Ciudad Real

Ciudad Real (US: /sjˌdɑːd rˈɑːl, -ˌðɑːð/,[2][3] Spanish: [θjuˈðað reˈal]; English: "Royal City") is a municipality of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha, capital of the province of Ciudad Real. It is the 5th most populated municipality in the region.

Ciudad Real
Plaza Mayor de Ciudad Real
Plaza Mayor de Ciudad Real
Flag of Ciudad Real
Flag
Coat of arms of Ciudad Real
Coat of arms
Ciudad Real is located in Spain
Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real
Location in Spain
Ciudad Real is located in Castilla-La Mancha
Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real (Castilla-La Mancha)
Coordinates: 38°59′N 3°55′W / 38.983°N 3.917°W / 38.983; -3.917Coordinates: 38°59′N 3°55′W / 38.983°N 3.917°W / 38.983; -3.917
CountrySpain
Autonomous communityCastilla–La Mancha
ProvinceCiudad Real
Government
 • MayorPilar Zamora (PSOE)
Area
 • Total289.98 km2 (111.96 sq mi)
Elevation
628 m (2,060 ft)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total74,743
 • Density260/km2 (670/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Ciudadrealeños
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
13001-13005
WebsiteOfficial website

HistoryEdit

It was founded with the name Villa Real ("Royal Town") under the auspice of Alfonso X The Wise,[4][5] who granted it a charter that followed the model of Cuenca's.[6] Located within the dominion of the Military Order of Calatrava, the repopulation struggled initially.[7]

During the Middle Ages, four kilometres of walls and one hundred and thirty towers protected a population made up of Christians, Muslims and Jews.

Villa Real hosted the Cortes of Castile in 1346.[8]

Juan II of Castile granted Villa Real the status of city in 1420, thus becoming Ciudad Real ("Royal City").[4] The city most probably did not have more than 2000 inhabitants by the time and despite having celebrated Cortes once, the dominant city in the area was still Almagro.[9]

 
City panorama by Johann Friedrich Leonart (1687).

After the unification of the Iberian kingdoms under the Catholic Monarchs, Ciudad Real became the capital of the province of La Mancha [es] in 1691. This fact favoured its economic development which was shown by the construction of several important buildings. The 1755 Lisbon earthquake destroyed many of these buildings. In 1809, during the Peninsular War, French troops defeated the Spanish army and occupied the town, using the local hospital as their headquarters and barracks.

Following the creation of the province of Ciudad Real as per the 1833 territorial division, the status of provincial capital of Ciudad Real was challenged by the cities of Almagro and Manzanares, with a similar population by the mid-nineteenth century.[10] However the initiatives intending to take the provincial capital out of Ciudad Real did not succeed.[10]

Much of the centre was destroyed during the Spanish civil war.

GeographyEdit

LocationEdit

 
Satellite view of Ciudad Real and Miguelturra.

Ciudad Real is located in the southern half of the Inner Plateau, in the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, at about 625 metres above sea level.[11]

The city is part of the Campo de Calatrava natural region, a transitional region between the Montes and La Mancha, remarkable in the context of the Iberian Peninsula because of its volcanic origin.[12] The plaza del Pilar is precisely built on the centre of a shallow volcanic maar.[13] As Ciudad Real itself was the capital of the province of La Mancha in the 18th century, the whole province of Ciudad Real is often considered as part of La Mancha in a wider sense.[14]

The location of Ciudad Real—without any major water stream passing through the city—leaves the Guadiana to the North and the Jabalón [es] (a left-bank tributary of the former) to the South.[14]

The urban nucleus was founded 7.5 km to the North-East of Alarcos [es] (a fortified archeological site located on a hill).[15][16] Despite enjoying a location at the crossroads of the MadridAndalusia and the LevantePortugal corridors, the city did not particularly prosper historically thanks to this circumstance.[17] The city currently forms a near urban continuum with neighbouring Miguelturra.[18]

ClimateEdit

The city has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen:Csa),[19] bordering on semi-arid (Bsk), with cool winters (due to its altitude) and very hot dry summers.

The precipitation in the Campo de Calatrava is sparse, with a high year-to-year variability and the area features high levels of evapotranspiration, particularly in Summer.[20]

Climate data for Ciudad Real 628m (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
25.0
(77.0)
30.0
(86.0)
34.0
(93.2)
38.6
(101.5)
42.7
(108.9)
44.2
(111.6)
42.5
(108.5)
40.0
(104.0)
32.5
(90.5)
28.0
(82.4)
20.2
(68.4)
44.2
(111.6)
Average high °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
13.7
(56.7)
17.9
(64.2)
19.7
(67.5)
24.1
(75.4)
30.5
(86.9)
34.5
(94.1)
33.7
(92.7)
28.4
(83.1)
21.5
(70.7)
15.1
(59.2)
11.4
(52.5)
21.8
(71.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
8.0
(46.4)
11.4
(52.5)
13.4
(56.1)
17.5
(63.5)
23.2
(73.8)
26.7
(80.1)
26.1
(79.0)
21.6
(70.9)
15.8
(60.4)
10.1
(50.2)
6.9
(44.4)
15.6
(60.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
2.4
(36.3)
4.9
(40.8)
7.1
(44.8)
10.9
(51.6)
15.9
(60.6)
18.9
(66.0)
18.6
(65.5)
14.8
(58.6)
10.0
(50.0)
5.1
(41.2)
2.5
(36.5)
9.3
(48.7)
Record low °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−9.4
(15.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
1.0
(33.8)
5.0
(41.0)
6.2
(43.2)
8.0
(46.4)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
−4.8
(23.4)
−8.4
(16.9)
−9.4
(15.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 35
(1.4)
30
(1.2)
28
(1.1)
48
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
25
(1.0)
6
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
26
(1.0)
53
(2.1)
45
(1.8)
59
(2.3)
401
(15.8)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6 6 5 8 6 3 1 1 4 6 6 7 59
Average relative humidity (%) 78 71 61 59 55 46 40 43 54 67 76 81 61
Mean monthly sunshine hours 133 157 213 226 260 313 352 323 247 190 135 114 2,664
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[21]

SportsEdit

 
Kids playing pick-up handball in Ciudad Real

The city previously had a handball team, the BM Ciudad Real, which was the winner of the handball EHF Champions League in 2006, 2008 and 2009.

The handball club was one of the best in the world and its home arena, the Don Quixote Arena, was one of the biggest in the Spanish professional league. BM Ciudad Real, however, moved its team to Madrid in 2011; renamed as "Atlético Madrid", it dissolved in 2013.

TransportEdit

The city has a railway station on the AVE high-speed rail line, the Ciudad Real railway station.

 
Ciudad Real Airport

A high-capacity airport (Ciudad Real Central Airport) was built in the city, but closed in 2012. The privately funded airport cost an estimated €1 billion to build, and is now for sale for €100 million plus payment of the developer's debt. Although in July 2014 this was reduced to €80 million in a further attempt to find a buyer. In July 2015 the airport was auctioned resulting in only one bidder, Chinese company Tzaneem International offering €10,000.

The airport was reopened on 12 September 2019.[22]

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Ciudad Real, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 33 min. 3% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 8 min, while 1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 2 km, while 0% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [23]

Main sightsEdit

The Gate of Toledo, part of the ancient town walls.
Old Bank of Spain building

The Plaza Mayor sits in the centre of Ciudad Real. Today, only two parts of the wall that surrounded the city in medieval times remain standing: The Toledo Gate.

Don Quixote's Museum is situated next to Parque de Gasset.

The Museo Elisa Cendreros exhibits an old collection of fans and carved wood.

The Ermita de Alarcos is the oldest church in Ciudad Real. The Iglesia of Santiago is also the most beautiful and oldest church in Ciudad Real, it was built at the end of the 13th century in romanic style. Its style is Gothic. It is decorated with gothic paintings and with seven-headed dragons, the ceiling is decorated with stones forming eight pointed stars.

Another important church in Ciudad Real is Iglesia de San Pedro (Church of Saint Peter). It is the most interesting and typical monument of the city. It was built during the 14th and 15th centuries. Its style is Gothic, and it houses the tomb of Chantre de Coca, confessor and chaplain of the Catholic Monarchs.

Ciudad Real Cathedral, built in the 16th century, has the second-largest nave in Spain and a magnificent Baroque altarpiece.[24]

EducationEdit

General library of the UCLM part of its Ciudad Real Campus
People during La Pandorga

Ciudad Real has 24 primary schools and 6 secondary schools.

The high school "Torreón del Alcázar" was founded in 1987. In the first years there were only vocational studies, thirty teachers and 350 students. Some years later the high school incorporated the compulsory secondary studies and A levels. At the moment there are 80 teachers and 1200 students. In the year 1995 the high school was offered the opportunity to become a bilingual school. In the year 2005 the first bilingual group arrived.

See University of Castilla–La Mancha (UCLM), Campus of Ciudad Real.

EventsEdit

One of the most popular festivals in the city is La Pandorga, which takes place July 30 and 31. On the last day of the month the festival honours its patroness, La Virgen del Prado. The usual attire of the participants consists of jeans, a white shirt, and the traditional handkerchief.

PeopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

Citations
  1. ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  2. ^ "Ciudad Real". Oxford Dictionaries US Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  3. ^ "Ciudad". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b Real, La Tribuna de Ciudad (2019-07-26). "Un impulso de 600 años para ciudad real". La Tribuna de Ciudad Real (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ciudad Real (city)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
  6. ^ Villegas Díaz, Luis Rafael (1983). "Calatrava y Ciudad Real: unas notas sobre las relaciones entre la Ciudad y la Orden (siglos XIII-XV)" (PDF). Cuadernos de Estudios Medievales y de Ciencias y Técnicas Historiográficas (8–9): 218. ISSN 1132-7553.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. ^ Villegas Díaz 1983, p. 218.
  8. ^ "El archivo de Toledo expone cuadernos de Cortes de los años 1346 a 1563". La Vanguardia. 11 September 2017.
  9. ^ Bachiller, Carmen. "El curioso origen de Ciudad Real que se fraguó en Toledo". eldiario.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  10. ^ a b Burgueño 1997, p. 371.
  11. ^ "Altitud núcleos de población" (.pdf). Diputación Provincial de Ciudad Real. 13 June 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  12. ^ García Ráyego 1997, p. 12.
  13. ^ Campos, Andrés (13 April 2012). "Tapeo en tres plazas manchegas". El País.
  14. ^ a b García Ráyego 1997, p. 16.
  15. ^ "Parajes de interés del término municipal" (PDF). Ayuntamiento de Ciudad Real.
  16. ^ "Historia". Oficina de Turismo. Ayuntamiento de Ciudad Real.
  17. ^ Cañizares et al. 2009, p. 97.
  18. ^ Cañizares et al. 2009, p. 101.
  19. ^ http://images.slideplayer.es/1/101786/slides/slide_3.jpg
  20. ^ Becerra Ramírez et al. 2009, p. 92.
  21. ^ "Valores climatológicos normales. Ciudad Real".
  22. ^ LaInformacion. "El aeropuerto de Ciudad Real revive con jets privados de cazadores y empresarios". La Información (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-02-05.
  23. ^ "Ciudad Real Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.   Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  24. ^ "Catedral de Santa María del Prado", Turismo de Castilla-La Mancha. (in Spanish) Retrieved 31 August 2013.
Bibliography