La Bulaqueña, an 1895 painting by Juan Luna sometimes referred to as "María Clara" due to the woman's dress
Tampuhan ("Sulking"), an 1895 painting by Juan Luna depicting a Filipina in traditional traje de mestiza dress. Believed to be the same woman as in La Bulaqueña.

The María Clara gown, sometimes referred to as Filipiniana dress,[1] traje de mestiza[2] or simply terno,[3] is a traditional dress worn by women in the Philippines. It is a form of Baro't saya. It takes its name from María Clara, the mestiza protagonist of the national epic Noli Me Tangere, penned in 1887 by Filipino nationalist José Rizal. It has been connected to the María Clara character because of her traits: delicate, feminine, self-assured and with a sense of identity. The María Clara outfit is the only Philippine national attire that is named after a literary figure . Like all Baro't Saya it is traditionally made out of Piña, the same with the Barong of Men.[4]


The Maria Clara is a form of Baro't saya but traditionally worn by Filipina women with a pañuelo (neck scarf) over the shoulders and accessorized with a delicate abaniko (fan)

"María Clara" origins came out from the earlier Baro't saya. after the ensemble was associated with the tragic heroine in Dr. Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere.[5] The Maria Clara of this period in the late 1800s consisted of 4 components: a camisa (blouse), pañuelo (fichu), saya (skirt), and an optional tapis (rectangular piece of cloth) or an elaborate "dalantal" (apron).[6]

Traditional componentsEdit

The attire is composed of four pieces, namely the camisa or baro, the saya (Baro't saya), the pañuelo (Spanish for scarf, also spelled panuelo) and the tapis.

The camisa is a collarless blouse whose hem is at the waist, and is made from flimsy, translucent fabrics such as pineapple fiber and jusi. The sleeves of the camisa are similar to the so-called "angel wings", or shaped like bells. The correct term for the sleeves of the camisa during the mid to late 1800s is a "pagoda" - derived from early Western silhouettes of the Victorian period.[5]

The pañuelo is a piece of starched square cloth (either opaque or made from the same material as of the camisa) folded several times, and placed over the shoulders. The purpose of the pañuelo has been related to modesty, used to cover the nape and the upper body due to the camisa's low neckline as well as its sheer translucency; and also doubles as an accent piece because of embellishments added to it, usually embroideries and the pin securing it in place.[citation needed]

The saya is a skirt shaped like a "cupola"[7] with a length that begins from the waist reaching the floor. These are usually comprised either of single or double sheets, called "panels" or dos paños (Spanish for "two cloths"); some examples are made out of seven gores or siete cuchillos (Spanish for "seven knives").[citation needed]

The tapis is a knee-length over-skirt that hugs the hips. Tapis designs may be plain, and is usually made of opaque fabrics such as muslin and the madras cloth, and also is used for the purposes of modesty as it keeps the lower body from showing due to the thinness of the saya.[4]

Some ladies belonging to the higher classes (often of the mestiza caste) consider the tapis a lowly piece of clothing, as it resembled the dalantal (apron) worn by the lower classes. The upper class women of the 1880s to the 1890s wore an elaborate[5] version of the tapis that was tied around the waist with two strings. This was also referred to as a "dalantal" (apron).[6]


The word "terno" in Spanish refers to a matching set of clothes made of the same fabric. In the Philippines, "terno" refers to a woman's ensemble that consists of matching colors/patterns.[8] In the early 1900s, the traje de mestiza's components started to match in terms of color and patterns.[9] Some trajes in the 1910s were entirely made of the same material[citation needed] (such as "nipis" - a Filipino term meaning "fine" or "thin"[10]). By the 1920s the term referred to a dress consisting of a matching "camisa" with butterfly sleeves, a heavily starched "pañuelo" (fichu), a "saya" (skirt) which normally came with a "cola" (train), and a "sobrefalda" (overskirt).[11]

By the late 1940s, the terno's meaning and silhouette evolved into any Western dress with butterfly sleeves attached to it.[8]

Occasionally the "terno" would be referred to as a "mestiza dress" by women who lived in the first half of the 20th century.[12]

During the July 8, 2008 State of the Nation Address of Philippine president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, she wore a "modernized María Clara gown". The adaptation donned by the president came was fuchsia-pink, designed by JC Buendia. Created in three weeks, the fabric used for the presidential gown was a blend of pineapple fibers and silk and was developed by the Philippine Research Institute, an agency of the Department of Science and Technology of the Philippines. The six-yard fabric costing 3,000 was produced in the province of Misamis Oriental, processed in Manila, and woven in the province of Aklan. The cloth was then colored with a dye from the sabang, a native plant.[13]

According to the Philippine Daily Inquirer, this is the first time in Philippine history that the media office of the Malacañang Palace revealed details about a Filipino president's evening outfit that would be worn for a State of the Nation Address, although the president herself talked about the attire she wore in June 2008 during the 50th anniversary of the Department of Science and Technology. The aforementioned outfit was an old-rose-colored dress from pineapple fibers and dyed with materials originating from coconut husks.[13]

Now there are a lot of designers who are incorporating filipiniana dresses to their creations, adding a modern twist to it, they tailored it to be able to match up to today's ever changing standards and the needs of everyday people[14]. Although it style has changed, the image of the classic filipina can still be seen.


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Custodio, Arlo (May 27, 2018). "Championing Maria Clara beyond the Walls of Intramuros". The Manila Times. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  2. ^ "Traje de Mestiza". Philippine Folklife Museum Foundation. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  3. ^ "FAST FACTS: Who invented the Philippine terno?". Rappler. January 27, 2017. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Moreno, Jose "Pitoy". - Maria Clara, Philippine Costume,, archived from the original on July 13, 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Fashionable Filipinas: An Evolution of the Philippine National Dress in Photographs 1860-1890
  6. ^ a b Patterns for the Filipino Dress: From the Traje de Mestiza to the Terno
  7. ^ Patterns for the Filipino Dress: From the Traje de Mestiza to the Terno
  8. ^ a b Patterns for the Filipino Dress by Salvador Bernal & Georgina Encanto
  9. ^ Fashionable Filipinas: An Evolution of the Philippine National Dress in Photographs 1860-1890 by Gino Gonzales & Mark Lewis Higgins
  10. ^ Fashionable Fabrics: The Mestiza Dress from the Nineteenth Century to the 1940s by Sandra Castro
  11. ^ Fashionable Filipinas: An Evolution of the Philippine National Dress in Photographs 1860-1890 by Gino Gonzales & Mark Lewis Higgins
  12. ^ Fashionable Filipinas: An Evolution of the Philippine National Dress in Photographs 1860-1890 by Gino Gonzales & Mark Lewis Higgins
  13. ^ a b Avendaño, Christine. ‘Modernized’ Maria Clara gown for Arroyo Archived 2009-04-01 at the Wayback Machine, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 28, 2008.
  14. ^