2011 Spanish local elections
The 2011 Spanish local elections were held on Sunday, 22 May 2011, to elect all 68,230 councillors in the 8,116 municipalities of Spain and all 1,040 seats in 38 provincial deputations. The elections were held simultaneously with regional elections in thirteen autonomous communities, as well as local elections in the three foral deputations of the Basque Country and the ten island councils in the Balearic and Canary Islands.
68,230 councillors in 8,116 municipal councils
1,040 seats in 38 provincial deputations
Provincial results map for municipal elections
The days before the elections were marked by the 2011 Spanish protests which had been held in different cities across Spain since 15 May. The elections resulted in a landslide victory for the opposition People's Party (PP) and other centre-right parties, which won control of all of Spain's largest cities. In Barcelona, held by PSOE-sister party, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), since the first local elections in 1979, was won for the first time by the nationalist Convergence and Union (CiU), which also won in Girona. The PSOE only won only in 5 out of Spain's 50 provincial capitals. In the popular vote, it scored its worst result in nationwide-held local elections, with a mere 27.8%, 10 points behind the PP, which obtained 37.5%.
Following the election, the PSOE named Deputy Prime Minister Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba as prime ministerial candidate for the next general election, initially scheduled for March 2012, and finally held in November 2011.
- Municipal elections
Municipalities in Spain were local corporations with independent legal personality. They had a governing body, the municipal council or corporation, composed of a mayor, deputy mayors and a plenary assembly of councillors. Voting for the local assemblies was on the basis of universal suffrage, with all nationals over eighteen, registered in the corresponding municipality and in full enjoyment of all political rights entitled to vote. The mayor was in turn elected by the plenary assembly, with a legal clause providing for the candidate of the most-voted party to be automatically elected to the post in the event no other candidate was to gather an absolute majority of votes.
Local councillors were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 5 percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each local council. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Councillors were allocated to municipal councils based on the following scale:
|>100,001||+1 per each 100,000 inhabitants or fraction|
+1 if total is an even number
Councillors of municipalities with populations below 250 inhabitants were elected under an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties: for up to four candidates in municipalities with populations between 100 and 250 inhabitants; and for up to two candidates in municipalities below 100. This did not apply to municipalities whose geographical location or the best management of municipal interests or other circumstances made it advisable to be organized through the open council system (Spanish: régimen de concejo abierto), in which voters would directly elect the local major.
The electoral law provided that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors were allowed to present lists of candidates. However, groupings of electors were required to secure the signature of a determined amount of the electors registered in the municipality for which they sought election:
- At least 1 percent of the electors in municipalities below 5,000 inhabitants, provided that the number of signers was more than double that of councillors at stake.
- At least 100 signatures in municipalities between 5,001 and 10,000.
- At least 500 signatures in municipalities between 10,001 and 50,000.
- At least 1,500 signatures in municipalities between 50,001 and 150,000.
- At least 3,000 signatures in municipalities between 150,001 and 300,000.
- At least 5,000 signatures in municipalities between 300,001 and 1,000,000.
- At least 8,000 signatures in municipalities over 1,000,001.
Electors were barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.
- Deputations and island councils
Provincial deputations were the governing bodies of provinces in Spain, having an administration role of municipal activities and composed of a provincial president, an administrative body, and a plenary. Basque provinces had foral deputations instead—called Juntas Generales—, whereas deputations for single-province autonomous communities were abolished: their functions transferred to the corresponding regional parliaments. For insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, deputations were replaced by island councils in each of the islands or group of islands. For Majorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera this figure was referred to in Spanish as consejo insular (Catalan: consell insular), whereas for Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma its name was cabildo insular.
Most deputations were indirectly elected by local councillors from municipalities in each judicial district. Seats were allocated to provincial deputations based on the following scale:
|Polling firm/Commissioner||Fieldwork date||Sample size||Turnout||Lead|
|2011 local elections||22 May 2011||N/A||64.0||37.5||27.8||6.4||3.5||2.1||9.7|
|Metroscopia/El País[p 1][p 2]||27–28 Apr 2011||1,200||60–65||39.2||33.4||5.6||4.1||1.5||5.8|
|GAD/COPE[p 3][p 4][p 5]||7–8 Feb 2011||501||?||37.6||30.1||–||–||–||7.5|
|2007 local elections||27 May 2007||N/A||64.0||35.6||34.9||5.4||3.3||–||0.7|
|Parties and coalitions||Popular vote||Councillors|
|People's Party and allies (PP–EU–Sa Unió)||8,476,647||37.54||+2.42||26,510||+3,496|
|Union of Formentera (PP–GUIF–Sa Unió)2||1,308||0.01||±0.00||5||–1|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and allies (PSOE–PSC–PxE)||6,287,389||27.84||–7.08||21,783||–2,246|
|PSOE–Pact for Ibiza (PSOE–PxE)3||14,556||0.06||–0.01||43||+21|
|United Left and allies (IU–ICV–EUiA)||1,681,462||7.45||+0.48||2,650||+59|
|United Left–Greens (EB–B)||34,564||0.15||–0.20||12||–100|
|Convergence and Union (CiU)||781,287||3.46||+0.21||3,896||+509|
|Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)||465,125||2.06||New||152||+152|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||327,183||1.45||+0.06||882||–161|
|Unite–Basque Solidarity–Alternative (Bildu–EA–Alternatiba)4||313,238||1.39||+0.64||1,138||+451|
|Republican Left of Catalonia–Municipal Agreement (ERC–AM)||273,082||1.21||–0.35||1,422||–169|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||261,513||1.16||–0.26||590||–71|
|Andalusian Party–Socialist Party–Andalusian Plural Space (PA–PSA–EPAnd)5||232,375||1.03||–0.26||476||–115|
|Canarian Coalition–Nationalist Party–Canarian Centre (CC–PNC–CCN)6||212,204||0.94||–0.22||404||–47|
|Commitment Municipal Coalition (Compromís)||201,006||0.89||+0.41||381||+104|
|Initiative: Commitment Municipal Coalition (IdPV–Compromís)||6,845||0.03||New||8||+8|
|Asturias Forum (FAC)||121,725||0.54||New||158||+158|
|Navarrese People's Union (UPN)||88,138||0.39||–0.11||322||–14|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||77,542||0.34||–0.08||992||+9|
|Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC)||70,667||0.31||–0.02||322||+19|
|Platform for Catalonia (PxC)||65,905||0.29||+0.23||67||+50|
|Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP)||62,314||0.28||+0.18||101||+77|
|New Canaries (NC)||56,947||0.25||–0.01||62||+1|
|Aragonese Union (CHA)||53,143||0.24||–0.02||184||–44|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's)||42,143||0.19||–0.13||10||–3|
|Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB)||37,642||0.17||New||4||+4|
|PSM–Initiative Greens–Agreement (PSM–IV–ExM)||37,534||0.17||+0.01||87||+20|
|Nationalist and Ecologist Agreement (ENE)||327||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Navarre Yes 2011 (NaBai 2011)9||36,262||0.16||–0.08||70||–63|
|Catalan Solidarity for Independence (SI)||31,905||0.14||New||48||+48|
|Castilian Party–Independent Candidacy (PCAS–CI)10||31,752||0.14||–0.01||195||–47|
|Liberal Democratic Centre (CDL)||27,308||0.12||+0.06||52||+14|
|Anti-Bullfighting Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)||26,384||0.12||+0.07||0||±0|
|Cordobese Union (UCOR)||24,805||0.11||New||5||+5|
|For a Fairer World (PUM+J)||21,011||0.09||New||0||±0|
|Leonese People's Union (UPL)||19,751||0.09||–0.06||135||–51|
|Citizens' Alternative Yes We Can (ACSSP)11||18,897||0.08||+0.04||20||+13|
|Convergence for the Isles (CxI)12||15,178||0.07||–0.09||58||–41|
|Galician Land (TeGa)||13,986||0.06||–0.09||23||–43|
|Vallès Alternative Candidacies (CAV)||13,790||0.06||±0.00||16||+4|
|Citizen Forum of Jerez (FCJ)||13,763||0.06||New||4||+4|
|Commitment for Gran Canaria (CGCa)||13,557||0.06||+0.01||4||+2|
|Union for Leganés (ULEG)||13,424||0.06||+0.04||4||+3|
|Spain 2000 (E–2000)||12,594||0.06||+0.04||5||+3|
|Federation of Independents of Catalonia (FIC)||12,508||0.06||–0.02||85||–1|
|The Greens–Green Group (LV–GV)||11,318||0.05||+0.03||4||+2|
|Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE)||11,105||0.05||+0.01||1||+1|
|Valencian Coalition (CVa)||10,727||0.05||–0.05||10||–10|
|Greens and Eco-pacifists (VyE)||10,650||0.05||New||0||±0|
|The Greens–European Green Group (EV–GVE)||10,360||0.05||New||1||+1|
|Many with one Goal (H1!)||9,270||0.04||New||12||+12|
|Riojan Party (PR)||9,210||0.04||–0.01||56||+13|
|Roque Aguayro (RA)||8,959||0.04||±0.00||14||–1|
|Citizens for Canarian Change (CIUCA)||8,550||0.04||+0.02||10||+7|
|Regionalist League of the Balearic Islands (IB–Lliga)||8,336||0.04||New||10||+10|
|Social Alternative Movement (MASS)||8,309||0.04||New||34||+34|
|Left Front (FDLI)||8,243||0.04||New||3||+3|
|Votes cast / turnout||22,969,005||66.17||+2.20|
The following table lists party control in provincial capitals, as well as in municipalities above or around 75,000. Gains for a party are highlighted in that party's colour.
|Parties and coalitions||Seats|
|People's Party and allies (PP–EU)||508||+70|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and allies (PSOE–PSC)||395||–70|
|Convergence and Union (CiU)||63||+12|
|United Left and allies (IU–ICV–EUiA)||27||–2|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||13||–4|
|Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC)||11||–2|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||10||–1|
|Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)||2||+2|
|Andalusian Party–Socialist Party–Andalusian Plural Space (PA–PSA–EPAnd)||2||–2|
|Commitment Municipal Coalition (Compromís)1||2||+1|
|Aragonese Union (CHA)||1||–2|
|Leonese People's Union (UPL)||1||±0|
|Zamoran Independent Electors–Zamoran People's Union (ADEIZA–UPZ)||1||±0|
The following table lists party control in provincial deputations. Gains for a party are highlighted in that party's colour.
- Opinion poll sources
- "El "efecto Zapatero" no evita la victoria del PP en las municipales". El País (in Spanish). 1 May 2011.
- "Clima Social de España (23ª oleada. Mayo 2011)" (PDF). Metroscopia (in Spanish). 9 May 2011.
- "El PSOE perderá un millón de votos en las próximas municipales". COPE (in Spanish). 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Barómetro COPE: El PP aventaja al PSOE por 14,1 puntos". GAD (in Spanish). 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Municipales: PP 37,6%; PSOE 30,1% (COPE)". Electómetro (in Spanish). 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Municipal elections in Spain 1979-2011". interior.gob.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
- "Provincial deputation elections since 1979" (in Spanish). historiaelectoral.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Ross-Thomas, Emma (4 April 2011). "Spain's Deficit Fight Risks Setback as Zapatero Bows Out of 2012 Election". Bloomberg.
- "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Regulation of the Basis of Local Regimes Law of 1985". Law No. 7 of 2 April 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 August 2017.
- "Electoral Results Consultation. Municipal. May 2011. National totals". infoelectoral.mir.es (in Spanish). Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Municipal elections (overall results 1979-2011)" (in Spanish). historiaelectoral.com. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Municipal elections (city majors by party)". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Historia Electoral. Retrieved 24 February 2018.