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry, for which it developed into a national identity.[88][89] This was compounded by a Mexican of Filipino descent, Isidoro Montes de Oca, becoming captain-general to the revolutionary leader Vicente Guerrero during the Mexican War of Independence.[90][91][92]

The Insulares had become increasingly Filipino and called themselves Los hijos del país (lit. "sons of the country"). Among the early proponents of Filipino nationalism were the Insulares Padre Pedro Peláez, archbishop of Manila, who fought for the secularization of Philippine churches and expulsion of the friars; Padre José Burgos whose execution influenced the national hero José Rizal; and Joaquín Pardo de Tavera who fought for retention of government positions by natives, regardless of race. In retaliation to the rise of Filipino nationalism, the friars called the Indios (possibly referring to Insulares and mestizos as well) indolent and unfit for government and church positions. In response, the Insulares came out with Indios agraviados, a manifesto defending the Filipino against discriminatory remarks.

The tension between the Insulares and Peninsulares erupted into the failed revolts of Novales and the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 which resulted to the deportation of prominent Filipino nationalists to the Marianas and Europe who would continue the fight for liberty through the Propaganda Movement. The Cavite Mutiny implicated the priests Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (see Gomburza) whose executions would influence the subversive activities of the next generation of Filipino nationalists, José Rizal, who then dedicated his novel, El filibusterismo to these priests.

A national public school system was introduced in 1863.[93][94][95]

Rise of Spanish liberalismEdit

 
Colegio San Juan de Letran, Intramuros Manila (ca. 1880)

After the Liberals won the Spanish Revolution of 1868, Carlos María de la Torre was sent to the Philippines to serve as governor-general (1869–1871). He was one of the most loved governors-general in the Philippines because of the reforms he implemented.[citation needed] At one time, his supporters, including Padre Burgos and Joaquín Pardo de Tavera, serenaded him in front of the Malacañan Palace.[citation needed] Following the Bourbon Restoration in Spain and the removal of the Liberals from power, de la Torre was recalled and replaced by Governor-General Izquierdo who vowed to rule with an iron fist.[citation needed]

FreemasonryEdit

Freemasonry had gained a generous following in Europe and the Americas during the 19th century and found its way to the Philippines. The Western World was quickly changing and sought less political control from the Roman Catholic Church.

The first Filipino Masonic lodge was Revoluccion. It was established by Graciano Lopez Jaena in Barcelona and was recognized in April 1889. It did not last long after he resigned from being its worshipful master on November 29, 1889.

In December 1889, Marcelo H. del Pilar established, with the help of Julio Llorente, the Solidaridad in Madrid. Its first worshipful master was Llorente. A short time later, the Solidaridad grew. Some its members included José Rizal, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Baldomero Roxas, and Galicano Apacible.

In 1891, Del Pilar sent Laktaw to the Philippines to establish a Masonic lodge. Laktaw established on January 6, 1892, the Nilad, the first Masonic lodge in the Philippines. It is estimated that there were 35 masonic lodges in the Philippines in 1893 of which nine were in Manila. The first Filipino freemason was Rosario Villaruel. Trinidad and Josefa Rizal, Marina Dizon, Romualda Lanuza, Purificacion Leyva, and many others join the masonic lodge.

Freemasonry was important during the time of the Philippine Revolution. It pushed the reform movement and carried out the propaganda work. In the Philippines, many of those who pushed for a revolution were member of freemasonry like Andrés Bonifacio. In fact, the organization used by Bonifacio in establishing the Katipunan was derived from the Masonic society. It may be said that joining masonry was one activity that both the reformists and the Katipuneros shared.

Ilustrados, Rizal and KatipunanEdit

 
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain
 
Katipuneros

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after three activist Catholic priests were executed on weak pretences.[96][97][98] This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines.[citation needed]

The mass deportation of nationalists to the Marianas and Europe in 1872 led to a Filipino expatriate community of reformers in Europe. The community grew with the next generation of Ilustrados studying in European universities. They allied themselves with Spanish liberals, notably Spanish senator Miguel Morayta Sagrario, and founded the newspaper La Solidaridad.

Among the reformers was José Rizal, who wrote two novels while in Europe. His novels were considered[by whom?] the most influential of the Illustrados' writings causing further unrest in the islands, particularly the founding of the Katipunan. A rivalry developed between himself and Marcelo H. del Pilar for the leadership of La Solidaridad and the reform movement in Europe. Majority of the expatriates supported the leadership of del Pilar.[citation needed]

Rizal then returned to the Philippines to organize La Liga Filipina and bring the reform movement to Philippine soil. He was arrested just a few days after founding the league.[citation needed] Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain.[99] As attempts at reform met with resistance,[100] in 1892, Radical members of the La Liga Filipina, which included Bonifacio and Deodato Arellano, founded the Kataastaasan Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK), called simply the Katipunan, which had the objective of the Philippines seceding from the Spanish Empire.

The Philippine RevolutionEdit

 
Emilio Aguinaldo, the first Philippine president

By 1896 the Katipunan had a membership by the thousands. That same year, the existence of the Katipunan was discovered by the colonial authorities. In late August Katipuneros gathered in Caloocan and declared the start of the revolution. The event is now known as the Cry of Balintawak or Cry of Pugad Lawin, due to conflicting historical traditions and official government positions.[101] Andrés Bonifacio called for a general offensive on Manila[102][103] and was defeated in battle at the town of San Juan del Monte. He regrouped his forces and was able to briefly capture the towns of Marikina, San Mateo and Montalban. Spanish counterattacks drove him back and he retreated to the mountains of Balara and Morong and from there engaged in guerrilla warfare.[104] By August 30, the revolt had spread to eight provinces. On that date, Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared a state of war in these provinces and placed them under martial law. These were Manila, Bulacan, Cavite, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, Batangas, and Nueva Ecija. They would later be represented in the eight rays of the sun in the Filipino flag.[105][failed verification] Emilio Aguinaldo and the Katipuneros of Cavite were the most successful of the rebels[106] and they controlled most of their province by September–October. They defended their territories with trenches designed by Edilberto Evangelista.[104]

 
Marcela Agoncillo (center), principal seamstress of the first official flag of the Philippines

Many of the educated ilustrado class such as Antonio Luna and Apolinario Mabini did not initially favor an armed revolution. Rizal himself, whom the rebels took inspiration from and had consulted beforehand, disapproved of a premature revolution. He was arrested, tried and executed for treason, sedition and conspiracy on December 30, 1896. Before his arrest he had issued a statement disavowing the revolution, but in his swan song poem Mi último adiós he wrote that dying in battle for the sake of one's country was just as patriotic as his own impending death.[107][page needed]

While the revolution spread throughout the provinces, Aguinaldo's Katipuneros declared the existence of an insurgent government in October regardless of Bonifacio's Katipunan,[108] which he had already converted into an insurgent government with him as president in August.[109][110] Bonifacio was invited to Cavite to mediate between Aguinaldo's rebels, the Magdalo, and their rivals the Magdiwang, both chapters of the Katipunan. There he became embroiled in discussions whether to replace the Katipunan with an insurgent government of the Cavite rebels' design.[citation needed] This internal dispute that led to the Tejeros Convention and an election in which Bonifacio lost his position and Emilio Aguinaldo was elected as the new leader of the revolution.[111]:145–147 On March 22, 1897, the convention established the Tejeros Revolutionary Government.[citation needed] Bonifacio refused to recognize this and he was executed for treason in May 1897.[112][113] On November 1, the Tejeros government was supplanted by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato.[citation needed]

By December 1897, the revolution had resulted to a stalemate between the colonial government and rebels. Pedro Paterno mediated between the two sides for the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. The conditions of the armistice included the self-exile of Aguinaldo and his officers in exchange for $800,000 or 40,104,392.82542 pesos to be paid by the colonial government.[citation needed] Aguinaldo then sailed to Hong Kong for self exile.[114]

The Spanish–American WarEdit

 
The House of Emilio Aguinaldo is where the proclamation of Philippine Independence from Spain took place on June 12, 1898.

On April 25, 1898, the Spanish–American War began. On May 1, 1898, in the Battle of Manila Bay, the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy, led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia, decisively defeated the Spanish naval forces in the Philippines. With the loss of its naval forces and of control of Manila Bay, Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines.

On May 19, Emilio Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines aboard a U.S. Navy ship and on May 24 took command of Filipino forces. Filipino forces had liberated much of the country from the Spanish.[citation needed] On June 12, 1898 Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence declaring independence from Spain.[114] Filipino forces then laid siege to Manila, as had American forces.

In August 1898, the Spanish governor-general covertly agreed with American commanders to surrender Manila to the Americans following a mock battle. On August 13, 1898, during the Battle of Manila (1898), Americans took control of the city.[citation needed] In December 1898, the Treaty of Paris (1898) was signed, ending the Spanish–American War and selling the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. With this treaty, Spanish rule in the Philippines formally ended.[115][116]

On January 23, 1899, Aguinaldo established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos.[117]

As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out[118] on February 4, 1899, with the Battle of Manila (1899).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Scott 1985, p. 51.
  2. ^ Williams 2009, p. 14
  3. ^ Williams 2009, pp. 13–33.
  4. ^ Newson 2009, p. 4.
  5. ^ a b c d Maria Christine N. Halili (2004). Philippine History' 2004 Ed.-halili. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  6. ^ Education, United States. Office of (1961). Bulletin. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 7.
  7. ^ a b de Borja, Marciano R. (2005). Basques In The Philippines. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 9780874175905.
  8. ^ Newson 2009, pp. 5–7.
  9. ^ Newson 2009, p. 61.
  10. ^ Newson 2009, p. 20.
  11. ^ Fernando A. Santiago Jr. (2006). "Isang Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pandacan, Maynila 1589–1898". Malay. 19 (2): 70–87. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  12. ^ Manuel L. Quezon III (June 12, 2017). "The Philippines Isn't What It Used to Be". SPOT.PH. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  13. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2005). "La Isla Hermosa: The Rise of the Spanish Colony in Northern Taiwan". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish and Han colonialization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press.
  14. ^ "조선왕조실록". Sillok.history.go.kr. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  15. ^ Barreveld, Dirk J. (February 23, 2019). The Dutch Discovery of Japan: The True Story Behind James Clavell's Famous Novel Shogun. ISBN 9780595192618. Retrieved February 23, 2019 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ Borao, José Eugenio (2005), p.2
  17. ^ Newson 2009, p. 120.
  18. ^ Guillermo, Artemio (2012) [2012]. Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. The Scarecrow Press Inc. p. 374. ISBN 9780810875111. Retrieved September 11, 2020. To pursue their mission of conquest, the Spaniards dealt individually with each settlement or village and with each province or island until the entire Philippine archipelago was brought under imperial control. They saw to it that the people remained divided or compartmentalized and with the minimum of contact or communication. The Spaniards adopted the policy of divide et impera (divide and conquer).
  19. ^ Abinales & Amoroso 2005, pp. 53, 68.
  20. ^ Constantino, Renato; Constantino, Letizia R. (1975). A History of the Philippines. NYU Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0-85345-394-9. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  21. ^ Russell, S.D. (1999) "Christianity in the Philippines". Retrieved April 2, 2013.[full citation needed]
  22. ^ "The City of God: Churches, Convents and Monasteries". Discovering Philippines. Retrieved on July 6, 2011.[full citation needed]
  23. ^ Rene Javellana, S.J. (1997). "Fortress of Empire".[full citation needed]
  24. ^ Lahmeyer, Jan (1996). "The Philippines: historical demographic data of the whole country". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved July 19, 2003.[better source needed]
  25. ^ "Censos de Cúba, Puerto Rico, Filipinas y España. Estudio de su relación". Voz de Galicia. 1898. Retrieved December 12, 2010.[verification needed]
  26. ^ Llobet, Ruth de (June 23, 2015). "The Philippines. A mountain of difference: The Lumad in early colonial Mindanao By Oona Paredes Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Cornell University, 2013. Pp. 195. Maps, Appendices, Notes, Bibliography, Index". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 46 (2): 332–334. doi:10.1017/S0022463415000211 – via Cambridge University Press.
  27. ^ Acabado, Stephen (March 1, 2017). "The Archaeology of Pericolonialism: Responses of the "Unconquered" to Spanish Conquest and Colonialism in Ifugao, Philippines". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 21 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1007/s10761-016-0342-9. S2CID 147472482 – via Springer Link.
  28. ^ Gutierrez, Pedro Luengo. "Dissolution of Manila-Mexico Architectural Connections between 1784 and 1810". Transpacific Exchanges: 62–63.
  29. ^ a b c Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 1077. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved January 29, 2021. Because local resources did not yield enough money to maintain the colonial administration, the government was constantly running a deficit and had to be supported with an annual subsidy from the Spanish government in Mexico, the situado.
  30. ^ Newson 2009, pp. 7–8.
  31. ^ Crossley, John Newsome (July 28, 2013). Hernando de los Ríos Coronel and the Spanish Philippines in the Golden Age. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 168–169. ISBN 9781409482420.
  32. ^ Newson 2009, p. 8.
  33. ^ Cole, Jeffrey A. (1985). The Potosí mita, 1573–1700 : compulsory Indian labor in the Andes. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8047-1256-9.
  34. ^ Tracy 1995, pp. 12, 55[citation not found]
  35. ^ Schottenhammer 2008, p. 151.
  36. ^ Yu-Jose 1999, p. https://books.google.com/books?id=kbWv-pZy5H0C&pg=PA1 1.
  37. ^ Villarroel 2009, pp. 93–133.
  38. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or "arrabales," all occupied by Spaniards ("todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles"). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred ttrs.mzgbj.dfkjgdfs.jkg[' r0e[8oe rat[8 arv[8 arained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes.
  39. ^ "Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines". PHILIPPINE-HISTORY.ORG. 2005.
  40. ^ Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Chapter 6 – Unruly Mexicans in Manila". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765–1811. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316480120.007. ISBN 9781316480120. In Governor Anda y Salazar’s opinion, an important part of the problem of vagrancy was the fact that Mexicans and Spanish disbanded after finishing their military or prison terms "all over the islands, even the most distant, looking for subsistence.~CSIC riel 208 leg.14
  41. ^ Garcıa de los Arcos, "Grupos etnicos," ´ 65–66 Garcia de los Arcos, Maria Fernanda (1999). "Grupos éthnicos y Clases sociales en las Filipinas de Finales del Siglo XVIII". Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  42. ^ Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Chapter 1 – Intertwined Histories in the Pacific". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765–1811. Cambridge University Press. p. 246. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316480120.007. ISBN 9781316480120. The military organization of Manila might have depended to some degree on non-European groups, but colonial authorities measured a successful imperial policy of defense on the amount of European and American recruits that could be accounted for in the military forces.~CSIC ser. Consultas riel 301 leg.8 (1794)
  43. ^ "Filipino-Mexican-Central-and-South American Connection, Tales of Two Sisters: Manila and Mexico". June 21, 1997. Retrieved January 1, 2021. Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.
  44. ^ (Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015). Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology (PDF) (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships’ crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes ‘bandits’ who in the late 18th century “infested” Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: “los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina.” (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: “from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India… with the monsoon winds” carrying “clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]” (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21).” Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters.
  45. ^ Abinales & Amoroso 2005, p. 98.
  46. ^ Tatiana Seijas (2014). "The Diversity and Reach of the Manila Slave Market". Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-107-06312-9.
  47. ^ "Living in the Philippines: Living, Retiring, Travelling and Doing Business". Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2017.
  48. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 229. Reforms under General Arandía.—The demoralization and misery with which Obando's rule closed were relieved somewhat by the capable government of Arandía, who succeeded him. Arandía was one of the few men of talent, energy, and integrity who stood at the head of affairs in these islands during two centuries. He reformed the greatly disorganized military force, establishing what was known as the "Regiment of the King," made up very largely of Mexican soldiers. He also formed a corps of artillerists composed of Filipinos. These were regular troops, who received from Arandía sufficient pay to enable them to live decently and like an army.
  49. ^ "SECOND BOOK OF THE SECOND PART OF THE CONQUESTS OF THE FILIPINAS ISLANDS, AND CHRONICLE OF THE RELIGIOUS OF OUR FATHER, ST. AUGUSTINE" (Zamboanga City History) "He (Governor Don Sebastían Hurtado de Corcuera) brought a great reënforcements of soldiers, many of them from Peru, as he made his voyage to Acapulco from that kingdom."
  50. ^ Quinze Ans de Voyage Autor de Monde Vol. II ( 1840) Archived October 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from Institute for Research of Iloilo Official Website Archived October 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine .
  51. ^ "The Philippine Archipelago" By Yves Boquet Page 262
  52. ^ De la Torre, Visitacion (2006). The Ilocos Heritage. Makati City: Tower Book House. p. 2. ISBN 978-971-91030-9-7.
  53. ^ Kane, Herb Kawainui (1996). "The Manila Galleons". In Bob Dye (ed.). Hawaiʻ Chronicles: Island History from the Pages of Honolulu Magazine. I. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 25–32. ISBN 978-0-8248-1829-6.
  54. ^ Bolunia, Mary Jane Louise A. "Astilleros: the Spanish shipyards of Sorsogon" (PDF). Archaeology Division, National Museum of the Philippines. p. 1. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  55. ^ William J. McCarthy (December 1, 1995). "The Yards at Cavite: Shipbuilding in the Early Colonial Philippines". International Journal of Maritime History. 7 (2): 149–162. doi:10.1177/084387149500700208. S2CID 163709949.
  56. ^ Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 111–122. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  57. ^ Iaccarino, Ubaldo (October 2017). ""The Centre of a Circle": Manila's Trade with East and Southeast Asia at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century" (PDF). Crossroads. OSTASIEN Verlag. 16. ISSN 2190-8796.[failed verification]
  58. ^ Hawkley, Ethan (2014). "Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565–1662". Journal of World History. University of Hawai'i Press. 25 (2–3): 288. doi:10.1353/jwh.2014.0014. S2CID 143692647. The early modern revival of the Reconquista in the Philippines had a profound effect on the islands, one that is still being felt today. As described above, the Spanish Reconquista served to unify Christians against a common Moro enemy, helping to bring together Castilian, Catalan, Galician, and Basque peoples into a single political unit: Spain. In precolonial times, the Philippine islands were a divided and unspecified part of the Malay archipelago, one inhabited by dozens of ethnolinguistic groups, residing in countless independent villages, strewn across thousands of islands. By the end of the seventeenth century, however, a dramatic change had happened in the archipelago. A multiethnic community had come together to form the colonial beginnings of a someday nation: the Philippines. The powerful influence of Christian-Moro antagonisms on the formation of the early Philippines remains evident more than four hundred years later, as the Philippine national government continues to grapple with Moro separatists groups, even in 2013.
  59. ^ Dolan 1991, The Early Spanish Period.
  60. ^ Philippine Electoral Almanac. – Revised and expanded edition. Manila: Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. 2015. p. 5-12.
  61. ^ Abinales & Amoroso 2005, p. 55.
  62. ^ Richard Chu (2010). Chinese and Chinese Mestizos of Manila: Family, Identity, and Culture, 1860s–1930s. BRILL. p. 284. ISBN 978-90-474-2685-1.
  63. ^ South East Asia Pottery – Philippines Archived July 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  64. ^ Schurz, William Lytle (1939). The Manila Galleon. Historical Conservation Society. p. 15.
  65. ^ a b Philippine History Module-based Learning. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2002. p. 83. ISBN 9789712334498.
  66. ^ Publications, Usa International Business (2007). Philippines Diplomatic Handbook. Int'l Business Publications. Spanish Control. ISBN 978-1-4330-3972-0.
  67. ^ Solidarity, 2, Solidaridad Publishing House, p. 8, "The charter of the Royal Philippine Company was promulgated on March 10, 1785 tolast for 25 years."
  68. ^ De Borja & Douglass 2005, pp. 71–79.
  69. ^ "Rostros de piedra; biografías de un mundo perdido" (PDF). Miaka1 Cuadernos de investigación. San Telmo Museoa. Retrieved October 6, 2014. p. 68
  70. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 82–83
  71. ^ McCoy & de Jesus 2001, p. 233.
  72. ^ https://www.studymode.com/essays/Polo-y-Servicio-1880531.html Polo y Servicio
  73. ^ a b c De Jesus, Luis & De Santa Theresa, Diego. "Recollect Missions, 1646–1660", in BLAIR, Emma Helen & Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1905). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. 36 of 55 (1649–1666). Translated by Henry B. Lathrop. Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ASIN B004TRONB2 – via Project Gutenberg.(pp126 ff.)
  74. ^ a b c Fayol, Joseph. "Affairs in Filipinas, 1644–47", in Blair, Emma Helen & Robertson, James Alexander, eds. (1905). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898. 35 of 55. Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord Bourne. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. |asin-tld= requires |asin= (help)(p267)
  75. ^ a b c Maarten Gerritszoon Vries; Cornelis Janszoon Coen; Pieter Arend Leupe; Philipp Franz von Siebold (1858). Reize van Maarten Gerritsz: Vries in 1643 naar het noorden en oosten van Japan. Instituut voor de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, The Hague.
  76. ^ Newson 2009, p. 3.
  77. ^ Tracy 1995, p. 54
  78. ^ (F.R.G.S.), John Foreman (1906). The Philippine Islands: A Political, Geographical, Ethnographical, Social and Commercial History of the Philippine Archipelago, Embracing the Whole Period of Spanish Rule, with an Account of the Succeeding American Insular Government. Unwin. pp. 89–90.
  79. ^ Fish 2003, p. 158
  80. ^ Tracy 1995, p. 109
  81. ^ United States War Department (1903). Annual Report of the Secretary of War. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 379–398. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  82. ^ Warren, James Francis (2007). The Sulu Zone, 1768–1898: The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery, and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State. NUS Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-9971-69-386-2. Retrieved August 10, 2020.
  83. ^ Spain (1893). Colección de los tratados, convenios y documentos internacionales celebrados por nuestros gobiernos con los estados extranjeros desde el reinado de Doña Isabel II. hasta nuestros días. Acompañados de notas histórico-críticas sobre su negociación y cumplimiento y cotejados con los textos originales... (in Spanish). pp. 120–123.
  84. ^ Sagmit & Sagmit-Mendoza 2007, p. 127.
  85. ^ Hall, Daniel George Edward (1981). History of South East Asia. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 757. ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  86. ^ Bacareza, Hermógenes E. (2003). The German Connection: A Modern History. Hermogenes E. Bacareza. p. 10. ISBN 9789719309543. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  87. ^ Cullinane, Michael (2003). Ilustrado Politics: Filipino Elite Responses to American Rule, 1898-1908. Ateneo University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9789715504393.
  88. ^ Hedman, Eva-Lotta; Sidel, John (2005). Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post-Colonial Trajectories. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-134-75421-2. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  89. ^ Steinberg, David Joel (2018). "Chapter – 3 A SINGULAR AND A PLURAL FOLK". THE PHILIPPINES A Singular and a Plural Place. Routledge. p. 47. doi:10.4324/9780429494383. ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5. The cultural identity of the mestizos was challenged as they became increasingly aware that they were true members of neither the indio nor the Chinese community. Increasingly powerful but adrift, they linked with the Spanish mestizos, who were also being challenged because after the Latin American revolutions broke the Spanish Empire, many of the settlers from the New World, Caucasian Creoles born in Mexico or Peru, became suspect in the eyes of the Iberian Spanish. The Spanish Empire had lost its universality.
  90. ^ "Filipinos in Mexican history". Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  91. ^ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación. ISBN 970-26-0797-3.[full citation needed]
  92. ^ González Davíla Amado. Geografía del Estado de Guerrero y síntesis histórica 1959. México D.F.; ed. Quetzalcóatl.[full citation needed]
  93. ^ Dolan 1991, Education.[full citation needed]
  94. ^ Cenoz, Jasone; Genesee, Fred (January 1998). Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Multilingual Matters. p. 192. ISBN 978-1-85359-420-5. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  95. ^ Weinberg, Meyer (December 6, 2012). "5; Philippines". Asian-american Education: Historical Background and Current Realities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-49835-0. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  96. ^ Schumacher, John N. (1997). The Propaganda Movement, 1880–1895. Ateneo University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 9789715502092.
  97. ^ Schumacher, John N. (1998). Revolutionary Clergy: The Filipino Clergy and the Nationalist Movement, 1850–1903. Ateneo University Press. pp. 23–30. ISBN 9789715501217.
  98. ^ Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
  99. ^ Ocampo, Ambeth (1999). Rizal Without the Overcoat (Expanded ed.). Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-971-27-0920-3.[page needed]
  100. ^ Halili, M. c (2004). Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 137. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  101. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 166
  102. ^ Salazar, Zeus (1994). Agosto 29–30, 1896 : Ang pagsalakay ni Bonifacio sa Maynila. Quezon City: Miranda Bookstore. p. 107.
  103. ^ Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad (1998). The Cry of Balintawak: A Contrived Controversy. Ateneo University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9789715502788.
  104. ^ a b Guerrero & Schumacher 1998, pp. 175–176.[failed verification]
  105. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 173.
  106. ^ Constantino 1975, p. 179
  107. ^ Quibuyen 2008
  108. ^ Constantino 1975, pp. 178–181
  109. ^ Guerrero & Schumacher 1998, pp. 166–167Guerrero & Schumacher 1998, pp. 175–176.[citation needed]
  110. ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 152
  111. ^ Duka, Cecilio D. (2008). Struggle for Freedom. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 9789712350450.
  112. ^ Constantino 1975, p. 191
  113. ^ Agoncillo 1990, pp. 180–181.
  114. ^ a b Abinales & Amoroso 2005, p. 112-113.
  115. ^ Draper, Andrew Sloan (1899). The Rescue of Cuba: An Episode in the Growth of Free Government. Silver, Burdett. pp. 170–172. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  116. ^ Fantina, Robert (2006). Desertion and the American Soldier, 1776–2006. Algora Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-87586-454-9. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
  117. ^ Starr, J. Barton (September 1988). The United States Constitution: Its Birth, Growth, and Influence in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. p. 260. ISBN 978-962-209-201-3. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  118. ^ Linn, Brian McAllister (2000). The Philippine War, 1899–1902. University Press of Kansas. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-0-7006-1225-3.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit