Open main menu

An Overseas Filipino (Filipino: Pilipino sa Ibayong-dagat) is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside the Philippines. This term applies to Filipinos who are abroad indefinitely as citizens or as permanent residents of a different country and to those Filipino citizens abroad for a limited, definite period, such as on a work contract or as students. It can also refer to a person who is of Filipino descent.

Overseas Filipinos
Mga Pilipino sa Ibayong-dagat
Total population
11 million[1]

(including descendants of Filipinos and persons of partial Filipino ancestry)[2]

figures are for various years, per individual supporting sources cited.
Regions with significant populations
 United States4,037,564[3]
 Saudi Arabia938,490[4]
 Canada851,410[5]
 United Arab Emirates679,819[6]
 Malaysia325,089[7]
 Kuwait276,000[8]
 Japan251,934[9] - 260,553[10]
 Qatar240,000[11]
 Australia232,386[12]
 Italy168,238[13]
 Singapore163,000[2]
 Hong Kong184,000[14]
 United Kingdom144,000[15]
 Spain115,362[16]
 Taiwan108,520[17]
 South Korea63,464[18]
 New Zealand40,347[19]
 Israel31,000[20]
 Papua New Guinea25,000[21]
 Germany20,589[22]
 Brunei20,000[23]
 Thailand17,574[24]
 Netherlands16,719[25]
 Macau14,544[26]
 Sweden13,000[27]
 Ireland12,791[28]
 Austria12,474[29]
 Norway12,262[30]
 China12,254[31]
  Switzerland10,000'[32]
 Kazakhstan8,000[33]

PopulationEdit

In 2013, the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (CFO) estimated that approximately 10.2 million people of Filipino descent lived or worked abroad.[2] This number constitutes about 11 percent of the total population of the Philippines.[34] It is one of the largest diaspora populations, spanning over 100 countries.[35]

The overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) tend to be young and gender-balanced. Based on a survey conducted in 2011, the demographics indicate how the 24-29 age group constitutes 24 percent of the total and is followed by the 30-34 age group (23 percent) working abroad.[36] Male OFWs account for 52 percent of the total OFW population. The slightly smaller percentage of the female overseas workers tend to be younger than their male counterparts.[36] Production workers and service workers account for more than 80 percent of the labor outflows by 2010 and this number is steadily increasing, along with the trend for professional workers, who are mainly nurses and engineers.[36] Filipino seamen, overseas Filipino workers in the maritime industry, make an oversize impact on the global economy, making up a fifth to a quarter of the merchant marine crews, who are responsible for the movement of the majority of goods in the global economy.[37][38]

The OFW population is consistently increasing through the years and this is partly attributed to the government's encouragement of the outflow of contractual workers as evidenced in policy pronouncements, media campaigns, and other initiatives.[39] For instance, it describes the OFWs as the heroes of the nation, encouraging citizens to take pride in these workers.

Economic impactEdit

In 2012, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the central bank of the Philippines, expects official remittances coursed through banks and agents to grow 5% over 2011 to US$21 billion, but official remittances are only a fraction of all remittances.[40] In 2018, remittance had increased to $31 billion, which was nearly 10% of the GDP of the Philippines.[37] Remittances by unofficial, including illegal, channels are estimated by the Asian Bankers Association to be 30 to 40% higher than the official BSP figure.[40] In 2011, remittances were US$20.117 billion.[41]

In 2012, approximately 80% of the remittances came from only 7 countries—United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan.[41]

IssuesEdit

Employment conditionsEdit

Employment conditions abroad are relevant to the individual worker and their families as well as for the sending country and its economic growth and well being. Poor working conditions for Filipinos hired abroad include long hours, low wages and few chances to visit family.[42][43][44] Evidence suggests that these women cope with the emotional stress of familial separation in one of two ways: first, in domestic care situations, they substitute their host-family’s children for their own in the love and affection they give, and second, they actively considered the benefit their earnings would have on their children’s future.[44] Women often face disadvantages in their employment conditions as they tend to work in the elder/child care and domestic.[45] These occupations are considered low skilled and require little education and training, thereby regularly facing poor working conditions.[42] Women facing just working conditions are more likely to provide their children with adequate nutrition, better education and sufficient health. There is a strong correlation between women's rights and the overall well being of children. It is therefore a central question to promote women's rights in order to promote children's capabilities.[46][47]

According to a statement made in 2009 by John Leonard Monterona, the Middle East coordinator of Migrante, a Manila-based OFW organization, every year, an unknown number of Filipinos in Saudi Arabia were then "victims of sexual abuses, maltreatment, unpaid salaries, and other labor malpractices".[48][needs update]

Government policyEdit

Philippine Labor Migration Policy has historically focused on removing barriers for migrant workers to increase accessibility for employment abroad. Working conditions among Filipinos employed abroad varies depending on whether the host country acknowledges and enforces International labor standards. The standards are set by the ILO, which is an UN agency that 185 of the 193 UN members are part of. Labor standards vary greatly depending on host country regulations and enforcement. One of the main reasons for the large differences in labor standards is due to the fact that ILO only can register complaints and not impose sanctions on governments.

Emigration policies tend to differ within countries depending on if the occupation is mainly dominated by men or women. Occupations dominated by men tend to be driven by economic incentives whereas emigration policies aimed at women traditional tend to be value driven, adhering to traditional family roles that favors men's wage work. As women are regularly seen as symbols of national pride and dignity, governments tend to have more protective policies in sectors dominated by women. These policies risk to increase gender inequality in the Philippines and thereby this public policy work against women joining the workforce.[49] Female OFWs most often occupy domestic positions.[50]  However, some researchers[43] argue that the cultural trends of female migrancy have the potential to destabilize the gender inequality of the Filipino culture. Evidence suggests that in intact, heterosexual families wherein the wife-mother works overseas, Filipino fathers have the potential to take on greater roles in care-giving to their children, though seldom few actually do.[51] Other researchers report that these situations lead to abuse, particularly of older daughters, who face increased pressure and responsibility in the mother’s absence.[45] Likewise, the “reversal of breadwinning and caregiving roles between migrant wives and left-behind husbands” more often results in tension regarding family finances and the role each spouse should play in decision making.[42]

The Philippine government has recently opened up their public policy to promote women working abroad since the world's demand for domestic workers and healthcare workers has increased.[45] This has led to the government reporting a recent increase in women emigrating from the Philippines. A healthcare problem arises as migrating women from the Philippines and other developing countries often create a nursing shortage in the home country. Nurse to patient ratio is down to 1 nurse to between 40 and 60 patients, in the 1990s the ratio was 1 nurse to between 15 and 20 patients. It seems inevitable that the healthcare sector loses experienced nurses as the emigration is increasing. The Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement is seen as a failure by most since only 7% of applicants or 200 nurses a year has been accepted on average – mainly due to resistance by domestic stakeholders and failed program implementation. The result is a "lose-lose" outcome where Philippine workers fail to leverage their skills and a worldwide shortage persists. Despite the fact that Japan has an aging population and many Filipinos want to work in Japan, a solution has not yet been found. The Japanese Nursing Association supports "equal or better" working conditions and salaries for Filipino nurses. In contrast, Yagi propose more flexible wages to make Filipinos more attractive on the Japanese job market.[52][53][54]

Results from a focus group in the Philippines shows that the positive impacts from migration of nurses is attributed to the individual migrant and his/her family, while the negative impacts are attributed to the Filipino healthcare system and society in general. In order to fill the nursing shortage in the Philippines, suggestions have been made by several NGOs that nursing-specializing Filipino workers overseas, locally known as "overseas Filipino workers" (OFWs), return to the country to train local nurses, for which program training would be required in order for the Philippines to make up for all its nurses migrating abroad.[54]

Host country policiesEdit

Wealthier households derive a larger share of their income from abroad. This might suggest that government policies in host countries favor capital-intensive activities. Even though work migration is mainly a low and middle class activity, the high-income households are able to derive a larger share of their income from abroad due to favorable investment policies. These favorable investment policies causes an increase in income inequalities and do not promote domestic investments that can lead to increased standard of living. This inequality threatens to halt the economic development as investments are needed in the Philippines and not abroad in order to increase growth and well-being. A correlation between successful contribution to the home country's economy and amounted total savings upon the migrants return has been found, therefore it is important to decrease income inequalities while attracting capital from abroad to the Philippines.[52][55]

Many host governments of OFWs have protective policies and barriers making it difficult to enter the job market. Japan has been known for rigorous testing of Filipinos in a way that make them look reluctant to hold up their part of the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement and solely enjoy the benefit of affordable manufacturing in the Philippines, not accepting and educating OFWs.[53]

Return migrationEdit

Returning migrant workers are often argued to have a positive effect on the home economy since they are assumed to gain skills and return with a new perspective. Deskilling has caused many Filipino workers to return less skilled after being assigned simple tasks abroad, this behavior creates discouragement for foreign workers to climb the occupational ladder. Deskilling of labor is especially prevalent among women who often have few and low skill employment options, such as domestic work and child or elder care. Other occupations that recently has seen an increase in deskilling are doctors, teachers and assembly line workers.[52]

To underline what a common problem this deskilling is: Returning migrant workers are calling for returnee integration programs, which suggests that they do not feel prepared to be re-integrated in the domestic workforce.[49]

As the Philippines among other countries who train and export labor repeatedly has faced failures in protecting labor rights, the deskilling of labor has increased on a global scale. A strong worldwide demand for healthcare workers causes many Filipinos to emigrate without ever getting hired or become deskilling while possibly raising their salary. The result is a no-win situation for the sending and receiving country. The receiving countries lose as skilled workers are not fully utilizing their skills while the home country simultaneously experience a shortage of workers in emigrating prone sectors.[53]

Countries and territories with Filipino populationsEdit

 
Filipino Market in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
 
Lucky Plaza mall in Orchard Road hosts products and services that cater for Overseas Filipinos in Singapore.

See alsoEdit

Work CitedEdit

  1. ^ Times, Asia. "Asia Times | Duterte's 'golden age' comes into clearer view | Article". Asia Times.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Stock Estimate of Filipinos Overseas As of December 2013" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
  3. ^ "ASIAN ALONE OR IN ANY COMBINATION BY SELECTED GROUPS". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  4. ^ https://dfa.gov.ph/distribution-of-filipinos-overseas
  5. ^ "Immigrant population in Canada, 2016 Census of Population". Statistics Canada. 2017-10-25. Retrieved 2017-11-03.
  6. ^ "Know Your Diaspora: United Arab Emirates". Positively Filipino | Online Magazine for Filipinos in the Diaspora.
  7. ^ "No foreign workers' layoffs in Malaysia - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009.
  8. ^ Michaelson, Ruth (23 July 2018). "Kuwaiti star faces backlash over Filipino worker comments". The Guardian. United Kingdom. Retrieved 12 February 2019. The Philippine president, Rodrigo Duterte, asked the estimated 276,000 Filipino workers in Kuwait to return home, appealing to “their sense of patriotism” and offering free flights for the 10,000 estimated to have overstayed their visas.
  9. ^ Osaki, Tomohiro; Masangkay, May (January 3, 2018). "Filipinos and Nepalese face challenges in Japan even as their communities grow" – via Japan Times Online.
  10. ^ 2017年度在留外国人確定値 (PDF), Japan, 13 April 2018, archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-27, retrieved 2018-04-13
  11. ^ Rivera, Raynald C (17 October 2017). "Contribution of over 240,000 Filipinos in Qatar praised". The Peninsula. Qatar. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Timbayan underlined the important contribution of more than 240,000 Filipinos in Qatar engaged in various sectors, being the fourth largest expatriate community in Qatar.
  12. ^ a b "2016 Census QuickStats: Australia". www.censusdata.abs.gov.au.
  13. ^ "I cittadini non comunitari regolarmente soggiornanti". 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b Filipinos in Hong Kong Hong Kong Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  15. ^ Ann Blake (June 2018). Table 1.3: Overseas-born population in the United Kingdom, excluding some residents in communal establishments, by sex, by country of birth1,2,3 (Report). Office for National Statistics. p. Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality. Retrieved 12 February 2019. 16 Philippines 144 +/- 18 thousands
  16. ^ "PGMA meets members of Filipino community in Spain". Gov.Ph. Retrieved 1 July 2006.[dead link]
  17. ^ 外僑居留-按國籍別 (Excel) (in Chinese). National Immigration Agency, Ministry of the Interior. 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
  18. ^ Filipinos in South Korea. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOIS). Retrieved 21 July 2009.
  19. ^ "Ethnic group profiles".
  20. ^ "Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics". Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics.
  21. ^ Amojelar, Darwin G. (2013-04-26) Papua New Guinea thumbs down Philippine request for additional flights. InterAksyon.com. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  22. ^ "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)".
  23. ^ "Brunei, Philippines to boost ties".[dead link]
  24. ^ Vapattanawong, Patama. "ชาวต่างชาติในเมืองไทยเป็นใครบ้าง? (Foreigners in Thailand)" (PDF). Institute for Population and Social Research - Mahidol University (in Thai). Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  25. ^ "A brief history of Philippine – Netherlands relations". The Philippine Embassy in The Hague. Archived from the original on 2009-02-15.
  26. ^ "Macau Population Census". Census Bureau of Macau. May 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  27. ^ "pinoys-sweden-protest-impending-embassy-closure". ABS-CBNnews.com.
  28. ^ Filipino population usually resident in the state, CSO, 2011, retrieved 2013-05-18
  29. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". www.statistik.at.
  30. ^ "8 Folkemengde, etter norsk / utenlandsk statsborgerskap og landbakgrunn 1. januar 2009". Statistisk sentralbyra (Statistics Norway). Archived from the original on 2009-05-15. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  31. ^ "President Aquino to meet Filipino community in Beijing". Ang Kalatas-Australia. 30 August 2011.
  32. ^ "Backgrounder: Overseas Filipinos in Switzerland". Office of the Press Secretary. 2007. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  33. ^ Embassy of Kazakhstan in Malaysia website Archived 2013-11-11 at the Wayback Machine. Kazembassy.org.my. Retrieved 28 July 2013.
  34. ^ McKenzie, Duncan Alexander (2012). The Unlucky Country: The Republic of the Philippines in the 21St Century. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press. p. 138. ISBN 9781452503363.
  35. ^ David K. Yoo; Eiichiro Azuma (4 January 2016). The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History. Oxford University Press. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-19-986047-0.
  36. ^ a b c IMF (2013). Philippines: Selected Issues. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund Publication Services. p. 17. ISBN 9781484374061.
  37. ^ a b Almendral, Aurora; Reyes Morales, Hannah (December 2018). "Why 10 million Filipinos endure hardship abroad as overseas workers". National Geographic. United States. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  38. ^ "Unsung Filipino seafarers power the global economy". The Economist. 16 February 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
    Kale Bantigue Fajardo. Filipino Crosscurrents: Oceanographies of Seafaring, Masculinities, and Globalization. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-1-4529-3283-5.
    Leon Fink (2011). Sweatshops at Sea: Merchant Seamen in the World's First Globalized Industry, from 1812 to the Present. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-8078-3450-3.
  39. ^ Rupert, Mark; Solomon, Scott (2006). Globalization and International Political Economy: The Politics of Alternative Futures. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 88. ISBN 978-0742529434.
  40. ^ a b Remo, Michelle V. (14 November 2012). "Stop illegal remittance agents, BSP urged: Informal forex channels a problem in the region". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  41. ^ a b Magtulis, Prinz (15 November 2012). "Remittance growth poised to meet full-year forecast - BSP". The Philippine Star.
  42. ^ a b c Acedera, Kristel Anne; Yeoh, Brenda SA (2018-09-13). "'Making time': Long-distance marriages and the temporalities of the transnational family". Current Sociology. 67 (2): 250–272. doi:10.1177/0011392118792927. ISSN 0011-3921. PMC 6402049.
  43. ^ a b Dalgas, Karina Märcher (2016-06-02). "The mealtimes that bind? Filipina au pairs in Danish families". Gender, Place & Culture. 23 (6): 834–849. doi:10.1080/0966369X.2015.1073696. ISSN 0966-369X.
  44. ^ a b Lindio-McGovern, Ligaya (June 2004). "Alienation and labor export in the context of globalization: Filipino migrant domestic workers in Taiwan and Hong Kong". Critical Asian Studies. 36 (2): 217–238. doi:10.1080/14672710410001676043. ISSN 1467-2715.
  45. ^ a b c Basa, Charito; Harcourt, Wendy; Zarro, Angela (2011-03-01). "Remittances and transnational families in Italy and The Philippines: breaking the global care chain". Gender & Development. 19 (1): 11–22. doi:10.1080/13552074.2011.554196. ISSN 1355-2074.
  46. ^ UN (2007). " A call for equality.". The state of the worlds children. pp. 1–15. Retrieved 2014-05-18
  47. ^ "Gender and Migration: An Integrative Approach eScholarship]". Escholarship.org. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
  48. ^ Leonard, John (2008-07-03). "OFW rights violation worsens under the Arroyo administration". Filipino OFWs Qatar. Archived from the original on 2009-01-07. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  49. ^ a b Oishi, N. (March 2002). "Gender and migration: an integrated approach". Escolarship.org.
  50. ^ Tanyag, Maria (2017-01-02). "Invisible labor, invisible bodies: how the global political economy affects reproductive freedom in the Philippines". International Feminist Journal of Politics. 19 (1): 39–54. doi:10.1080/14616742.2017.1289034. ISSN 1461-6742.
  51. ^ Lindio-McGovern, Ligaya (June 2004). "Alienation and labor export in the context of globalization". Critical Asian Studies. 36 (2): 217–238. doi:10.1080/14672710410001676043. ISSN 1467-2715.
  52. ^ a b c Beneria, L. Deere; Kabeer, C. (2012). "Gender and international migration: globalization, development and governance". Feminist Economics. 18 (2): 1–33. doi:10.1080/13545701.2012.688998.
  53. ^ a b c Nozomi, Y. (February 2014). "Policy review: Japan-Philippines economic partnership agreement, analysis of a failed nurse migration policy". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 51 (2): 243–250. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.05.006. PMID 23787219.
  54. ^ a b Lorenzo, E. (June 2007). "Nursing migration from a source country perspective: Philippine country case study". Health Serv Res. 42 (3p2): 1406–18. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00716.x. PMC 1955369. PMID 17489922.
  55. ^ Haksar, Mr. V. (2005). "Migration and Foreign Remittances in the Philippines". IMF working paper: Asia and Pacific department. p. 3.
  56. ^ "AMBASSADOR MARIA CLEOFE NATIVIDAD PRESENTS CREDENTIALS TO AUSTRIAN FEDERAL PRESIDENT ALEXANDER VAN DER BELLEN". Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs. 23 January 2018.
  57. ^ Immigrants in Denmark, 2016 Census
  58. ^ "Wives wanted in the Faroe Islands" by Tim Ecott, BBC News, 27 April 2017
  59. ^ "Väestö 31.12. muuttujina Alue, Taustamaa, Sukupuoli, Vuosi ja Tiedot". Tilastokeskuksen PX-Web tietokannat.
  60. ^ "Notizie sulla presenza straniera in Italia". www.istat.it. October 30, 2011.
  61. ^ Catolico, Gianna Francesca (29 September 2016). "Filipinos 3rd largest group in Japan—report". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  62. ^ "Qatar´s population by nationality". BQ Magazine. 18 Dec 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-22.
  63. ^ "PH Consulate in Belgrade Opens For Filipinos in Serbia". Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs. 18 July 2018.
  64. ^ https://www.scb.se/hitta-statistik/statistik-efter-amne/befolkning/befolkningens-sammansattning/befolkningsstatistik/
  65. ^ "Filipinos in Liverpool, Part 1". Filipinohome.com. 1915-05-04. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
  66. ^ Rueda, Nimfa U. (25 March 2012). "Filipinos 2nd largest Asian group in US, census shows". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
    Kevin L. Nadal (23 March 2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1.
    Min Zhou; Anthony C. Ocampo (19 April 2016). Contemporary Asian America (third Edition): A Multidisciplinary Reader. NYU Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-1-4798-2923-1.
  67. ^ "Historic Filipinotown - Things to Do". VisitAsianLA.org. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
  68. ^ "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. May 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-02. There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines.
  69. ^ Melendez, Lyanne (17 December 2018). "Bay Area Filipinos react to new Miss Universe 2018". KGO. San Francisco. Retrieved 2 March 2019. California is home to the largest Filipino population in the U.S.
    Maria P. P. Root (20 May 1997). Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. SAGE. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7619-0579-0.
    Kyle L. Kreider; Thomas J. Baldino; Joaquin Jay Gonzalez III (7 December 2015). "Filipino American Voting". Minority Voting in the United States [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 265–280. ISBN 978-1-4408-3024-2.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

General statistics from Philippine governmentEdit

From other sourcesEdit